Flow Characterization of a Spinner Flask for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application
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{"title"=>"Flow Characterization of a Spinner Flask for Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mohd-Zulhilmi", "last_name"=>"Ismadi"}, {"first_name"=>"Priyanka", "last_name"=>"Gupta"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Fouras"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Verma"}, {"first_name"=>"Sameer", "last_name"=>"Jadhav"}, {"first_name"=>"Jayesh", "last_name"=>"Bellare"}, {"first_name"=>"Kerry", "last_name"=>"Hourigan"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0106493", "pmid"=>"25279733", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"c5f83828-374d-3cec-994a-7446638c84cb", "abstract"=>"We present detailed quantitative measurement analyses for flow in a spinner flask with spinning rates between 20 to 45 RPM, utilizing the optical velocimetry measurement technique of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). A partial section of the impeller was immersed in the working fluid to reduce the shear forces induced on the cells cultured on microcarriers. Higher rotational speeds improved the mixing effect in the medium at the expense of a higher shear environment. It was found that the mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells achieved the optimum number of cells over 7 days in 25 RPM suspension culture. This condition translates to 0.0984 Pa of maximum shear stress caused by the interaction of the fluid flow with the bottom surface. However, inverse cell growth was obtained at 28 RPM culture condition. Such a narrow margin demonstrated that mouse iPS cells cultured on microcarriers are very sensitive to mechanical forces. This study provides insight to biomechanical parameters, specifically the shear stress distribution, for a commercially available spinner flask over a wide range of Reynolds number.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/flow-characterization-spinner-flask-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-culture-application-2", "reader_count"=>47, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>18, "Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Chemical Engineering"=>4, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>18}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>6}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}, "Chemical Engineering"=>{"Chemical Engineering"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "China"=>1, "Japan"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704216"], "description"=>"<p>A non-dimensional parameter, z/H, is used to show the location of the measurement, where z is the distance from the bottom wall and H is the height of the fluid free surface. In our experiment, H = 19 mm for 50 mL working fluid. A) Three measurements were conducted at z/H = 0.15, 0.50 and 0.85. Velocity, shear stress and vorticity analyses were conducted at each measurement. B) Two measurements were conducted near the bottom wall. A parabolic function was fitted between the measurements at z/H = 0.06 and z/H = 0.04. Then, the velocity gradient near the bottom wall was calculated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193184, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Azimuthal_plane_measurement_locations_/1193184", "title"=>"Azimuthal plane measurement locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704236"], "description"=>"<p>The velocity increases with increasing agitation speed. Furthermore, the fluid accelerates radially outwards at highest magnitude behind the flat impeller.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193197, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Velocity_magnitude_contour_for_flow_in_spinner_flask_in_meridional_plane_/1193197", "title"=>"Velocity magnitude contour for flow in spinner flask in meridional plane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704285"], "description"=>"<p>A) The velocity distribution at 40 RPM at z/H = 0.04. B) Shear stress near the bottom surface is higher than other azimuthal measurements. C) The mean and maximum shear stress increase linearly to the agitation speed. D) Shear stress distribution is skewed to higher shear magnitude at increasing speed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193242, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Results_of_fluid_interaction_at_bottom_surface_of_the_flask_/1193242", "title"=>"Results of fluid interaction at bottom surface of the flask.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704260"], "description"=>"<p>A) Mean and B) maximum shear stresses. In both plots, the shear readings spike at 90 degrees, where the flat impeller is in the imaging plane. C) Histogram of shear stress for various speeds between 20 and 45 RPM. D) Shear stress distributions over meridional plane at two extreme cases; 20 RPM at 180 degrees and 45 RPM at 93 degrees.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193222, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Shear_stress_distribution_for_varying_rotational_phase_/1193222", "title"=>"Shear stress distribution for varying rotational phase.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704256"], "description"=>"<p>Significant shear stress can be seen at the bottom wall, caused by a high velocity gradient due to the interaction of the fluid with the wall.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193218, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Shear_stress_distribution_in_azimuthal_plane_at_varying_phases_/1193218", "title"=>"Shear stress distribution in azimuthal plane at varying phases.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704212"], "description"=>"<p>A) The impeller consisted of a thin rectangular Teflon sheet and a magnetic stirring bar. The middle height of the magnetic rod was placed at the fluid level throughout the experiment. B) Top view of the impeller. The impeller rotates in counter-clockwise direction throughout the experiment. The spinner flask was placed inside a square tank filled with water to eliminate the lensing effect due to the flask curvature. The working fluid was seeded with 31 µm fluorescent particles and agitated by the impeller driven by a stepper motor. A cylindrical lens was used to create a laser sheet to illuminate the imaging region. The seeded flow was imaged with a high-speed camera (IDT Y4). C) In the meridional plane imaging configuration, the laser sheet was aligned vertically and placed at the center of the flask. D) For measurements in the azimuthal plane, the laser sheet was aligned to the horizontal plane and a mirror was placed underneath the setup to allow view access to the illuminated region.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193180, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Experimental_configuration_for_PIV_measurement_in_spinner_flask_bioreactor_/1193180", "title"=>"Experimental configuration for PIV measurement in spinner flask bioreactor.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704247"], "description"=>"<p>The main vortex slowly reduces its strength as the plane of measurement shifts from 93 degrees to 135 degrees.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193209, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>40, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Vorticity_evolution_at_3_angular_positions_for_25_35_and_45_RPM_/1193209", "title"=>"Vorticity evolution at 3 angular positions for 25, 35 and 45 RPM.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704265"], "description"=>"<p>The plots increase linearly with the agitation rates. However, the shear stress magnitudes at 99<sup>th</sup> percentile are marginally lower than the maximum values at each speed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193226, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Maximum_and_99_sup_th_sup_percentile_shear_stress_plots_in_the_meridional_plane_at_varying_spinning_rates_/1193226", "title"=>"Maximum and 99<sup>th</sup> percentile shear stress plots in the meridional plane at varying spinning rates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704282"], "description"=>"<p>Although at each height the shear varies linearly with the spinning rates, the slopes differ from one to another.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193239, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>73, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Plots_of_maximum_shear_stress_when_the_bioreactor_was_spun_at_20_to_45_RPM_/1193239", "title"=>"Plots of maximum shear stress when the bioreactor was spun at 20 to 45 RPM.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704287"], "description"=>"<p>A cell count achieved in the 20 RPM bioreactor was superior to the static culture over 7 days. The plot also shows that declining cell counts were obtained for 28 and 30 RPM suspension cell culture.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193244, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Normalized_cell_count_over_culture_period_for_static_and_suspension_culture_method_/1193244", "title"=>"Normalized cell count over culture period for static and suspension culture method.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1704281"], "description"=>"<p>A) Velocity and B) shear stress contours at z/H = 0.15, 0.50 and 0.85. Highest velocity and shear stress magnitudes are achieved around the flat impeller region in the z/H = 0.85 plane. The farthest plane from the impeller shows homogeneous distribution flow characteristics in both velocity and shear plots.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["25 RPM suspension culture", "28 RPM culture condition", "mouse iPS cells", "piv", "velocimetry measurement technique", "fluid", "Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Culture Application", "shear stress distribution", "particle image velocimetry", "microcarrier", "spinner flask", "flow"], "article_id"=>1193238, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Mohd-Zulhilmi Ismadi", "Priyanka Gupta", "Andreas Fouras", "Paul Verma", "Sameer Jadhav", "Jayesh Bellare", "Kerry Hourigan"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106493.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Flow_visualization_in_azimuthal_plane_/1193238", "title"=>"Flow visualization in azimuthal plane.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-03 02:45:33"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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