Canine Sense and Sensibility: Tipping Points and Response Latency Variability as an Optimism Index in a Canine Judgement Bias Assessment
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{"title"=>"Canine sense and sensibility: Tipping points and response latency variability as an optimism index in a canine judgement bias assessment", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Melissa J.", "last_name"=>"Starling", "scopus_author_id"=>"54996992900"}, {"first_name"=>"Nicholas", "last_name"=>"Branson", "scopus_author_id"=>"14068489700"}, {"first_name"=>"Denis", "last_name"=>"Cody", "scopus_author_id"=>"55788310500"}, {"first_name"=>"Timothy R.", "last_name"=>"Starling", "scopus_author_id"=>"8560110100"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul D.", "last_name"=>"McGreevy", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004867504"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907212588", "sgr"=>"84907212588", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0107794", "pmid"=>"25229458", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"600046327"}, "id"=>"6046483a-9440-3f96-911a-b88e8edca647", "abstract"=>"Recent advances in animal welfare science used judgement bias, a type of cognitive bias, as a means to objectively measure an animal's affective state. It is postulated that animals showing heightened expectation of positive outcomes may be categorised optimistic, while those showing heightened expectations of negative outcomes may be considered pessimistic. This study pioneers the use of a portable, automated apparatus to train and test the judgement bias of dogs. Dogs were trained in a discrimination task in which they learned to touch a target after a tone associated with a lactose-free milk reward and abstain from touching the target after a tone associated with water. Their judgement bias was then probed by presenting tones between those learned in the discrimination task and measuring their latency to respond by touching the target. A Cox's Proportional Hazards model was used to analyse censored response latency data. Dog and Cue both had a highly significant effect on latency and risk of touching a target. This indicates that judgement bias both exists in dogs and differs between dogs. Test number also had a significant effect, indicating that dogs were less likely to touch the target over successive tests. Detailed examination of the response latencies revealed tipping points where average latency increased by 100% or more, giving an indication of where dogs began to treat ambiguous cues as predicting more negative outcomes than positive ones. Variability scores were calculated to provide an index of optimism using average latency and standard deviation at cues after the tipping point. The use of a mathematical approach to assessing judgement bias data in animal studies offers a more detailed interpretation than traditional statistical analyses. This study provides proof of concept for the use of an automated apparatus for measuring cognitive bias in dogs.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/canine-sense-sensibility-tipping-points-response-latency-variability-optimism-index-canine-judgement", "reader_count"=>70, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>18, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Lecturer"=>2, "Professor"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Philosophy"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>7, "Psychology"=>14, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>14}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>33}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>7}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>5, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679632"], "description"=>"<p>Each session has a total of 32–48 tone presentations, depending on the phase (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794#pone-0107794-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>). The tones are presented in 4 blocks, with a 3-minute rest period between blocks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172704, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_visual_representation_of_training_and_testing_session_structure_/1172704", "title"=>"A visual representation of training and testing session structure.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679645"], "description"=>"<p>Includes all dogs that complete the cognitive bias testing (n = 20). These data describe the difference between the latency of dogs touching the target after the milk tone (reference condition) to each probe tone (CueP1–CueP9) and the water tone (Cue Water). Negative regression coefficients show a reduction in the likelihood of reaching a certain event, in this case, touching the target. Thus, the likelihood of touching the target is significantly less after probe and water tones than after milk tones. The risk of touching the target was not significantly different between test 1 and 2, but was significantly less in test 3 than test 1, indicating a reduced likelihood of touching the target over successive tests. The frailty term (“Dog”) refers to the dog being tested, which is treated in this model as a random effect due to repeated measures on each dog. The term “Dog” also had a significant effect on likelihood of touching the target, meaning that individuals varied significantly in their latency to touch the target.