Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for Drosophila Wing Hair Formation
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{"title"=>"Combover/CG10732, a novel PCP effector for drosophila wing hair formation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jeremy K.", "last_name"=>"Fagan", "scopus_author_id"=>"57158908100"}, {"first_name"=>"Gretchen", "last_name"=>"Dollar", "scopus_author_id"=>"9042814400"}, {"first_name"=>"Qiuheng", "last_name"=>"Lu", "scopus_author_id"=>"35196432900"}, {"first_name"=>"Austen", "last_name"=>"Barnett", "scopus_author_id"=>"57158627400"}, {"first_name"=>"Joaquin Pechuan", "last_name"=>"Jorge", "scopus_author_id"=>"57158889300"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Schlosser", "scopus_author_id"=>"55621576800"}, {"first_name"=>"Cathie", "last_name"=>"Pfleger", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602307127"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Adler", "scopus_author_id"=>"35581770000"}, {"first_name"=>"Andreas", "last_name"=>"Jenny", "scopus_author_id"=>"35561488800"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0107311", "pui"=>"608758678", "sgr"=>"84945957114", "pmid"=>"25207969", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84945957114"}, "id"=>"24f62e31-4ca2-342a-bd3c-92469311320a", "abstract"=>"The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in Drosophila melanogaster. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen in vitro, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of rok and mwh. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of rok or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and cmb null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of mwh alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/combovercg10732-novel-pcp-effector-drosophila-wing-hair-formation", "reader_count"=>11, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669165"], "description"=>"<p>Based on the genetic interaction data we suggest that Rok may antagonize a positive role of Cmb on wing hair formation. Mwh is enriched on the proximal side of wing cells by the Fy/In group of PCP effectors where it prevents hair initiation. The suppression of the MCH phenotype of a <i>mwh</i> null allele by a <i>cmb</i> null mutant further suggests that the role of Cmb on hair formation is antagonized by Mwh.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mwh", "Multiple wing hairs", "Novel PCP Effector", "hair cell phenotype", "ectopic actin hairs", "PCP effector gene family", "hair follicle orientation", "novel Rho kinase substrate", "wing hair formation", "Drosophila Wing Hair Formation", "Planar Cell Polarity", "CMB", "PCP effectors link", "polarization", "MHC phenotype", "Specific PCP effectors"], "article_id"=>1166889, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy K. Fagan", "Gretchen Dollar", "Qiuheng Lu", "Austen Barnett", "Joaquin Pechuan Jorge", "Andreas Schlosser", "Cathie Pfleger", "Paul Adler", "Andreas Jenny"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_of_Cmb_function_/1166889", "title"=>"Model of Cmb function.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-10 02:55:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669163"], "description"=>"<p>Pupal wing discs expressing <i>en>cmb-RB</i> or <i>en>cmb-RA</i> (green) in the posterior compartment (posterior is down, distal to the right in all panels). Actin is shown in red; greyscale pictures show indicated single channels. (A) Endogenous Cmb (anterior, above compartment boundary indicated by a yellow dotted line) is not detected by our antibody. At 30 APF prior to hair initiation, cmb-RB overexpressed in the posterior compartment localizes apically in a punctate pattern. (B–C) At 36 APF, after hair initiation, <i>en</i>><i>cmb-RB</i> localizes apically (B, B’) but is largely absent from more basal confocal sections (C, C’). Note the multiple wing hairs due to Cmb overexpression emerge on the distal side (C”). Cmb is not present in the wing hairs. (D) <i>en>cmb-RA</i> localizes apically in 30 hr APF wing discs and appears cortically enriched in cells that express at a lower level. (E, F) Optical Z-sections of 36 hrs pupal wing discs shows strong apical enrichment of cmb-RB (E, E’) and cmb-RA (F, F’; note that the dorsal and ventral wing layers are seen, with their basal sides touching and their apical sides facing away from each other, respectively). (G) Flip-out clones (marked by UAS-GFP in blue in G) expressing <i>cmb-RA</i> under the