The Validation of Peer Review through Research Impact Measures and the Implications for Funding Strategies
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{"title"=>"The validation of peer review through research impact measures and the implications for funding strategies", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Stephen A.", "last_name"=>"Gallo", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004848809"}, {"first_name"=>"Afton S.", "last_name"=>"Carpenter", "scopus_author_id"=>"55818362100"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Irwin", "scopus_author_id"=>"56351801800"}, {"first_name"=>"Caitlin D.", "last_name"=>"McPartland", "scopus_author_id"=>"56351767100"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph", "last_name"=>"Travis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202590200"}, {"first_name"=>"Sofie", "last_name"=>"Reynders", "scopus_author_id"=>"57193661251"}, {"first_name"=>"Lisa A.", "last_name"=>"Thompson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56351603000"}, {"first_name"=>"Scott R.", "last_name"=>"Glisson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55818487500"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25184367", "sgr"=>"84906962311", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0106474", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84906962311", "pui"=>"600017525", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"c122e587-12f3-36a4-b524-85f74c4e1c69", "abstract"=>"There is a paucity of data in the literature concerning the validation of the grant application peer review process, which is used to help direct billions of dollars in research funds. Ultimately, this validation will hinge upon empirical data relating the output of funded projects to the predictions implicit in the overall scientific merit scores from the peer review of submitted applications. In an effort to address this need, the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) conducted a retrospective analysis of peer review data of 2,063 applications submitted to a particular research program and the bibliometric output of the resultant 227 funded projects over an 8-year period. Peer review scores associated with applications were found to be moderately correlated with the total time-adjusted citation output of funded projects, although a high degree of variability existed in the data. Analysis over time revealed that as average annual scores of all applications (both funded and unfunded) submitted to this program improved with time, the average annual citation output per application increased. Citation impact did not correlate with the amount of funds awarded per application or with the total annual programmatic budget. However, the number of funded applications per year was found to correlate well with total annual citation impact, suggesting that improving funding success rates by reducing the size of awards may be an efficient strategy to optimize the scientific impact of research program portfolios. This strategy must be weighed against the need for a balanced research portfolio and the inherent high costs of some areas of research. The relationship observed between peer review scores and bibliometric output lays the groundwork for establishing a model system for future prospective testing of the validity of peer review formats and procedures.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/validation-peer-review-through-research-impact-measures-implications-funding-strategies", "reader_count"=>46, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>11, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>11, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>2, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>12}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>11}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>2}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Colombia"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "United States"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Mexico"=>1, "Peru"=>1, "Spain"=>1, "Croatia"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659610"], "description"=>"<p>Summation of all citations from individual grant publication yield (normalized against Reuters average) from each funded PrX application was calculated. These values, referred to as average Total Relative Citations (TRC) were plotted versus individual peer review score (1999–2006, n = 227).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peer review data", "citation impact", "peer review scores", "grant application peer review process", "bibliometric output", "funding success rates", "research program portfolios", "peer review formats", "project", "aibs", "Research Impact Measures"], "article_id"=>1159585, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen A. Gallo", "Afton S. Carpenter", "David Irwin", "Caitlin D. McPartland", "Joseph Travis", "Sofie Reynders", "Lisa A. Thompson", "Scott R. Glisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_Relative_Citation_TRC_per_Application_Versus_Score_/1159585", "title"=>"Total Relative Citation (TRC) per Application Versus Score.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659612"], "description"=>"<p>TRC was calculated for individual funded applications (1999–2006). Applications were then grouped by identical review score and then averaged. These average TRC values were plotted for the 21 scoring groups (n ranges from 1 to 30, depending on group) and fit with a linear function. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peer review data", "citation impact", "peer review scores", "grant application peer review process", "bibliometric output", "funding success rates", "research program portfolios", "peer review formats", "project", "aibs", "Research Impact Measures"], "article_id"=>1159587, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen A. Gallo", "Afton S. Carpenter", "David Irwin", "Caitlin D. McPartland", "Joseph Travis", "Sofie Reynders", "Lisa A. Thompson", "Scott R. Glisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_TRC_Level_versus_Average_Application_Score_Using_Score_Grouping_/1159587", "title"=>"Average TRC Level versus Average Application Score Using Score Grouping.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659615"], "description"=>"<p>Average application score of all applications submitted in a given review year (1999–2006) were plotted against time and fit to a liner regression. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peer review data", "citation impact", "peer review scores", "grant application peer review process", "bibliometric output", "funding success rates", "research program portfolios", "peer review formats", "project", "aibs", "Research Impact Measures"], "article_id"=>1159589, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen A. Gallo", "Afton S. Carpenter", "David Irwin", "Caitlin D. McPartland", "Joseph Travis", "Sofie Reynders", "Lisa A. Thompson", "Scott R. Glisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_Annual_Score_AAS_Over_Time_/1159589", "title"=>"Average Annual Score (AAS) Over Time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659616"], "description"=>"<p>Average application TRC level was determined for all funded applications for each review year (1999–2006), plotted and fit with linear regression. Error bars represent the standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peer review data", "citation impact", "peer review scores", "grant application peer review process", "bibliometric output", "funding success rates", "research program portfolios", "peer review formats", "project", "aibs", "Research Impact Measures"], "article_id"=>1159590, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen A. Gallo", "Afton S. Carpenter", "David Irwin", "Caitlin D. McPartland", "Joseph Travis", "Sofie Reynders", "Lisa A. Thompson", "Scott R. Glisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_Annual_TRC_Level_Over_Time_/1159590", "title"=>"Average Annual TRC Level Over Time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659617"], "description"=>"<p>Summation of all TRC per year plotted against time and then fit to an exponential function.