The Association of Meningococcal Disease with Influenza in the United States, 1989–2009
Publication Date
September 29, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jessica Hartman Jacobs, Cécile Viboud, Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen, Joel Schwartz, et al
Volume
9
Issue
9
Pages
e107486
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0107486
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25265409
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4180274
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25265409
Web of Science
000345745400023
Scopus
84907482261
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/association-meningococcal-disease-influenza-united-states-19892009
Events
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"The association of meningococcal disease with influenza in the united states, 1989-2009", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jessica Hartman", "last_name"=>"Jacobs", "scopus_author_id"=>"55325165800"}, {"first_name"=>"Cécile", "last_name"=>"Viboud", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701923799"}, {"first_name"=>"Eric Tchetgen", "last_name"=>"Tchetgen", "scopus_author_id"=>"32267595100"}, {"first_name"=>"Joel", "last_name"=>"Schwartz", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404276367"}, {"first_name"=>"Claudia", "last_name"=>"Steiner", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102257730"}, {"first_name"=>"Lone", "last_name"=>"Simonsen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005506864"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc", "last_name"=>"Lipsitch", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006236353"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600074451", "sgr"=>"84907482261", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25265409", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907482261", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0107486", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"24f1e8ec-e903-3873-aa34-66cb845fcea8", "abstract"=>"IMPORTANCE AND OBJECTIVE: Prior influenza infection is a risk factor for invasive meningococcal disease. Quantifying the fraction of meningococcal disease attributable to influenza could improve understanding of viral-bacterial interaction and indicate additional health benefits to influenza immunization.\n\nDESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A time series analysis of the association of influenza and meningococcal disease using hospitalizations in 9 states from 1989-2009 included in the State Inpatient Databases from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the proportion of positive influenza tests by subtype reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The model accounts for the autocorrelation of meningococcal disease and influenza between weeks, temporal trends, co-circulating respiratory syncytial virus, and seasonality. The influenza-subtype-attributable fraction was estimated using the model coefficients. We analyzed the synchrony of seasonal peaks in hospitalizations for influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and meningococcal disease.\n\nRESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: In 19 of 20 seasons, influenza peaked≤2 weeks before meningococcal disease, and peaks were highly correlated in time (ρ = 0.95; P <.001). H3N2 and H1N1 peaks were highly synchronized with meningococcal disease while pandemic H1N1, B, and respiratory syncytial virus were not. Over 20 years, 12.8% (95% CI, 9.1-15.0) of meningococcal disease can be attributable to influenza in the preceding weeks with H3N2 accounting for 5.2% (95% CI, 3.0-6.5), H1N1 4.3% (95% CI, 2.6-5.6), B 3.0% (95% CI, 0.8-4.9) and pH1N1 0.2% (95% CI, 0-0.4). During the height of influenza season, weekly attributable fractions reach 59%. While vaccination against meningococcal disease is the most important prevention strategy, influenza vaccination could provide further protection, particularly in young children where the meningococcal disease vaccine is not recommended or protective against the most common serogroup.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/association-meningococcal-disease-influenza-united-states-19892009", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>5}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "group_count"=>5}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695654"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b> We analyzed 20 seasons and defined the week for each season in which FLU, RSV, or MD had the maximum count as the peak week. The synchrony of the peak week for FLU, RSV, and MD was compared. FLU (marked by a blue triangle) peaked 2 weeks or less before MD in all seasons but one. The peak weeks were highly correlated (ρ = 0.95; <i>P</i> <.001). In contrast, RSV (marked by circles) was not synchronized with MD (ρ = 0.07; <i>P</i>  = .77) and peaked equally before and after MD. <b>B </b>Same analysis repeated for each season and each influenza subtype. Including only seasons with at least 75 subtype-attributable influenza hospitalizations, we analyzed 16 (H3N2), 7 (H1N1), and 13 (B) seasons for correlation with MD. H3N2 (ρ = 0.90; <i>P</i> <.001) and H1N1 (ρ = 0.92; <i>P</i>  = .003) were highly synchronized with MD hospitalizations while influenza B showed little evidence of an association (ρ = 0.20; <i>P</i>  = .51). During our study period, influenza B was the dominant strain in only 2 seasons but in those years peaked with (1990−91) or 1 week before MD (1992−93). The only season when H3N2 or H1N1 peaked after MD was 1992−93 when B dominated.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ObjectivePrior influenza infection", "ParticipantsA time series analysis", "meningococcal disease vaccine", "syncytial virus", "Meningococcal disease", "State Inpatient Databases", "ci", "H 3N accounting", "pandemic H 1N B", "H 1N peaks"], "article_id"=>1186381, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jessica Hartman Jacobs", "Cécile Viboud", "Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen", "Joel Schwartz", "Claudia Steiner", "Lone Simonsen", "Marc Lipsitch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Meningococcal_disease_MD_annual_peak_timing_shows_strong_correlation_with_peak_of_influenza_FLU_especially_A_H3N2_and_A_H1N1_but_not_RSV_/1186381", "title"=>"Meningococcal disease (MD) annual peak timing shows strong correlation with peak of influenza (FLU), especially A/H3N2 and A/H1N1 but not RSV.