Might Depression, Psychosocial Adversity, and Limited Social Assets Explain Vulnerability to and Resistance against Violent Radicalisation?
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{"title"=>"Might depression, psychosocial adversity, and limited social assets explain vulnerability to and resistance against violent radicalisation?", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Kamaldeep", "last_name"=>"Bhui", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006102085"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"Everitt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102400486"}, {"first_name"=>"Edgar", "last_name"=>"Jones", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404236198"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600067892", "sgr"=>"84907462366", "pmid"=>"25250577", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907462366", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0105918", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"3eb1b443-cdfb-30e4-b350-226344a59951", "abstract"=>"BACKGROUND: This study tests whether depression, psychosocial adversity, and limited social assets offer protection or suggest vulnerability to the process of radicalisation.\\n\\nMETHODS: A population sample of 608 men and women of Pakistani or Bangladeshi origin, of Muslim heritage, and aged 18-45 were recruited by quota sampling. Radicalisation was measured by 16 questions asking about sympathies for violent protest and terrorism. Cluster analysis of the 16 items generated three groups: most sympathetic (or most vulnerable), most condemning (most resistant), and a large intermediary group that acted as a reference group. Associations were calculated with depression (PHQ9), anxiety (GAD7), poor health, and psychosocial adversity (adverse life events, perceived discrimination, unemployment). We also investigated protective factors such as the number social contacts, social capital (trust, satisfaction, feeling safe), political engagement and religiosity.\\n\\nRESULTS: Those showing the most sympathy for violent protest and terrorism were more likely to report depression (PHQ9 score of 5 or more; RR = 5.43, 1.35 to 21.84) and to report religion to be important (less often said religion was fairly rather than very important; RR = 0.08, 0.01 to 0.48). Resistance to radicalisation measured by condemnation of violent protest and terrorism was associated with larger number of social contacts (per contact: RR = 1.52, 1.26 to 1.83), less social capital (RR = 0.63, 0.50 to 0.80), unavailability for work due to housekeeping or disability (RR = 8.81, 1.06 to 37.46), and not being born in the UK (RR = 0.22, 0.08 to 0.65).\\n\\nCONCLUSIONS: Vulnerability to radicalisation is characterised by depression but resistance to radicalisation shows a different profile of health and psychosocial variables. The paradoxical role of social capital warrants further investigation.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/depression-psychosocial-adversity-limited-social-assets-explain-vulnerability-resistance-against-vio", "reader_count"=>89, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>9, "Researcher"=>25, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>8, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Arts and Humanities"=>4, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>24, "Chemistry"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>40, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>40}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>24}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689169", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689171"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>This study tests whether depression, psychosocial adversity, and limited social assets offer protection or suggest vulnerability to the process of radicalisation.</p><p>Methods</p><p>A population sample of 608 men and women of Pakistani or Bangladeshi origin, of Muslim heritage, and aged 18–45 were recruited by quota sampling. Radicalisation was measured by 16 questions asking about <i>sympathies for violent protest and terrorism</i>. Cluster analysis of the 16 items generated three groups: most sympathetic (or most vulnerable), most condemning (most resistant), and a large intermediary group that acted as a reference group. Associations were calculated with depression (PHQ9), anxiety (GAD7), poor health, and psychosocial adversity (adverse life events, perceived discrimination, unemployment). We also investigated protective factors such as the number social contacts, social capital (trust, satisfaction, feeling safe), political engagement and religiosity.</p><p>Results</p><p>Those showing the most sympathy for violent protest and terrorism were more likely to report depression (PHQ9 score of 5 or more; RR = 5.43, 1.35 to 21.84) and to report religion to be important (less often said religion was <i>fairly</i> rather than <i>very important</i>; RR = 0.08, 0.01 to 0.48). Resistance to radicalisation measured by condemnation of violent protest and terrorism was associated with larger number of social contacts (per contact: RR = 1.52, 1.26 to 1.83), less social capital (RR = 0.63, 0.50 to 0.80), unavailability for work due to housekeeping or disability (RR = 8.81, 1.06 to 37.46), and not being born in the UK (RR = 0.22, 0.08 to 0.65).</p><p>Conclusions</p><p>Vulnerability to radicalisation is characterised by depression but resistance to radicalisation shows a different profile of health and psychosocial variables. The paradoxical role of social capital warrants further investigation.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Violent Radicalisation", "rr", "Psychosocial Adversity", "BackgroundThis study tests", "intermediary group", "capital warrants", "608 men", "Limited Social Assets", "Muslim heritage", "Bangladeshi origin", "reference group", "uk", "16 questions", "report religion", "PHQ 9 score", "quota sampling", "life events", "assets offer protection", "report depression", "16 items", "Terrorism", "gad", "Cluster analysis", "radicalisation.MethodsA population sample", "contact"], "article_id"=>1180941, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kamaldeep Bhui", "Brian Everitt", "EDGAR JONES"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105918.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105918.