A Comprehensive Analysis of Small-Passerine Fatalities from Collision with Turbines at Wind Energy Facilities
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{"title"=>"A comprehensive analysis of small-passerine fatalities from collision with turbines at wind energy facilities", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Wallace P.", "last_name"=>"Erickson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006207504"}, {"first_name"=>"Melissa M.", "last_name"=>"Wolfe", "scopus_author_id"=>"56364395400"}, {"first_name"=>"Kimberly J.", "last_name"=>"Bay", "scopus_author_id"=>"56364948900"}, {"first_name"=>"Douglas H.", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7406818833"}, {"first_name"=>"Joelle L.", "last_name"=>"Gehring", "scopus_author_id"=>"26532590000"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600033465", "sgr"=>"84907200749", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25222738", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907200749", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0107491", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"8a817c90-a05b-3071-a272-62361097355f", "abstract"=>"Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comprehensive-analysis-smallpasserine-fatalities-collision-turbines-wind-energy-facilities", "reader_count"=>119, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>21, "Student > Master"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>36, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>8, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>21, "Student > Master"=>12, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>5, "Unspecified"=>7, "Environmental Science"=>32, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>63, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Energy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>63}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>3}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>32}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United Kingdom"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Portugal"=>2}, "group_count"=>14}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676654"], "description"=>"a<p>Provided by <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491-American2\" target=\"_blank\">[36]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491-Canadian1\" target=\"_blank\">[37]</a>.</p>b<p>See values for all biomes combined in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491.s036\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S9</a>.</p>c<p>The Dillon Project was the only project in the southwest biome represented by a fatality report that was available. Due to its singularity and since it is located very close to the Pacific biome; it was combined with the Pacific biome data for these estimates. See project characteristics in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491.s028\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S1</a>.</p><p>Comparison of the average fatality rate (birds/megawatt [MW]/year) for small birds for each associated avifaunal biome and all biomes combined, total MW produced in each biome, proportion of total MW represented by wind energy facilities with available fatality monitoring reports, and estimated number of small-bird fatalities annually.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Wind Energy Facilities", "fatality", "wind turbines", "mw", "facility", "species"], "article_id"=>1170586, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wallace P. Erickson", "Melissa M. Wolfe", "Kimberly J. Bay", "Douglas H. Johnson", "Joelle L. Gehring"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_the_average_fatality_rate_birds_megawatt_MW_year_for_small_birds_for_each_associated_avifaunal_biome_and_all_biomes_combined_total_MW_produced_in_each_biome_proportion_of_total_MW_represented_by_wind_energy_facilities_with_available_fatalit/1170586", "title"=>"Comparison of the average fatality rate (birds/megawatt [MW]/year) for small birds for each associated avifaunal biome and all biomes combined, total MW produced in each biome, proportion of total MW represented by wind energy facilities with available fatality monitoring reports, and estimated number of small-bird fatalities annually.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-15 03:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676649"], "description"=>"<p>The date for collision was provided in 79 studies on mortality of birds at wind energy facilities. A total of 2,285 fatalities for species of small passerines (less than 30.5 cm in size) were included and are sorted by month.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Wind Energy Facilities", "fatality", "wind turbines", "mw", "facility", "species"], "article_id"=>1170581, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wallace P. Erickson", "Melissa M. Wolfe", "Kimberly J. Bay", "Douglas H. Johnson", "Joelle L. Gehring"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Monthly_timing_of_small_passerine_fatalities_caused_by_collision_with_turbines_and_documented_in_79_studies_/1170581", "title"=>"Monthly timing of small-passerine fatalities caused by collision with turbines and documented in 79 studies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-15 03:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676648"], "description"=>"<p>The locations of wind energy facilities associated with 116 studies that were appropriate for inclusion in an analysis of fatalities of small passerines due to collisions with wind turbines. See details of studies in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491.s028\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S1</a>. Biomes adapted from Rich et al. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491-Rich1\" target=\"_blank\">[19]</a><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491-North2\" target=\"_blank\">[58]</a><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491-ESRI1\" target=\"_blank\">[59]</a><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491-North3\" target=\"_blank\">[60]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Wind Energy Facilities", "fatality", "wind turbines", "mw", "facility", "species"], "article_id"=>1170580, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wallace P. Erickson", "Melissa M. Wolfe", "Kimberly J. Bay", "Douglas H. Johnson", "Joelle L. Gehring"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Locations_of_studies_included_for_analysis_of_small_bird_fatalities_at_wind_energy_facilities_/1170580", "title"=>"Locations of studies included for analysis of small-bird fatalities at wind energy facilities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-15 03:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676656"], "description"=>"a<p>includes carcasses found during scheduled carcass searches and incidentally.