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peer review data", "citation impact", "peer review scores", "grant application peer review process", "bibliometric output", "funding success rates", "research program portfolios", "peer review formats", "project", "aibs", "Research Impact Measures"], "article_id"=>1159591, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen A. Gallo", "Afton S. Carpenter", "David Irwin", "Caitlin D. McPartland", "Joseph Travis", "Sofie Reynders", "Lisa A. Thompson", "Scott R. Glisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_Annual_TRC_Versus_Time_/1159591", "title"=>"Total Annual TRC Versus Time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659620"], "description"=>"<p>Total annual TRC values were plotted against AAS of submitted applications and then fit to a linear function.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peer review data", "citation impact", "peer review scores", "grant application peer review process", "bibliometric output", "funding success rates", "research program portfolios", "peer review formats", "project", "aibs", "Research Impact Measures"], "article_id"=>1159594, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen A. Gallo", "Afton S. Carpenter", "David Irwin", "Caitlin D. McPartland", "Joseph Travis", "Sofie Reynders", "Lisa A. Thompson", "Scott R. Glisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_Annual_TRC_Versus_AAS_/1159594", "title"=>"Total Annual TRC Versus AAS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659625"], "description"=>"<p>Total annual TRC values were plotted against the corresponding total number of applications submitted for each year and fit to a linear function.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peer review data", "citation impact", "peer review scores", "grant application peer review process", "bibliometric output", "funding success rates", "research program portfolios", "peer review formats", "project", "aibs", "Research Impact Measures"], "article_id"=>1159599, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen A. Gallo", "Afton S. Carpenter", "David Irwin", "Caitlin D. McPartland", "Joseph Travis", "Sofie Reynders", "Lisa A. Thompson", "Scott R. Glisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_Annual_TRC_Level_Versus_Number_of_Submitted_N_s_Applications_per_Year_/1159599", "title"=>"Total Annual TRC Level Versus Number of Submitted (N<sub>s</sub>) Applications per Year.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659630", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659631", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659632", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659633", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659634", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659635", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659636", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659637"], "description"=>"<div><p>There is a paucity of data in the literature concerning the validation of the grant application peer review process, which is used to help direct billions of dollars in research funds. Ultimately, this validation will hinge upon empirical data relating the output of funded projects to the predictions implicit in the overall scientific merit scores from the peer review of submitted applications. In an effort to address this need, the American Institute of Biological Sciences (AIBS) conducted a retrospective analysis of peer review data of 2,063 applications submitted to a particular research program and the bibliometric output of the resultant 227 funded projects over an 8-year period. Peer review scores associated with applications were found to be moderately correlated with the total time-adjusted citation output of funded projects, although a high degree of variability existed in the data. Analysis over time revealed that as average annual scores of all applications (both funded and unfunded) submitted to this program improved with time, the average annual citation output per application increased. Citation impact did not correlate with the amount of funds awarded per application or with the total annual programmatic budget. However, the number of funded applications per year was found to correlate well with total annual citation impact, suggesting that improving funding success rates by reducing the size of awards may be an efficient strategy to optimize the scientific impact of research program portfolios. This strategy must be weighed against the need for a balanced research portfolio and the inherent high costs of some areas of research. The relationship observed between peer review scores and bibliometric output lays the groundwork for establishing a model system for future prospective testing of the validity of peer review formats and procedures.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peer review data", "citation impact", "peer review scores", "grant application peer review process", "bibliometric output", "funding success rates", "research program portfolios", "peer review formats", "project", "aibs", "Research Impact Measures"], "article_id"=>1159602, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen A. Gallo", "Afton S. Carpenter", "David Irwin", "Caitlin D. McPartland", "Joseph Travis", "Sofie Reynders", "Lisa A. Thompson", "Scott R. Glisson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.s008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Validation_of_Peer_Review_through_Research_Impact_Measures_and_the_Implications_for_Funding_Strategies_/1159602", "title"=>"The Validation of Peer Review through Research Impact Measures and the Implications for Funding Strategies", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:00:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1659608"], "description"=>"<p>Total funds spent per annual competition (in $Million) are plotted against time (1999–2006, review year).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["peer review data", "citation impact", "peer review scores", "grant application peer review process", "bibliometric output", "funding success rates", "research program portfolios", "peer review formats", "project", "aibs", "Research Impact Measures"], "article_id"=>1159583, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Stephen A. Gallo", "Afton S. Carpenter", "David Irwin", "Caitlin D. McPartland", "Joseph Travis", "Sofie Reynders", "Lisa A. Thompson", "Scott R. Glisson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106474.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PrX_Funding_Levels_over_Time_/1159583", "title"=>"PrX Funding Levels over Time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-03 03:00:40"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"16", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"1"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Science policy", "average_usage"=>[985, 1571]}]}
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Net::HTTPInternalServerError

Source
Scopus
Time
2020-10-24 14:09:34 UTC
Target URL
https://api.elsevier.com/content/search/index:SCOPUS?query=DOI(10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0106474)
Trace

/app/models/concerns/networkable.rb:21:in `get_result'
/app/models/source.rb:165:in `get_data'
/app/models/retrieval_status.rb:47:in `perform_get_data'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:52:in `block (2 levels) in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:51:in `block in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `each'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `perform'