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-29 03:10:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695659"], "description"=>"<p>Modeling results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ObjectivePrior influenza infection", "ParticipantsA time series analysis", "meningococcal disease vaccine", "syncytial virus", "Meningococcal disease", "State Inpatient Databases", "ci", "H 3N accounting", "pandemic H 1N B", "H 1N peaks"], "article_id"=>1186387, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jessica Hartman Jacobs", "Cécile Viboud", "Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen", "Joel Schwartz", "Claudia Steiner", "Lone Simonsen", "Marc Lipsitch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Modeling_results_/1186387", "title"=>"Modeling results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-29 03:10:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695668", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695669", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695670", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695671", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695672", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695673", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695674", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695675", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695676", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695677"], "description"=>"<div><p>Importance and Objective</p><p>Prior influenza infection is a risk factor for invasive meningococcal disease. Quantifying the fraction of meningococcal disease attributable to influenza could improve understanding of viral-bacterial interaction and indicate additional health benefits to influenza immunization.</p><p>Design, Setting and Participants</p><p>A time series analysis of the association of influenza and meningococcal disease using hospitalizations in 9 states from 1989–2009 included in the State Inpatient Databases from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the proportion of positive influenza tests by subtype reported to the Centers for Disease Control. The model accounts for the autocorrelation of meningococcal disease and influenza between weeks, temporal trends, co-circulating respiratory syncytial virus, and seasonality. The influenza-subtype-attributable fraction was estimated using the model coefficients. We analyzed the synchrony of seasonal peaks in hospitalizations for influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and meningococcal disease.</p><p>Results and Conclusions</p><p>In 19 of 20 seasons, influenza peaked≤2 weeks before meningococcal disease, and peaks were highly correlated in time (ρ = 0.95; <i>P</i> <.001). H3N2 and H1N1 peaks were highly synchronized with meningococcal disease while pandemic H1N1, B, and respiratory syncytial virus were not. Over 20 years, 12.8% (95% CI, 9.1–15.0) of meningococcal disease can be attributable to influenza in the preceding weeks with H3N2 accounting for 5.2% (95% CI, 3.0–6.5), H1N1 4.3% (95% CI, 2.6–5.6), B 3.0% (95% CI, 0.8–4.9) and pH1N1 0.2% (95% CI, 0–0.4). During the height of influenza season, weekly attributable fractions reach 59%. While vaccination against meningococcal disease is the most important prevention strategy, influenza vaccination could provide further protection, particularly in young children where the meningococcal disease vaccine is not recommended or protective against the most common serogroup.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ObjectivePrior influenza infection", "ParticipantsA time series analysis", "meningococcal disease vaccine", "syncytial virus", "Meningococcal disease", "State Inpatient Databases", "ci", "H 3N accounting", "pandemic H 1N B", "H 1N peaks"], "article_id"=>1186391, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jessica Hartman Jacobs", "Cécile Viboud", "Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen", "Joel Schwartz", "Claudia Steiner", "Lone Simonsen", "Marc Lipsitch"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Association_of_Meningococcal_Disease_with_Influenza_in_the_United_States_1989_8211_2009_/1186391", "title"=>"The Association of Meningococcal Disease with Influenza in the United States, 1989–2009", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-09-29 03:10:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695658"], "description"=>"<p>Most seasons were dominated by either influenza A/H1N1 or A/H3N2, with little of the other subtype. Nearly all seasons also showed a smaller contribution from influenza B.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ObjectivePrior influenza infection", "ParticipantsA time series analysis", "meningococcal disease vaccine", "syncytial virus", "Meningococcal disease", "State Inpatient Databases", "ci", "H 3N accounting", "pandemic H 1N B", "H 1N peaks"], "article_id"=>1186385, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jessica Hartman Jacobs", "Cécile Viboud", "Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen", "Joel Schwartz", "Claudia Steiner", "Lone Simonsen", "Marc Lipsitch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Weekly_fraction_of_MD_attributable_to_all_subtypes_together_and_individual_influenza_subtypes_/1186385", "title"=>"Weekly fraction of MD attributable to all subtypes together and individual influenza subtypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-29 03:10:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1695656"], "description"=>"<p>MD counts were modeled in a negative binomial generalized linear model with an identity link. Independent variables included a sinusoidal term for seasonal variation, linear and quadratic time trends (modeled using Legendre polynomials), autoregressive terms with MD lagged 1−3 weeks, SAIH lagged 1 week, and terms to allow influenza to have a changing effect on MD over time (effect modification).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ObjectivePrior influenza infection", "ParticipantsA time series analysis", "meningococcal disease vaccine", "syncytial virus", "Meningococcal disease", "State Inpatient Databases", "ci", "H 3N accounting", "pandemic H 1N B", "H 1N peaks"], "article_id"=>1186383, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Jessica Hartman Jacobs", "Cécile Viboud", "Eric Tchetgen Tchetgen", "Joel Schwartz", "Claudia Steiner", "Lone Simonsen", "Marc Lipsitch"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107486.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_MD_compared_with_model_predicted_MD_/1186383", "title"=>"Observed MD compared with model-predicted MD.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-29 03:10:44"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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