</p>b<p>Average estimated number of fatalities each year adjusted by the bias value that was the lowest and for operating capacity (see text and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491.s036\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S9</a>).</p>c<p>Average estimated number of fatalities each year adjusted by the bias value that was the highest and for operating capacity (see text and <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491.s036\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S9</a>).</p>d<p>Population estimates obtained from the Partners in Flight Landbird Population Estimates Database <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491-Partners1\" target=\"_blank\">[29]</a>.</p>e<p>Percent of population affected annually, adjusted by the bias value that was the lowest.</p>f<p>Percent of population affected annually, adjusted by the bias value that was the highest.</p><p>Two values are presented for both percentage and number, representing the extreme values of the range of adjustments applied for each species. Also included are the number of dead birds found and the percent composition by species for the 116 studies. Results for all species are presented in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491.s037\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S10</a><sup>a</sup>.</p><p>The percentage and number of individuals of the continental population estimated to be killed by collisions with turbines each year for the top 20 species of small passerines, in comparison to their estimated population sizes, derived from 116 studies of bird collisions at wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Wind Energy Facilities", "fatality", "wind turbines", "mw", "facility", "species"], "article_id"=>1170588, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wallace P. Erickson", "Melissa M. Wolfe", "Kimberly J. Bay", "Douglas H. Johnson", "Joelle L. Gehring"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_percentage_and_number_of_individuals_of_the_continental_population_estimated_to_be_killed_by_collisions_with_turbines_each_year_for_the_top_20_species_of_small_passerines_in_comparison_to_their_estimated_population_sizes_derived_from_116_studies_of_b/1170588", "title"=>"The percentage and number of individuals of the continental population estimated to be killed by collisions with turbines each year for the top 20 species of small passerines, in comparison to their estimated population sizes, derived from 116 studies of bird collisions at wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-15 03:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676653"], "description"=>"a<p>Unidentified small-passerine types are also included in order of abundance. A full list of species is provided in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491.s036\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S9</a>.</p><p>Number of fatalities caused by collision with wind turbines and percent of all small-passerine fatalities (n = 3,110) for the 25 most commonly found species of small passerines in 116 studies conducted at 71 wind energy facilities from 1996–2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Wind Energy Facilities", "fatality", "wind turbines", "mw", "facility", "species"], "article_id"=>1170585, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wallace P. Erickson", "Melissa M. Wolfe", "Kimberly J. Bay", "Douglas H. Johnson", "Joelle L. Gehring"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_fatalities_caused_by_collision_with_wind_turbines_and_percent_of_all_small_passerine_fatalities_n_8202_8202_3_110_for_the_25_most_commonly_found_species_of_small_passerines_in_116_studies_conducted_at_71_wind_energy_facilities_from_1996_8211_20/1170585", "title"=>"Number of fatalities caused by collision with wind turbines and percent of all small-passerine fatalities (n = 3,110) for the 25 most commonly found species of small passerines in 116 studies conducted at 71 wind energy facilities from 1996–2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-15 03:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676651"], "description"=>"a<p>References for the studies listed in this table may be found in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#pone.0107491.s028\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S1</a>.</p><p>Estimated fatality rate (birds/megawatt(MW)/year) and confidence interval calculated for small birds in studies of bird collisions at wind energy facilities that provided all-bird estimates only in their report, along with estimator, all-bird rate and confidence interval, and multiplier value<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491#nt101\" target=\"_blank\"><sup>a</sup></a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Wind Energy Facilities", "fatality", "wind turbines", "mw", "facility", "species"], "article_id"=>1170583, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wallace P. Erickson", "Melissa M. Wolfe", "Kimberly J. Bay", "Douglas H. Johnson", "Joelle L. Gehring"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_fatality_rate_birds_megawatt_MW_year_and_confidence_interval_calculated_for_small_birds_in_studies_of_bird_collisions_at_wind_energy_facilities_that_provided_all_bird_estimates_only_in_their_report_along_with_estimator_all_bird_rate_and_confide/1170583", "title"=>"Estimated fatality rate (birds/megawatt(MW)/year) and confidence interval calculated for small birds in studies of bird collisions at wind energy facilities that provided all-bird estimates only in their report, along with estimator, all-bird rate and confidence interval, and multiplier value<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-15 03:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676652"], "description"=>"<p>Observed number of fatalities (including incidental finds) and percent composition of total for each bird type and passerine sub-type (family) for 116 studies at wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Wind Energy Facilities", "fatality", "wind turbines", "mw", "facility", "species"], "article_id"=>1170584, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wallace P. Erickson", "Melissa M. Wolfe", "Kimberly J. Bay", "Douglas H. Johnson", "Joelle L. Gehring"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Observed_number_of_fatalities_including_incidental_finds_and_percent_composition_of_total_for_each_bird_type_and_passerine_sub_type_family_for_116_studies_at_wind_energy_facilities_in_the_United_States_and_Canada_/1170584", "title"=>"Observed number of fatalities (including incidental finds) and percent composition of total for each bird type and passerine sub-type (family) for 116 studies at wind energy facilities in the United States and Canada.