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Might_Depression_Psychosocial_Adversity_and_Limited_Social_Assets_Explain_Vulnerability_to_and_Resistance_against_Violent_Radicalisation_/1180941", "title"=>"Might Depression, Psychosocial Adversity, and Limited Social Assets Explain Vulnerability to and Resistance against Violent Radicalisation?", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:12:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689165"], "description"=>"<p>Cluster 2 is reference.</p><p>Repeating the analysis after removing the suicide item from the PHQ9 measure of depression produces the same overall findings.</p><p>Association of Depression category with cluster membership (fully adjusted model).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Violent Radicalisation", "rr", "Psychosocial Adversity", "BackgroundThis study tests", "intermediary group", "capital warrants", "608 men", "Limited Social Assets", "Muslim heritage", "Bangladeshi origin", "reference group", "uk", "16 questions", "report religion", "PHQ 9 score", "quota sampling", "life events", "assets offer protection", "report depression", "16 items", "Terrorism", "gad", "Cluster analysis", "radicalisation.MethodsA population sample", "contact"], "article_id"=>1180937, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kamaldeep Bhui", "Brian Everitt", "EDGAR JONES"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105918.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_Depression_category_with_cluster_membership_fully_adjusted_model_/1180937", "title"=>"Association of Depression category with cluster membership (fully adjusted model).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:12:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689164"], "description"=>"<p>Multivariable Multinomial Logistic Regression comparing clusters three (most sympathetic) and cluster one (most condemning) with cluster two as the reference category (weighted).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Violent Radicalisation", "rr", "Psychosocial Adversity", "BackgroundThis study tests", "intermediary group", "capital warrants", "608 men", "Limited Social Assets", "Muslim heritage", "Bangladeshi origin", "reference group", "uk", "16 questions", "report religion", "PHQ 9 score", "quota sampling", "life events", "assets offer protection", "report depression", "16 items", "Terrorism", "gad", "Cluster analysis", "radicalisation.MethodsA population sample", "contact"], "article_id"=>1180936, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kamaldeep Bhui", "Brian Everitt", "EDGAR JONES"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105918.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Multivariable_Multinomial_Logistic_Regression_comparing_clusters_three_most_sympathetic_and_cluster_one_most_condemning_with_cluster_two_as_the_reference_category_weighted_/1180936", "title"=>"Multivariable Multinomial Logistic Regression comparing clusters three (most sympathetic) and cluster one (most condemning) with cluster two as the reference category (weighted).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:12:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689162"], "description"=>"<p>Demographic, psychosocial & health characteristics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Violent Radicalisation", "rr", "Psychosocial Adversity", "BackgroundThis study tests", "intermediary group", "capital warrants", "608 men", "Limited Social Assets", "Muslim heritage", "Bangladeshi origin", "reference group", "uk", "16 questions", "report religion", "PHQ 9 score", "quota sampling", "life events", "assets offer protection", "report depression", "16 items", "Terrorism", "gad", "Cluster analysis", "radicalisation.MethodsA population sample", "contact"], "article_id"=>1180934, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kamaldeep Bhui", "Brian Everitt", "EDGAR JONES"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105918.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_psychosocial_amp_health_characteristics_/1180934", "title"=>"Demographic, psychosocial & health characteristics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:12:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689161"], "description"=>"<p>Psychosocial and health characteristics by clusters (multivariable, weighted data).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Violent Radicalisation", "rr", "Psychosocial Adversity", "BackgroundThis study tests", "intermediary group", "capital warrants", "608 men", "Limited Social Assets", "Muslim heritage", "Bangladeshi origin", "reference group", "uk", "16 questions", "report religion", "PHQ 9 score", "quota sampling", "life events", "assets offer protection", "report depression", "16 items", "Terrorism", "gad", "Cluster analysis", "radicalisation.MethodsA population sample", "contact"], "article_id"=>1180933, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kamaldeep Bhui", "Brian Everitt", "EDGAR JONES"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105918.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Psychosocial_and_health_characteristics_by_clusters_multivariable_weighted_data_/1180933", "title"=>"Psychosocial and health characteristics by clusters (multivariable, weighted data).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:12:10"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689157"], "description"=>"<p>Demographic characteristics by clusters (univariable, weighted data).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Violent Radicalisation", "rr", "Psychosocial Adversity", "BackgroundThis study tests", "intermediary group", "capital warrants", "608 men", "Limited Social Assets", "Muslim heritage", "Bangladeshi origin", "reference group", "uk", "16 questions", "report religion", "PHQ 9 score", "quota sampling", "life events", "assets offer protection", "report depression", "16 items", "Terrorism", "gad", "Cluster analysis", "radicalisation.MethodsA population sample", "contact"], "article_id"=>1180929, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Kamaldeep Bhui", "Brian Everitt", "EDGAR JONES"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105918.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_characteristics_by_clusters_univariable_weighted_data_/1180929", "title"=>"Demographic characteristics by clusters (univariable, weighted data).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:12:10"}

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