Four Weeks of IV Iron Supplementation Reduces Perceived Fatigue and Mood Disturbance in Distance Runners
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{"title"=>"Four weeks of iv iron supplementation reduces perceived fatigue and mood disturbance in distance runners", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Amy", "last_name"=>"Woods", "scopus_author_id"=>"56372146900"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura A.", "last_name"=>"Garvican-Lewis", "scopus_author_id"=>"55943787500"}, {"first_name"=>"Philo U.", "last_name"=>"Saunders", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202204407"}, {"first_name"=>"Greg", "last_name"=>"Lovell", "scopus_author_id"=>"13402696600"}, {"first_name"=>"David", "last_name"=>"Hughes", "scopus_author_id"=>"56393267500"}, {"first_name"=>"Ruth", "last_name"=>"Fazakerley", "scopus_author_id"=>"57194070658"}, {"first_name"=>"Bev", "last_name"=>"Anderson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55794006900"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher J.", "last_name"=>"Gore", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005206970"}, {"first_name"=>"Kevin G.", "last_name"=>"Thompson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402891912"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907452345", "sgr"=>"84907452345", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"25247929", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0108042", "pui"=>"600067678"}, "id"=>"55756e41-1d4d-3269-ba42-5437b9c89870", "abstract"=>"PURPOSE To determine the effect of intravenous iron supplementation on performance, fatigue and overall mood in runners without clinical iron deficiency. METHODS Fourteen distance runners with serum ferritin 30-100 µg · L(-1) were randomly assigned to receive three blinded injections of intravenous ferric-carboxymaltose (2 ml, 100 mg, IRON) or normal saline (PLACEBO) over four weeks (weeks 0, 2, 4). Athletes performed a 3,000 m time trial and 10 × 400 m monitored training session on consecutive days at week 0 and again following each injection. Hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) was assessed via carbon monoxide rebreathing at weeks 0 and 6. Fatigue and mood were determined bi-weekly until week 6 via Total Fatigue Score (TFS) and Total Mood Disturbance (TMD) using the Brief Fatigue Inventory and Brunel Mood Scale. Data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences, based on the unequal variances t-statistic and Cohen's Effect sizes (ES). RESULTS Serum ferritin increased in IRON only (Week 0: 62.8 ± 21.9, Week 4: 128.1 ± 46.6 µg · L(-1); p = 0.002) and remained elevated two weeks after the final injection (127.0 ± 66.3 µg · L(-1), p = 0.01), without significant changes in Hbmass. Supplementation had a moderate effect on TMD of IRON (ES -0.77) with scores at week 6 lower than PLACEBO (ES -1.58, p = 0.02). Similarly, at week 6, TFS was significantly improved in IRON vs. PLACEBO (ES -1.54, p = 0.05). There were no significant improvements in 3,000 m time in either group (Week 0 vs. Week 4; Iron: 625.6 ± 55.5 s vs. 625.4 ± 52.7 s; PLACEBO: 624.8 ± 47.2 s vs. 639.1 ± 59.7 s); but IRON reduced their average time for the 10 × 400 m training session at week 2 (Week 0: 78.0 ± 6.6 s, Week 2: 77.2 ± 6.3; ES-0.20, p = 0.004). CONCLUSION During 6 weeks of training, intravenous iron supplementation improved perceived fatigue and mood of trained athletes with no clinical iron deficiency, without concurrent improvements in oxygen transport capacity or performance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/four-weeks-iv-iron-supplementation-reduces-perceived-fatigue-mood-disturbance-distance-runners", "reader_count"=>52, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>12, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>19, "Sports and Recreations"=>7, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2, "Psychology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>19}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>7}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>8}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1686992"], "description"=>"<p>Within group change from Week 0: * p≤0.05, Ω small effect (Effect size> 0.2).</p><p>Between groups change from Week 0: † small effect (Effect size> 0.2).</p><p>Performance test times (mean ± SD) and mean difference (with 90% CL) between groups (IRON vs. PLACEBO) for the respective percent change from week 0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Distance Runners PurposeTo", "oxygen transport capacity", "iron deficiency.MethodsFourteen distance runners", "Week 0 vs", "week 6", "IV Iron Supplementation", "Brunel Mood Scale", "es", "tmd", "Total Mood Disturbance", "iron supplementation", "Brief Fatigue Inventory", "placebo", "carbon monoxide rebreathing", "tfs"], "article_id"=>1178964, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amy Woods", "Laura A. Garvican-Lewis", "Philo U. Saunders", "Greg Lovell", "David Hughes", "Ruth Fazakerley", "Bev Anderson", "Christopher J. Gore", "Kevin G. Thompson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108042.