Sliding Rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: First Observation of Rocks in Motion
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{"title"=>"Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: First observation of rocks in motion", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Richard D.", "last_name"=>"Norris", "scopus_author_id"=>"7201604883"}, {"first_name"=>"James M.", "last_name"=>"Norris", "scopus_author_id"=>"56806228300"}, {"first_name"=>"Ralph D.", "last_name"=>"Lorenz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402095346"}, {"first_name"=>"Jib", "last_name"=>"Ray", "scopus_author_id"=>"56806243700"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"Jackson", "scopus_author_id"=>"37086045300"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0105948", "sgr"=>"84928738999", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84928738999", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"25162535", "pui"=>"373852505"}, "id"=>"bf8376b0-1a27-3454-81b9-b9a2db70a4ec", "abstract"=>"The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, \"windowpane\" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/sliding-rocks-racetrack-playa-death-valley-national-park-first-observation-rocks-motion", "reader_count"=>86, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>3, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>10, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Chemistry"=>8, "Computer Science"=>5, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>23, "Engineering"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>9, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Mathematics"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>10, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>10}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>8}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>23}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "Puerto Rico"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Norway"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652468"], "description"=>"<p>Map shows the locations of the weather station, GPS-carrying rocks, and approximate locations of the northern shoreline of the pool and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948#pone-0105948-g001\" target=\"_blank\">Figures 1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948#pone-0105948-g002\" target=\"_blank\">2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153504, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>318, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_Racetrack_Playa_/1153504", "title"=>"Map of Racetrack Playa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652461"], "description"=>"<p>View is looking north on December 20, 2013 at 3:15 pm. Steady, light wind, 4–5 m/s has blown water to the northeast exposing newly formed rock trails. Lower image shows overlay of lines to emphasize the congruent shape of adjacent rock trails as well as the proximity of rock trails to rocks that did not move. Image has not been enhanced.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153498, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_View_from_the_8216_source_hill_8217_on_the_south_shore_of_Racetrack_Playa_/1153498", "title"=>"View from the ‘source hill’ on the south shore of Racetrack Playa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652505"], "description"=>"<p>Note that the uncertainty in rock velocity is generally less than 0.2–0.3 m/minute in comparison with the recorded 2–6 m/minute velocities (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948#pone-0105948-g006\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 6</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153539, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Error_analysis_of_GPS_instrumented_rock_movement_events_/1153539", "title"=>"Error analysis of GPS-instrumented rock movement events.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652523"], "description"=>"<p>Parts show: (a) thin windowpane ice over-riding a recently moved rock (January 9, 2014), (b) water creeping onto the low gradient northern shore of the pond during the December 20, 2013 rock movement (∼11:15 am), (c) ice windrows on the eastern shore of Racetrack Playa near the weather station (∼1 pm, December 20, 2013); ice panels are ∼2–3 mm thick and mixed with mud and rocks scoured from the pond bottom, (d) rock carving a wake through ice that is moving left to right; open rippled water in the foreground (January 9, 2014). Images have been cropped but not otherwise edited.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153556, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Racetrack_Playa_phenomena_/1153556", "title"=>"Racetrack Playa phenomena.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652484"], "description"=>"<p>The GPS unit with its battery pack is inserted into a cavity bored into the top of the rock. The GPS continuously logs its position after a switch is triggered by the stone moving away from a magnet set in the playa. The surface of the playa is frozen in this image, but the ice had melted or was floating when the trail formed. Image by Mike Hartmann.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153520, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GPS_instrumented_rock_with_its_rock_trail_/1153520", "title"=>"GPS-instrumented rock with its rock trail.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652540", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652541"], "description"=>"<div><p>The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved >60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, “windowpane” ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of ∼4–5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2–5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153565, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson", "Karl Ward"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sliding_Rocks_on_Racetrack_Playa_Death_Valley_National_Park_First_Observation_of_Rocks_in_Motion_/1153565", "title"=>"Sliding Rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: First Observation of Rocks in Motion", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652436"], "description"=>"<p>Image acquired with a handheld digital camera on January 9, 2014. Image on the left shows the wide-angle view; interior black frame indicates the view in other frames. In close-up frames, blue arrows show stationary rocks and red arrow—a rock in motion (moving from left to right). Total movement lasted ∼18 seconds. Dark, flat areas on the pond are panels of ∼3 mm thick ice surrounded by rippled water several centimeters deep. Ice thickness estimated from inshore ice panels. Broken ice panels accumulated on the upstream side of the moving rock in the last two images. Images have been cropped but not otherwise edited.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153483, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_lapse_images_of_a_moving_rock_/1153483", "title"=>"Time lapse images of a moving rock.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652532"], "description"=>"<p>Rock mass (kg), starting position, ending position, and total length of movement (m) for eight of 15 GPS-instrumented rocks. The other seven rocks in the deployment did not move, or were not recovered by the time of manuscript submission. Rocks A3, A6 and A11 recorded their position and velocity during their initial movements as reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948#pone.0105948.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>. Trail end positions for all rocks other than A11 were recorded with a handheld consumer-grade GPS unit with ±5 m uncertainty. Rock A11 positions are recorded from its internal GPS unit.</p><p>Characteristics of GPS-instrumented rocks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153561, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_GPS_instrumented_rocks_/1153561", "title"=>"Characteristics of GPS-instrumented rocks.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652530"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison of average hourly wind velocity (black, as shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948#pone-0105948-g004\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 4</a>) and hourly maximum wind velocity (green) against the daily temperature record (red line) and rock movement history (red arrows). Data reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948#pone.0105948.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153559, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Gusts_and_average_wind_velocities_/1153559", "title"=>"Gusts and average wind velocities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652492"], "description"=>"<p>Temperature (red line), 1 hour average wind velocity (black line), insolation (blue line), and rainfall (filled blue line) for November 20, 2013 to January 9, 2014. Wind gusts shown in Fig. 9. Red arrows indicate known rock movement events; there have been additional movement events not recorded by direct observations. Movement events 1 and 2 are recorded by instrumented rocks, and direct observations were made for events 2–4. Time lapse camera observation shows ∼20 cm of snow accumulation on November 23. Total precipitation is likely under-recorded because our weather station does not record precipitation due to snow. Data reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948#pone.0105948.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153526, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Weather_record_from_Racetrack_Playa_Death_Valley_National_Park_/1153526", "title"=>"Weather record from Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1652501"], "description"=>"<p>Top and middle panels are data collected by rocks (A3 and A6) on December 4, 2013; bottom panels are for a rock movement on December 20, 2013 (Rock A11). Times are UTC. Note the broadly similar trajectories and velocity histories for rocks on December 4. Velocity errors are shown in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948#pone-0105948-g007\" target=\"_blank\">Fig. 7</a>. Data reported in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948#pone.0105948.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Table S2</a>. Rocks A3 and A6 moved at least once after their GPS instrument batteries were depleted and had total trail lengths of 157.5 m and 162.4 m, respectively (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948#pone-0105948-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Death Valley National Park", "rock movement", "Racetrack Playa", "ice panels 10"], "article_id"=>1153535, "categories"=>["Ecology"], "users"=>["Richard D. Norris", "James M. Norris", "Ralph D. Lorenz", "Jib Ray", "Brian Jackson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105948.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_GPS_instrumented_rock_trajectories_and_velocity_/1153535", "title"=>"GPS-instrumented rock trajectories and velocity.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-08-27 03:06:57"}

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