</p><p>The statistical output of the final Cox Proportional Hazards regression model.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172717, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_statistical_output_of_the_final_Cox_Proportional_Hazards_regression_model_/1172717", "title"=>"The statistical output of the final Cox Proportional Hazards regression model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679644"], "description"=>"<p>Owners and trainers were asked to place dogs in one of the response categories described, but were allowed to place them between categories to reflect the continuous nature of the descriptions. Dogs were categorised according to their empirical variability scores (optimism rank), giving an indication of how variability scores might relate to how owners and trainers subjectively viewed the dogs' behaviour.</p><p>Subjective descriptions of the behaviour of dogs during training and testing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172716, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subjective_descriptions_of_the_behaviour_of_dogs_during_training_and_testing_/1172716", "title"=>"Subjective descriptions of the behaviour of dogs during training and testing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679641"], "description"=>"<p>Protocol A is the reverse of Protocol B to control for possible selective attention effects that may influence response latencies.</p><p>Milk and water tones were used in training and testing and the nine probe tones (P1–P9) in testing only.</p><p>Frequency (Hz) of auditory tones used in training and testing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172713, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Frequency_Hz_of_auditory_tones_used_in_training_and_testing_/1172713", "title"=>"Frequency (Hz) of auditory tones used in training and testing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679640"], "description"=>"<p><b>No dogs that reached CBT (cognitive bias tests) were excluded.</b></p><p>A history of dogs in the study, showing their source (ADA = Assistance Dogs Australia), breed, sex (M = male, F = female) and reproductive status (N = neutered, E = entire), the protocol they were assigned to (A = milk tone lowest, B = milk tone highest), the side the milk was dispensed to, the training phase reached before the dog was excluded, and the reason for exclusion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172712, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_history_of_dogs_in_the_study_showing_their_source_ADA_8202_8202_Assistance_Dogs_Australia_breed_sex_M_8202_8202_male_F_8202_8202_female_and_reproductive_status_N_8202_8202_neutered_E_8202_8202_entire_the_protocol_they_were_assigned_to_A_8202_8202_milk_/1172712", "title"=>"A history of dogs in the study, showing their source (ADA = Assistance Dogs Australia), breed, sex (M = male, F = female) and reproductive status (N = neutered, E = entire), the protocol they were assigned to (A = milk tone lowest, B = milk tone highest), the side the milk was dispensed to, the training phase reached before the dog was excluded, and the reason for exclusion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679638"], "description"=>"<p>In all graphs cue is on the x-axis, with probes arranged in a scale from closest to milk to closest to water. Latency in seconds is shown on the y-axis. Graph a) shows the pooled responses of dogs (n = 4), categorised as optimistic (1 on the rating scale in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794#pone-0107794-t008\" target=\"_blank\">Table 8</a>), characterised by standard deviation approaching the mean latency and average latency higher than the probability of a slower than average response. Graph b) shows the pooled responses of dogs (n = 4), categorised as moderately optimistic (2 on the rating scale). Standard deviation is lower, but the pattern of average latency is similar to that of optimistic dogs. Graph c) shows pooled responses of dogs (n = 3), categorised as balanced (3 on rating scale). Characteristics are similar to those in the moderately optimistic graph. Graph d) shows pooled responses of dogs (n = 3), categorised as moderately pessimistic (4 on rating scale). Average latency tends to be higher than in other graphs. Graph e) shows the pooled responses of dogs (n = 4), categorised as pessimistic, typified by high initial latencies and low standard deviation. Graph f) shows the responses of a single dog, characterised as optimistic. Tipping point can be seen where average latency increases by 100% or more, indicated by “TP”. Standard deviation approaches mean latency and probability of faster than average response remains high for much of the graph.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172710, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_series_of_graphs_showing_average_latency_red_standard_deviation_green_and_log_probability_of_a_slower_than_average_response_blue_/1172710", "title"=>"A series of graphs showing average latency (red), standard deviation (green) and log (probability of a slower than average response) (blue).