control of <i>actin-Gal4</i> show that while cmb-RA appears cortically enriched, it is not asymmetric with respect to the P/D axis. Scale bars are 2 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mwh", "Multiple wing hairs", "Novel PCP Effector", "hair cell phenotype", "ectopic actin hairs", "PCP effector gene family", "hair follicle orientation", "novel Rho kinase substrate", "wing hair formation", "Drosophila Wing Hair Formation", "Planar Cell Polarity", "CMB", "PCP effectors link", "polarization", "MHC phenotype", "Specific PCP effectors"], "article_id"=>1166887, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy K. Fagan", "Gretchen Dollar", "Qiuheng Lu", "Austen Barnett", "Joaquin Pechuan Jorge", "Andreas Schlosser", "Cathie Pfleger", "Paul Adler", "Andreas Jenny"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cmb_localization_/1166887", "title"=>"Cmb localization.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-10 02:55:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669145"], "description"=>"<p>(A) <i>en>cmb-RA</i> overexpression phenotype. (B–F) The MHC phenotype of <i>en>cmb-RA</i> is dominantly enhanced by the removal of one gene dose of <i>mwh<sup>1</sup></i> (B), <i>mwh<sup>6</sup></i> (C), <i>fy<sup>3</sup></i> (D), <i>in<sup>1</sup></i> (E), and <i>frtz<sup>3</sup></i> (F). (G–H) Quantification of MHC phenotype of <i>cmb-RA</i> overexpression in second posterior wing cell (see Fig. 3G for schematic) and enhancement by indicated alleles (G) and deficiencies uncovering those loci (H). Baselines are variable between the different experiments and quantification in (G) corresponds to experimental series shown in B, D–F; quantification of the <i>mwh<sup>6</sup></i> interaction is shown in Fig. 3H. Graphs show means and SEM; T-tests, reduced Bonferroni correction (*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001); n≥5. 29°C. Scale bars are 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mwh", "Multiple wing hairs", "Novel PCP Effector", "hair cell phenotype", "ectopic actin hairs", "PCP effector gene family", "hair follicle orientation", "novel Rho kinase substrate", "wing hair formation", "Drosophila Wing Hair Formation", "Planar Cell Polarity", "CMB", "PCP effectors link", "polarization", "MHC phenotype", "Specific PCP effectors"], "article_id"=>1166869, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy K. Fagan", "Gretchen Dollar", "Qiuheng Lu", "Austen Barnett", "Joaquin Pechuan Jorge", "Andreas Schlosser", "Cathie Pfleger", "Paul Adler", "Andreas Jenny"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cmb_genetically_interacts_with_PCP_effectors_/1166869", "title"=>"Cmb genetically interacts with PCP effectors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-10 02:55:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669130"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Schematic of the PA and PB Cmb isoforms as annotated in Flybase. Clone GH01088 is a full-length clone corresponding to <i>cmb-RB</i> identified in the Rok target screen. Grey bars indicate GST fusions of Cmb-PB used to map phosphorylation sites in direct kinase assays <i>in vitro,</i> and Cmb-NT, Cmb-CT, and Cmb-Int indicate fragments used in two-hybrid and co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Phosphorylation sites identified by mass-spectrometry are numbered relative to Cmb-PB. Direct phosphorylation results of the Cmb Gst fragments are indicated towards the right. (B) Summary of the presence and/or absence of <i>cmb</i> and <i>mwh</i> genes in model arthropod genomes (see also <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311#pone.0107311.s002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S2</a>; phylogenetic reconstruction shown is based on <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311#pone.0107311-Regier1\" target=\"_blank\">[62]</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311#pone.0107311-Wan1\" target=\"_blank\">[64]</a>). <i>mwh</i> and <i>cmb</i> likely evolved in the last common ancestor of euarthropods (as represented by an ortholog in the tick <i>Ixodes scapularis</i>). The Diptera clade has been collapsed (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311#pone.0107311.