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Performance_test_times_mean_177_SD_and_mean_difference_with_90_CL_between_groups_IRON_vs_PLACEBO_for_the_respective_percent_change_from_week_0_/1178964", "title"=>"Performance test times (mean ± SD) and mean difference (with 90% CL) between groups (IRON vs. PLACEBO) for the respective percent change from week 0.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-23 03:14:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1686989"], "description"=>"<p>IRON  =  iron supplemented group; PLACEBO  =  saline supplemented group; PB  =  personal best running time.</p><p>Participant characteristics used to pair match groups at the start of the study (means ± standard deviations).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Distance Runners PurposeTo", "oxygen transport capacity", "iron deficiency.MethodsFourteen distance runners", "Week 0 vs", "week 6", "IV Iron Supplementation", "Brunel Mood Scale", "es", "tmd", "Total Mood Disturbance", "iron supplementation", "Brief Fatigue Inventory", "placebo", "carbon monoxide rebreathing", "tfs"], "article_id"=>1178961, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amy Woods", "Laura A. Garvican-Lewis", "Philo U. Saunders", "Greg Lovell", "David Hughes", "Ruth Fazakerley", "Bev Anderson", "Christopher J. Gore", "Kevin G. Thompson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108042.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Participant_characteristics_used_to_pair_match_groups_at_the_start_of_the_study_means_177_standard_deviations_/1178961", "title"=>"Participant characteristics used to pair match groups at the start of the study (means ± standard deviations).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-23 03:14:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1686988"], "description"=>"<p>Mean perceptual daily training diary ratings for IRON and PLACEBO during the study (rated 1 to 5). X slope (90%CL): derived as the mean of individual regression analysis for each subject.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Distance Runners PurposeTo", "oxygen transport capacity", "iron deficiency.MethodsFourteen distance runners", "Week 0 vs", "week 6", "IV Iron Supplementation", "Brunel Mood Scale", "es", "tmd", "Total Mood Disturbance", "iron supplementation", "Brief Fatigue Inventory", "placebo", "carbon monoxide rebreathing", "tfs"], "article_id"=>1178959, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amy Woods", "Laura A. Garvican-Lewis", "Philo U. Saunders", "Greg Lovell", "David Hughes", "Ruth Fazakerley", "Bev Anderson", "Christopher J. Gore", "Kevin G. Thompson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108042.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_perceptual_daily_training_diary_ratings_for_IRON_and_PLACEBO_during_the_study_rated_1_to_5_X_slope_90_CL_derived_as_the_mean_of_individual_regression_analysis_for_each_subject_/1178959", "title"=>"Mean perceptual daily training diary ratings for IRON and PLACEBO during the study (rated 1 to 5). X slope (90%CL): derived as the mean of individual regression analysis for each subject.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-23 03:14:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1686982"], "description"=>"<p><b>A)</b> 3000 m time trial; <b>B)</b> All-out 400 m time trial; <b>C)</b> 10×400 m session. Data are presented in raw form on the Left Y-axis and as % change from week 0 on the Right Y-axis (mean ± SD). Within a group change from Week 0: * p≤0.05; † small effect (Effect size> 0.2), †† moderate effect (Effect size> 0.6); between group percent change from PRE at matched time; † small effect (Effect size> 0.2), †† moderate effect (Effect size> 0.6).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Distance Runners PurposeTo", "oxygen transport capacity", "iron deficiency.MethodsFourteen distance runners", "Week 0 vs", "week 6", "IV Iron Supplementation", "Brunel Mood Scale", "es", "tmd", "Total Mood Disturbance", "iron supplementation", "Brief Fatigue Inventory", "placebo", "carbon monoxide rebreathing", "tfs"], "article_id"=>1178954, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amy Woods", "Laura A. Garvican-Lewis", "Philo U. Saunders", "Greg Lovell", "David Hughes", "Ruth Fazakerley", "Bev Anderson", "Christopher J. Gore", "Kevin G. Thompson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108042.