Accuracy and Completeness of Drug Information in Wikipedia: A Comparison with Standard Textbooks of Pharmacology
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{"title"=>"Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia: A comparison with standard textbooks of pharmacology", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jona", "last_name"=>"Kräenbring", "scopus_author_id"=>"56375011000"}, {"first_name"=>"Tika Monzon", "last_name"=>"Penza", "scopus_author_id"=>"56375235100"}, {"first_name"=>"Joanna", "last_name"=>"Gutmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"56375303000"}, {"first_name"=>"Susanne", "last_name"=>"Muehlich", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504236471"}, {"first_name"=>"Oliver", "last_name"=>"Zolk", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603846806"}, {"first_name"=>"Leszek", "last_name"=>"Wojnowski", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004289299"}, {"first_name"=>"Renke", "last_name"=>"Maas", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102022498"}, {"first_name"=>"Stefan", "last_name"=>"Engelhardt", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004593055"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonio", "last_name"=>"Sarikas", "scopus_author_id"=>"8287251400"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25250889", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0106930", "sgr"=>"84907587212", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0106930", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907587212", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"600067884"}, "id"=>"7c59960d-beca-3d23-8f95-fadb572b3e9d", "abstract"=>"The online resource Wikipedia is increasingly used by students for knowledge acquisition and learning. However, the lack of a formal editorial review and the heterogeneous expertise of contributors often results in skepticism by educators whether Wikipedia should be recommended to students as an information source. In this study we systematically analyzed the accuracy and completeness of drug information in the German and English language versions of Wikipedia in comparison to standard textbooks of pharmacology. In addition, references, revision history and readability were evaluated. Analysis of readability was performed using the Amstad readability index and the Erste Wiener Sachtextformel. The data on indication, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and contraindications for 100 curricular drugs were retrieved from standard German textbooks of general pharmacology and compared with the corresponding articles in the German language version of Wikipedia. Quantitative analysis revealed that accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia was 99.7% ± 0.2% when compared to the textbook data. The overall completeness of drug information in Wikipedia was 83.8 ± 1.5% (p < 0.001). Completeness varied in-between categories, and was lowest in the category \"pharmacokinetics\" (68.0% ± 4.2%; p < 0.001) and highest in the category \"indication\" (91.3% ± 2.0%) when compared to the textbook data overlap. Similar results were obtained for the English language version of Wikipedia. Of the drug information missing in Wikipedia, 62.5% was rated as didactically non-relevant in a qualitative re-evaluation study. Drug articles in Wikipedia had an average of 14.6 ± 1.6 references and 262.8 ± 37.4 edits performed by 142.7 ± 17.6 editors. Both Wikipedia and textbooks samples had comparable, low readability. Our study suggests that Wikipedia is an accurate and comprehensive source of drug-related information for undergraduate medical education.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/accuracy-completeness-drug-information-wikipedia-comparison-standard-textbooks-pharmacology", "reader_count"=>46, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>2, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Postgraduate"=>6, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>6, "Computer Science"=>9, "Linguistics"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>6}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>9}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>3}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Norway"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689366"], "description"=>"<p>Pharmacological information of randomly selected curricular drugs was retrieved form two standard textbooks of general pharmacology for five different categories (indication, mechanism of action, adverse effects, pharmacokinetics and contraindications). The textbook data overlap served as point of reference for the corresponding drug articles in Wikipedia. The analysis was performed separately for the German and English language version of Wikipedia and textbooks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["German language version", "wikipedia", "English language versions", "Erste Wiener Sachtextformel", "English language version", "Drug information", "Amstad readability index", "textbook data overlap"], "article_id"=>1181118, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jona Kräenbring", "Tika Monzon Penza", "Joanna Gutmann", "Susanne Muehlich", "Oliver Zolk", "Leszek Wojnowski", "Renke Maas", "Stefan Engelhardt", "Antonio Sarikas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_design_/1181118", "title"=>"Study design.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:14:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689377"], "description"=>"<p>Descriptive statistics of edits and editors of drug articles in Wikipedia.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["German language version", "wikipedia", "English language versions", "Erste Wiener Sachtextformel", "English language version", "Drug information", "Amstad readability index", "textbook data overlap"], "article_id"=>1181129, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jona Kräenbring", "Tika Monzon Penza", "Joanna Gutmann", "Susanne Muehlich", "Oliver Zolk", "Leszek Wojnowski", "Renke Maas", "Stefan Engelhardt", "Antonio Sarikas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Descriptive_statistics_of_edits_and_editors_of_drug_articles_in_Wikipedia_/1181129", "title"=>"Descriptive statistics of edits and editors of drug articles in Wikipedia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:14:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689376"], "description"=>"<p>Readability was assessed using the Amstad readability index (<i>R<sub>Amstad</sub></i>) and the Erste Wiener Sachtextformel (<i>R<sub>1. WSTF</sub></i>). The scale of <i>R<sub>Amstad</sub></i> is from 0 (very difficult) to 100 (easy to read), for <i>R<sub>1. WSTF</sub></i> from 4 (easy to read) to >12 (very difficult). n = 10.