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figures S1</a> and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311#pone.0107311.s002\" target=\"_blank\">S2</a>). (C) Treatment of <i>in vitro</i> translated Cmb-PB (clone GH01088) with the catalytic fragment of Rho kinase (Rok<sup>cat</sup>) causes the formation of a slower migrating form of Cmb on an Anderson gel (compare blue arrow position with black one in lanes 1 and 2). The gel shift is due to phosphorylation, as it is reverted upon treatment with alkaline phosphatase (CIP; lane 3). Note that for unknown reasons (such as translation initiating at an internal methionine), two Cmb bands are seen upon <i>in vitro</i> translation of Cmb in reticulocyte lysates. (D) Phosphorylation of Cmb by Rok is direct. Indicated purified fragments of Cmb fused to Gst were incubated with Rok<sup>cat</sup> in the presence of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311#pone.0107311-Amano1\" target=\"_blank\">[32]</a> P-γATP and separated on a 12% SDS PA gel. Only GST-ES (lane 3) is a substrate of Rok. Top panel is an autoradiograph of the Coomassie stained gel in the lower panel. Arrow show Rok<sup>cat</sup> autophosphorylation (Rok) and indicated GST-fusion proteins. (E) Kinase assays in triplicate of indicated Gst fusion proteins. The upper panels show autoradiographs of the Coomassie stained gel below. In Gst-ES<sup>6A</sup>, the five phosphorylation sites (see A) identified by mass-spectrometry were mutated to Ala (in addition, T372 was mutated as well, as it lies with in a [TP]<sub>3</sub> repeat with T368 and T370). (F) Quantification of kinase assay shown in E. Error bars indicate standard deviation; T-test: ***p<0.0001.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mwh", "Multiple wing hairs", "Novel PCP Effector", "hair cell phenotype", "ectopic actin hairs", "PCP effector gene family", "hair follicle orientation", "novel Rho kinase substrate", "wing hair formation", "Drosophila Wing Hair Formation", "Planar Cell Polarity", "CMB", "PCP effectors link", "polarization", "MHC phenotype", "Specific PCP effectors"], "article_id"=>1166854, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy K. Fagan", "Gretchen Dollar", "Qiuheng Lu", "Austen Barnett", "Joaquin Pechuan Jorge", "Andreas Schlosser", "Cathie Pfleger", "Paul Adler", "Andreas Jenny"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cmb_is_a_Rho_kinase_substrate_/1166854", "title"=>"Cmb is a Rho kinase substrate.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-10 02:55:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669187", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669188", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669189", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669190", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669191"], "description"=>"<div><p>The polarization of cells is essential for the proper functioning of most organs. Planar Cell Polarity (PCP), the polarization within the plane of an epithelium, is perpendicular to apical-basal polarity and established by the non-canonical Wnt/Fz-PCP signaling pathway. Within each tissue, downstream PCP effectors link the signal to tissue specific readouts such as stereocilia orientation in the inner ear and hair follicle orientation in vertebrates or the polarization of ommatidia and wing hairs in <i>Drosophila melanogaster</i>. Specific PCP effectors in the wing such as Multiple wing hairs (Mwh) and Rho Kinase (Rok) are required to position the hair at the correct position and to prevent ectopic actin hairs. In a genome-wide screen <i>in vitro</i>, we identified Combover (Cmb)/CG10732 as a novel Rho kinase substrate. Overexpression of Cmb causes the formation of a multiple hair cell phenotype (MHC), similar to loss of <i>rok</i> and <i>mwh</i>. This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by removal of <i>rok</i> or of other members of the PCP effector gene family. Furthermore, we show that Cmb physically interacts with Mwh, and <i>cmb</i> null mutants suppress the MHC phenotype of <i>mwh</i> alleles. Our data indicate that Cmb is a novel PCP effector that promotes to wing hair formation, a function that is antagonized by Mwh.