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679635"], "description"=>"<p>Standard errors shown with broken lines. Risk is high for the milk tone, showing all dogs were highly likely to touch the target after the milk tone. The lowest risk was for P9, the probe most like water. This shows dogs were unlikely to touch the target after the P9 probe cue. P5, the most ambiguous cue, also showed a low risk of dogs touching the target after this cue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172707, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_log_of_the_risk_of_all_dogs_n_8202_8202_20_touching_the_target_before_the_10_second_time_out_for_each_cue_shown_on_a_log_scale_on_the_y_axis_with_the_cues_on_the_x_axis_/1172707", "title"=>"The log of the risk of all dogs (n = 20) touching the target before the 10-second time out for each cue shown on a log scale on the y-axis with the cues on the x-axis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679648"], "description"=>"<p>Data rating refers to optimism category assigned based on the dog's variance score. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794#pone-0107794-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a> for descriptions of ratings. Ratings are an ordinal scale ranging from 1 = optimistic to 5 = pessimistic.</p><p>Subjective ratings of dog optimism from owners (n = 11) and trainers (n = 11).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172720, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subjective_ratings_of_dog_optimism_from_owners_n_8202_8202_11_and_trainers_n_8202_8202_11_/1172720", "title"=>"Subjective ratings of dog optimism from owners (n = 11) and trainers (n = 11).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679646"], "description"=>"<p>Table shows source of dog, breed, sex, sessions to learning the discrimination task, percentage of each tone responded to in the two training sessions used to calculate a significant difference in latency prior to testing, and variance score computed from latency and standard deviation data related to unreinforced probe tones. High variance score indicates optimism. Variance score could not be calculated for some dogs as their data lacked a tipping point, a necessary attribute for this calculation. On occasions (n = 4), no tipping point could be determined due to overall high latencies such that average latency could not increase by 100% and still be within the 10-second response window. These dogs were categorised pessimistic. Two dogs displayed high response rates across all cues so that average latency did not increase by 100% between two adjacent cues.</p><p>Details of dogs in the study that completed cognitive bias testing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172718, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_dogs_in_the_study_that_completed_cognitive_bias_testing_/1172718", "title"=>"Details of dogs in the study that completed cognitive bias testing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679643"], "description"=>"<p>A description of the mathematical model used to interpret latencies.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172715, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_description_of_the_mathematical_model_used_to_interpret_latencies_/1172715", "title"=>"A description of the mathematical model used to interpret latencies.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679642"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of training phases and cognitive bias testing phase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172714, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_training_phases_and_cognitive_bias_testing_phase_/1172714", "title"=>"Summary of training phases and cognitive bias testing phase.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679633"], "description"=>"<p>Standard errors are shown with broken lines. Some dogs are much more likely to touch the target than others. For example, dogs “Ab”, “Bi” and “Jy” have a low likelihood of touching the target regardless of cue, and dogs “Ch”, “De” and “Lo” have a high likelihood of touching the target regardless of cue.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172705, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_risk_of_touching_the_target_before_the_10_second_time_out_for_all_cues_is_shown_on_the_y_axis_in_a_log_scale_and_individual_dogs_n_8202_8202_20_are_shown_on_the_x_axis_/1172705", "title"=>"The risk of touching the target before the 10-second time out for all cues is shown on the y-axis in a log scale, and individual dogs (n = 20) are shown on the x-axis.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1679631"], "description"=>"<p>a = target, b = milk and water trays, c = photointerruptor shown with a red line, d = LCD screen and controls (not visible). Trays are stowed under the target zone for ease of transport, but are moved out in front of the target when in use.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["judgement bias data", "animal welfare science", "Response Latency Variability", "discrimination task", "Proportional Hazards model", "tone", "Canine Judgement Bias Assessment", "outcome", "response latency data", "judgement bias"], "article_id"=>1172703, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Melissa J. Starling", "Nicholas Branson", "Denis Cody", "Timothy R. Starling", "Paul D. McGreevy"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107794.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_diagram_of_the_apparatus_used_in_the_study_/1172703", "title"=>"A diagram of the apparatus used in the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-17 03:00:33"}

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