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["German language version", "wikipedia", "English language versions", "Erste Wiener Sachtextformel", "English language version", "Drug information", "Amstad readability index", "textbook data overlap"], "article_id"=>1181127, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jona Kräenbring", "Tika Monzon Penza", "Joanna Gutmann", "Susanne Muehlich", "Oliver Zolk", "Leszek Wojnowski", "Renke Maas", "Stefan Engelhardt", "Antonio Sarikas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_readability_/1181127", "title"=>"Analysis of readability.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:14:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689371"], "description"=>"<p>(A) German language version of Wikipedia (n = 100), (B) English language version of Wikipedia (n = 20). Box plots depict the 5–95% percentile.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["German language version", "wikipedia", "English language versions", "Erste Wiener Sachtextformel", "English language version", "Drug information", "Amstad readability index", "textbook data overlap"], "article_id"=>1181122, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jona Kräenbring", "Tika Monzon Penza", "Joanna Gutmann", "Susanne Muehlich", "Oliver Zolk", "Leszek Wojnowski", "Renke Maas", "Stefan Engelhardt", "Antonio Sarikas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Analysis_of_article_references_in_Wikipedia_/1181122", "title"=>"Analysis of article references in Wikipedia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:14:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689384", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689385", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689386", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689387", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689388", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689389"], "description"=>"<div><p>The online resource Wikipedia is increasingly used by students for knowledge acquisition and learning. However, the lack of a formal editorial review and the heterogeneous expertise of contributors often results in skepticism by educators whether Wikipedia should be recommended to students as an information source. In this study we systematically analyzed the accuracy and completeness of drug information in the German and English language versions of Wikipedia in comparison to standard textbooks of pharmacology. In addition, references, revision history and readability were evaluated. Analysis of readability was performed using the Amstad readability index and the Erste Wiener Sachtextformel. The data on indication, mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects and contraindications for 100 curricular drugs were retrieved from standard German textbooks of general pharmacology and compared with the corresponding articles in the German language version of Wikipedia. Quantitative analysis revealed that accuracy of drug information in Wikipedia was 99.7%±0.2% when compared to the textbook data. The overall completeness of drug information in Wikipedia was 83.8±1.5% (p<0.001). Completeness varied in-between categories, and was lowest in the category “pharmacokinetics” (68.0%±4.2%; p<0.001) and highest in the category “indication” (91.3%±2.0%) when compared to the textbook data overlap. Similar results were obtained for the English language version of Wikipedia. Of the drug information missing in Wikipedia, 62.5% was rated as didactically non-relevant in a qualitative re-evaluation study. Drug articles in Wikipedia had an average of 14.6±1.6 references and 262.8±37.4 edits performed by 142.7±17.6 editors. Both Wikipedia and textbooks samples had comparable, low readability. Our study suggests that Wikipedia is an accurate and comprehensive source of drug-related information for undergraduate medical education.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["German language version", "wikipedia", "English language versions", "Erste Wiener Sachtextformel", "English language version", "Drug information", "Amstad readability index", "textbook data overlap"], "article_id"=>1181135, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jona Kräenbring", "Tika Monzon Penza", "Joanna Gutmann", "Susanne Muehlich", "Oliver Zolk", "Leszek Wojnowski", "Renke Maas", "Stefan Engelhardt", "Antonio Sarikas"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>45, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Accuracy_and_Completeness_of_Drug_Information_in_Wikipedia_A_Comparison_with_Standard_Textbooks_of_Pharmacology_/1181135", "title"=>"Accuracy and Completeness of Drug Information in Wikipedia: A Comparison with Standard Textbooks of Pharmacology", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:14:41"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1689367"], "description"=>"<p>Analysis of (A) accuracy and (B) completeness of the German (left panel) and English (right panel) language Wikipedia in comparison to textbooks. Accuracy was defined as the degree of closeness to the pharmacological information of the textbooks overlap. Completeness was defined as percentage of pharmacological statements of the textbook overlap present in the respective Wikipedia articles. Box plots showing median, first and third quartile with whiskers depicting the 5% and 95% percentile. In (A), statistical outliers are shown as black dots. Note that some box plots appear as vertical lines due to high accuracy scores and low variability of data. IND, indication; MA, mechanism of action; AE, adverse effects; PK, pharmacokinetics; CI, contraindications.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["German language version", "wikipedia", "English language versions", "Erste Wiener Sachtextformel", "English language version", "Drug information", "Amstad readability index", "textbook data overlap"], "article_id"=>1181119, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Jona Kräenbring", "Tika Monzon Penza", "Joanna Gutmann", "Susanne Muehlich", "Oliver Zolk", "Leszek Wojnowski", "Renke Maas", "Stefan Engelhardt", "Antonio Sarikas"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106930.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Accuracy_and_completeness_of_drug_information_in_Wikipedia_/1181119", "title"=>"Accuracy and completeness of drug information in Wikipedia.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-24 03:14:41"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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