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mwh", "Multiple wing hairs", "Novel PCP Effector", "hair cell phenotype", "ectopic actin hairs", "PCP effector gene family", "hair follicle orientation", "novel Rho kinase substrate", "wing hair formation", "Drosophila Wing Hair Formation", "Planar Cell Polarity", "CMB", "PCP effectors link", "polarization", "MHC phenotype", "Specific PCP effectors"], "article_id"=>1166897, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy K. Fagan", "Gretchen Dollar", "Qiuheng Lu", "Austen Barnett", "Joaquin Pechuan Jorge", "Andreas Schlosser", "Cathie Pfleger", "Paul Adler", "Andreas Jenny"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.s005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Combover_CG10732_a_Novel_PCP_Effector_for_Drosophila_Wing_Hair_Formation/1166897", "title"=>"Combover/CG10732, a Novel PCP Effector for <i>Drosophila</i> Wing Hair Formation", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-09-10 02:55:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669135"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Genomic locus of <i>cmb/CG10732</i> showing the <i>RA</i> and <i>RB</i> isoforms that are well supported by genomic data. 1023 bp of genomic DNA (red) was replaced with a White<sup>+</sup> marker by homologous recombination to generate the <i>cmb<sup>KO</sup></i> allele. The deleted fragment includes the start codon of the PB isoform. Arrows indicate approximate location of the PCR primers used to verify the deletion. (B) Analytical PCR shows that <i>cmb</i> specific primers amplify a 945 bp fragment from <i>w<sup>1118</sup></i> control DNA (lane 2), but not from homozygous <i>cmb<sup>KO</sup></i> DNA (lane 1). Control primers amplify the expected 532 bp fragment from both DNAs showing their integrity (lanes 4, 5). Lanes 3, 6: No DNA controls. (C) Western blot analysis of 3<sup>rd</sup> instar larval lysates separated on a 12% SDS-PA gel shows that, in contrast to a <i>w<sup>1118</sup></i> lysate (left lane), neither Cmb-PA nor Cmb-PB (arrows; predicted MWs 189 kDa and 89 kDa, respectively) are detected in lysates of homozygous <i>cmb<sup>KO</sup></i> flies. The minor form running above Cmb-PB may be a modified form and was not detected in all preparations. αTubulin was used as loading control (lower panel). (D–F) Wing hairs and their orientation of <i>cmb<sup>KO</sup></i> flies are normal. Compare enlarged wing area of a <i>w<sup>1118</sup></i> wing (E) with a <i>cmb<sup>KO</sup></i> wing in (F; area corresponds to blue box in D). Scale bar is 50 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mwh", "Multiple wing hairs", "Novel PCP Effector", "hair cell phenotype", "ectopic actin hairs", "PCP effector gene family", "hair follicle orientation", "novel Rho kinase substrate", "wing hair formation", "Drosophila Wing Hair Formation", "Planar Cell Polarity", "CMB", "PCP effectors link", "polarization", "MHC phenotype", "Specific PCP effectors"], "article_id"=>1166859, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy K. Fagan", "Gretchen Dollar", "Qiuheng Lu", "Austen Barnett", "Joaquin Pechuan Jorge", "Andreas Schlosser", "Cathie Pfleger", "Paul Adler", "Andreas Jenny"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_cmb_KO_is_a_protein_null_mutant_/1166859", "title"=>"<i>cmb<sup>KO</sup></i> is a protein null mutant.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-10 02:55:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669147"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Summary of yeast two-hybrid interaction assays between PCP effector candidates (baits) and Cmb N- and C-terminal parts (Cmb<sup>NT</sup> and Cmb<sup>CT</sup>, respectively; c.f. Fig. 1A). Only Mwh, but not In, Fy, or Frtz interacts with Cmb. (B) Yeast two-hybrid results of transfections with indicated plasmids. Upper panels show growth under conditions selective for the presence of the plasmids only (Traf.). Lower panels: additional stringent selection for interaction (Str.: -HIS; -ADE) furthermore showing interaction via LacZ staining, a third maker present in the yeast strain. Only yeast cells containing the Mwh bait and the Cmb<sup>NT</sup> prey, but not the controls grew under conditions selective for interaction. (C) Cmb specifically coimmunoprecipitates Mwh from Lysates of HEK293 cells. Indicated GFP-tagged Cmb constructs (lanes 1–3, and 5–7; see Fig. 1A for schematics) or Tbx1 (lanes 4, 8; negative control) were cotransfected with Myc-tagged Mwh (lanes 1–4) or Myc-Dazap1 (lanes 5–8; negative control) and immunoprecipitated with anti GFP antibodies. Upper panels show immunoprecipitations, lower panels show lysates probed with antibodies recognizing the tags of the indicated proteins. Note that Cmb-PA transfers very inefficiently onto membranes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mwh", "Multiple wing hairs", "Novel PCP Effector", "hair cell phenotype", "ectopic actin hairs", "PCP effector gene family", "hair follicle orientation", "novel Rho kinase substrate", "wing hair formation", "Drosophila Wing Hair Formation", "Planar Cell Polarity", "CMB", "PCP effectors link", "polarization", "MHC phenotype", "Specific PCP effectors"], "article_id"=>1166871, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy K. Fagan", "Gretchen Dollar", "Qiuheng Lu", "Austen Barnett", "Joaquin Pechuan Jorge", "Andreas Schlosser", "Cathie Pfleger", "Paul Adler", "Andreas Jenny"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cmb_interacts_physically_with_Mwh_/1166871", "title"=>"Cmb interacts physically with Mwh.