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Blood_lactate_concentration_Bla_and_Rating_of_Perceived_Exertion_RPE_from_the_run_trials_over_the_course_of_the_study_/1178954", "title"=>"Blood lactate concentration (Bla) and Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) from the run trials over the course of the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-23 03:14:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1686977"], "description"=>"<p><b>A)</b> Total Mood Disturbance from the Brunel Mood Scale and <b>B)</b> Total Fatigue Score from the Brief Fatigue Inventory. Data are presented in raw form on the Left Y-axis and as percent change from week 0 on the Right Y-axis (mean ± SD). Within a group change from Week 0: † small effect (Effect size> 0.2), †† moderate effect (Effect size>0.6); between group percent change from week 0 at matched time; * p≤0.05; † small effect (Effect size> 0.2), †† moderate effect (Effect size> 0.6), ††† Large effect (Effect size> 1.2); Ω denotes difference between groups at week 0.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Distance Runners PurposeTo", "oxygen transport capacity", "iron deficiency.MethodsFourteen distance runners", "Week 0 vs", "week 6", "IV Iron Supplementation", "Brunel Mood Scale", "es", "tmd", "Total Mood Disturbance", "iron supplementation", "Brief Fatigue Inventory", "placebo", "carbon monoxide rebreathing", "tfs"], "article_id"=>1178949, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amy Woods", "Laura A. Garvican-Lewis", "Philo U. Saunders", "Greg Lovell", "David Hughes", "Ruth Fazakerley", "Bev Anderson", "Christopher J. Gore", "Kevin G. Thompson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108042.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Changes_in_mood_and_fatigue_scores_during_the_study_/1178949", "title"=>"Changes in mood and fatigue scores during the study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-23 03:14:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1686991"], "description"=>"<p>Mean ± SD; * denotes significant difference (p≤0.05) from week 0 values within a group.</p>†<p>significant difference (p≤0.05) between groups at matched time point.</p><p>Hbmass: haemoglobin mass, [Hb]: haemoglobin concentration, Hct: Haematocrit, TSAT: percent transferrin saturation.</p><p>Iron parameters, Hbmass,[Hb] and fatigue scores of IRON and PLACEBO groups pre-supplementation and at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-supplementation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Distance Runners PurposeTo", "oxygen transport capacity", "iron deficiency.MethodsFourteen distance runners", "Week 0 vs", "week 6", "IV Iron Supplementation", "Brunel Mood Scale", "es", "tmd", "Total Mood Disturbance", "iron supplementation", "Brief Fatigue Inventory", "placebo", "carbon monoxide rebreathing", "tfs"], "article_id"=>1178963, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amy Woods", "Laura A. Garvican-Lewis", "Philo U. Saunders", "Greg Lovell", "David Hughes", "Ruth Fazakerley", "Bev Anderson", "Christopher J. Gore", "Kevin G. Thompson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108042.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Iron_parameters_Hbmass_Hb_and_fatigue_scores_of_IRON_and_PLACEBO_groups_pre_supplementation_and_at_2_4_and_6_weeks_post_supplementation_/1178963", "title"=>"Iron parameters, Hbmass,[Hb] and fatigue scores of IRON and PLACEBO groups pre-supplementation and at 2, 4 and 6 weeks post-supplementation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-23 03:14:56"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1686976"], "description"=>"<p>BRUMS: Brunel mood Scale; BFI: Brief fatigue Inventory. Weekly injections performed on day 1, followed by 3000 m time trial on day 2 and monitored training session (400 m time trial/10 min recovery/10×400 m) on day 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Distance Runners PurposeTo", "oxygen transport capacity", "iron deficiency.MethodsFourteen distance runners", "Week 0 vs", "week 6", "IV Iron Supplementation", "Brunel Mood Scale", "es", "tmd", "Total Mood Disturbance", "iron supplementation", "Brief Fatigue Inventory", "placebo", "carbon monoxide rebreathing", "tfs"], "article_id"=>1178948, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Amy Woods", "Laura A. Garvican-Lewis", "Philo U. Saunders", "Greg Lovell", "David Hughes", "Ruth Fazakerley", "Bev Anderson", "Christopher J. Gore", "Kevin G. Thompson"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108042.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_outline_of_the_study_design_and_testing_sessions_/1178948", "title"=>"Schematic outline of the study design and testing sessions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-23 03:14:56"}

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Relative Metric

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