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-15 03:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676650"], "description"=>"<p>The land cover type associated with studies of collisions of birds with wind turbines at wind energy facilities in geographically distinct avifaunal biomes, for studies that reported small-bird and all-bird only estimates of fatality rates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Wind Energy Facilities", "fatality", "wind turbines", "mw", "facility", "species"], "article_id"=>1170582, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wallace P. Erickson", "Melissa M. Wolfe", "Kimberly J. Bay", "Douglas H. Johnson", "Joelle L. Gehring"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_land_cover_type_associated_with_studies_of_collisions_of_birds_with_wind_turbines_at_wind_energy_facilities_in_geographically_distinct_avifaunal_biomes_for_studies_that_reported_small_bird_and_all_bird_only_estimates_of_fatality_rates_/1170582", "title"=>"The land cover type associated with studies of collisions of birds with wind turbines at wind energy facilities in geographically distinct avifaunal biomes, for studies that reported small-bird and all-bird only estimates of fatality rates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-15 03:08:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676730", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676731", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676732", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676733", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676734", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676736", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676737", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676738", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676739", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676740", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676741", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676742", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676743", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676744", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676745", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676746", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676747", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676748", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676749", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676750", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676751", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676752", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676753", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676754", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676755", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676756", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676757", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676758", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676759", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676760", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676761", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676762", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676764", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676765", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676766", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676767", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1676769"], "description"=>"<div><p>Small passerines, sometimes referred to as perching birds or songbirds, are the most abundant bird group in the United States (US) and Canada, and the most common among bird fatalities caused by collision with turbines at wind energy facilities. We used data compiled from 116 studies conducted in the US and Canada to estimate the annual rate of small-bird fatalities. It was necessary for us to calculate estimates of small-bird fatality rates from reported all-bird rates for 30% of studies. The remaining 70% of studies provided data on small-bird fatalities. We then adjusted estimates to account for detection bias and loss of carcasses from scavenging. These studies represented about 15% of current operating capacity (megawatts [MW]) for all wind energy facilities in the US and Canada and provided information on 4,975 bird fatalities, of which we estimated 62.5% were small passerines comprising 156 species. For all wind energy facilities currently in operation, we estimated that about 134,000 to 230,000 small-passerine fatalities from collision with wind turbines occur annually, or 2.10 to 3.35 small birds/MW of installed capacity. When adjusted for species composition, this indicates that about 368,000 fatalities for all bird species are caused annually by collisions with wind turbines. Other human-related sources of bird deaths, (e.g., communication towers, buildings [including windows]), and domestic cats) have been estimated to kill millions to billions of birds each year. Compared to continent-wide population estimates, the cumulative mortality rate per year by species was highest for black-throated blue warbler and tree swallow; 0.043% of the entire population of each species was estimated to annually suffer mortality from collisions with turbines. For the eighteen species with the next highest values, this estimate ranged from 0.008% to 0.038%, much lower than rates attributed to collisions with communication towers (1.2% to 9.0% for top twenty species).</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Wind Energy Facilities", "fatality", "wind turbines", "mw", "facility", "species"], "article_id"=>1170645, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wallace P. Erickson", "Melissa M. Wolfe", "Kimberly J. Bay", "Douglas H. Johnson", "Joelle L. Gehring"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s023", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s024", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s025", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s026", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s027", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s028", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s029", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s030", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s031", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s032", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s033", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s034", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s035", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s036", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107491.s037"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>68, "page_views"=>48, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Comprehensive_Analysis_of_Small_Passerine_Fatalities_from_Collision_with_Turbines_at_Wind_Energy_Facilities_/1170645", "title"=>"A Comprehensive Analysis of Small-Passerine Fatalities from Collision with Turbines at Wind Energy Facilities", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-09-15 03:08:27"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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