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-10 02:55:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669161"], "description"=>"<p>The multiple hair cell phenotypes of <i>mwh<sup>1</sup></i> (A), <i>mwh<sup>1</sup></i>/<i>mwh<sup>6</sup></i> transheterozygotes (B), or <i>mwh<sup>6</sup></i> (C) single mutants, are significantly suppressed in corresponding double mutants with <i>cmb<sup>KO</sup></i> (D–F). Wing areas depicted correspond to the blue box in Fig. 3H. (G) Quantification of number of MHCs in the second posterior wing cell (Fig. 3H) of indicated genotypes. Note that all allelic combinations of <i>mwh</i> are suppressed by concomitant loss of <i>cmb</i>. Graphs show means with SEM; T-tests, Bonferroni correction (*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001); n≥5. Scale bars are 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mwh", "Multiple wing hairs", "Novel PCP Effector", "hair cell phenotype", "ectopic actin hairs", "PCP effector gene family", "hair follicle orientation", "novel Rho kinase substrate", "wing hair formation", "Drosophila Wing Hair Formation", "Planar Cell Polarity", "CMB", "PCP effectors link", "polarization", "MHC phenotype", "Specific PCP effectors"], "article_id"=>1166885, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy K. Fagan", "Gretchen Dollar", "Qiuheng Lu", "Austen Barnett", "Joaquin Pechuan Jorge", "Andreas Schlosser", "Cathie Pfleger", "Paul Adler", "Andreas Jenny"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_cmb_suppresses_mwh_in_double_mutants_/1166885", "title"=>"<i>cmb</i> suppresses <i>mwh</i> in double mutants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-10 02:55:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1669142"], "description"=>"<p>(A–C) Compared to control (A), overexpression of either isoform of Cmb (RB and RA in (B), (C), respectively) under the control of <i>en-Gal4</i> causes the formation of multiple hairs cells specifically in the posterior compartment. (D–F) This MHC phenotype is dominantly enhanced by the removal of one gene dose of rok (<i>rok<sup>1</sup></i> (D), <i>rok<sup>2</sup></i> (E)), or a deficiency uncovering <i>rok</i> (<i>Df(1)FDD-0331226</i>; F). (G) Schematic of wing indicating the approximate areas shown in panels A–F (blue box) and the second posterior wing cell scored for quantification (rose). (H) Quantification of MHC phenotype of Cmb overexpression in second posterior wing cell and enhancement by indicated alleles. 29°C. Depicted are mean and SEM; T-tests (*p<0.05; ***p<0.001); n≥5. Scale bars are 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mwh", "Multiple wing hairs", "Novel PCP Effector", "hair cell phenotype", "ectopic actin hairs", "PCP effector gene family", "hair follicle orientation", "novel Rho kinase substrate", "wing hair formation", "Drosophila Wing Hair Formation", "Planar Cell Polarity", "CMB", "PCP effectors link", "polarization", "MHC phenotype", "Specific PCP effectors"], "article_id"=>1166866, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jeremy K. Fagan", "Gretchen Dollar", "Qiuheng Lu", "Austen Barnett", "Joaquin Pechuan Jorge", "Andreas Schlosser", "Cathie Pfleger", "Paul Adler", "Andreas Jenny"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107311.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Overexpression_of_Cmb_causes_a_MHC_phenotype_which_is_dominantly_enhanced_by_alleles_of_rok_/1166866", "title"=>"Overexpression of Cmb causes a MHC phenotype which is dominantly enhanced by alleles of <i>rok</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-10 02:55:01"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"9", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"27", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"35", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"22", "supp-data"=>"12", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
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Relative Metric

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