Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences
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{"title"=>"Left preference for sport tasks does not necessarily indicate left-handedness: Sport-specific lateral preferences, relationship with handedness and implications for laterality research in behavioural sciences", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Florian", "last_name"=>"Loffing", "scopus_author_id"=>"36138894000"}, {"first_name"=>"Florian", "last_name"=>"Sölter", "scopus_author_id"=>"56805268200"}, {"first_name"=>"Norbert", "last_name"=>"Hagemann", "scopus_author_id"=>"12143026100"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84922439047", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0105800", "sgr"=>"84922439047", "pmid"=>"25141020", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"373796840"}, "id"=>"11ecabc5-a9ed-341c-a904-79154bfb483b", "abstract"=>"In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a 'southpaw' stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of 'left-oriented' athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term 'handedness' should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the verification of evolutionary theories of handedness.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/left-preference-sport-tasks-not-necessarily-indicate-lefthandedness-sportspecific-lateral-preference", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>13, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Engineering"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>4, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>19, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>4, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>19}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>13}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1643902"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>: For each sport-specific task, ‘no preference’ responses are excluded. Participants were classified as left- and right-handers based on their individual LS values (i.e., left-hander if LS <0 and right-hander if LS ≥0). ‘L’ and ‘R’ indicate left and right preference for a sport task.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unimanual tasks", "Sport Tasks", "Lateral preferences", "Left Preference", "Laterality Research", "ice hockey", "handednes", "behavioural sciences", "performance advantage", "elite domain", "903 participants", "population reference values"], "article_id"=>1146445, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Florian Loffing", "Florian Sölter", "Norbert Hagemann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105800.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_and_right_handers_lateral_preferences_for_sport_specific_tasks_/1146445", "title"=>"Left- and right-handers' lateral preferences for sport-specific tasks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-20 02:59:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1643903", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1643904", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1643905"], "description"=>"<div><p>In the elite domain of interactive sports, athletes who demonstrate a left preference (e.g., holding a weapon with the left hand in fencing or boxing in a ‘southpaw’ stance) seem overrepresented. Such excess indicates a performance advantage and was also interpreted as evidence in favour of frequency-dependent selection mechanisms to explain the maintenance of left-handedness in humans. To test for an overrepresentation, the incidence of athletes' lateral preferences is typically compared with an expected ratio of left- to right-handedness in the normal population. However, the normal population reference values did not always relate to the sport-specific tasks of interest, which may limit the validity of reports of an excess of ‘left-oriented’ athletes. Here we sought to determine lateral preferences for various sport-specific tasks (e.g., baseball batting, boxing) in the normal population and to examine the relationship between these preferences and handedness. To this end, we asked 903 participants to indicate their lateral preferences for sport-specific and common tasks using a paper-based questionnaire. Lateral preferences varied considerably across the different sport tasks and we found high variation in the relationship between those preferences and handedness. In contrast to unimanual tasks (e.g., fencing or throwing), for bimanually controlled actions such as baseball batting, shooting in ice hockey or boxing the incidence of left preferences was considerably higher than expected from the proportion of left-handedness in the normal population and the relationship with handedness was relatively low. We conclude that (i) task-specific reference values are mandatory for reliably testing for an excess of athletes with a left preference, (ii) the term ‘handedness’ should be more cautiously used within the context of sport-related laterality research and (iii) observation of lateral preferences in sports may be of limited suitability for the verification of evolutionary theories of handedness.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unimanual tasks", "Sport Tasks", "Lateral preferences", "Left Preference", "Laterality Research", "ice hockey", "handednes", "behavioural sciences", "performance advantage", "elite domain", "903 participants", "population reference values"], "article_id"=>1146446, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Florian Loffing", "Florian Sölter", "Norbert Hagemann"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105800.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105800.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105800.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_Preference_for_Sport_Tasks_Does_Not_Necessarily_Indicate_Left_Handedness_Sport_Specific_Lateral_Preferences_Relationship_with_Handedness_and_Implications_for_Laterality_Research_in_Behavioural_Sciences_/1146446", "title"=>"Left Preference for Sport Tasks Does Not Necessarily Indicate Left-Handedness: Sport-Specific Lateral Preferences, Relationship with Handedness and Implications for Laterality Research in Behavioural Sciences", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-08-20 02:59:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1643900"], "description"=>"<p>* <i>Note:</i> In high jump, approaching from the left means that an athlete jumps off with his or her right foot (and <i>vice versa</i>). All participants were informed in writing about this relationship when filling out the questionnaire. To facilitate understanding of lateral preference for high jump, we will report the preferred foot instead of approach side for this task.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unimanual tasks", "Sport Tasks", "Lateral preferences", "Left Preference", "Laterality Research", "ice hockey", "handednes", "behavioural sciences", "performance advantage", "elite domain", "903 participants", "population reference values"], "article_id"=>1146443, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Florian Loffing", "Florian Sölter", "Norbert Hagemann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105800.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Questions_on_sport_specific_tasks_see_also_Table_S1_/1146443", "title"=>"Questions on sport-specific tasks (see also Table S1).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-20 02:59:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1643901"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note:</i> For the calculation of <i>r</i><sub>pb</sub> we excluded ‘no preference’ responses for the sport-specific tasks. The majority of relationships were significant with <i>p</i><.001. To facilitate reading the table, only non-significant relationships or significant relationships with <i>p</i>-values larger than.001 are indicated as follows: <sup>ns</sup><i>p></i>.05, <sup>a</sup><i>p</i><.01, <sup>b</sup><i>p</i><.05. Please also note that we additionally clustered the participants into left- (LS <0) and right-handers (LS ≥0) and that we used these classifications to determine the relationship between handedness and sport-specific lateral preferences based on the calculation of phi coefficients Φ. In two calculation scenarios, once with inclusion and once with exclusion of ‘no preference’ responses, similar relationships as those reported above were found (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105800#pone.0105800.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a> for a summary of the results).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unimanual tasks", "Sport Tasks", "Lateral preferences", "Left Preference", "Laterality Research", "ice hockey", "handednes", "behavioural sciences", "performance advantage", "elite domain", "903 participants", "population reference values"], "article_id"=>1146444, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Florian Loffing", "Florian Sölter", "Norbert Hagemann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105800.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_sport_specific_lateral_preferences_and_handedness_/1146444", "title"=>"Relationship between sport-specific lateral preferences and handedness.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-20 02:59:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1643899"], "description"=>"<p>Left preferences for sport-specific tasks overall and differentiated by sex.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["unimanual tasks", "Sport Tasks", "Lateral preferences", "Left Preference", "Laterality Research", "ice hockey", "handednes", "behavioural sciences", "performance advantage", "elite domain", "903 participants", "population reference values"], "article_id"=>1146442, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Florian Loffing", "Florian Sölter", "Norbert Hagemann"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105800.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Left_preferences_for_sport_specific_tasks_overall_and_differentiated_by_sex_/1146442", "title"=>"Left preferences for sport-specific tasks overall and differentiated by sex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-20 02:59:33"}

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