Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke: Factors Affecting Exposure and Remediation
Publication Date
October 06, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Vasundhra Bahl, Peyton Jacob Iii, Christopher Havel, Suzaynn F. Schick, et al
Volume
9
Issue
10
Pages
e108258
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108258
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0108258
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286392
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4186756
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25286392
Web of Science
000345743700016
Scopus
84907718321
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/thirdhand-cigarette-smoke-factors-affecting-exposure-remediation
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Thirdhand cigarette smoke: Factors affecting exposure and remediation", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vasundhra", "last_name"=>"Bahl", "scopus_author_id"=>"55331746500"}, {"first_name"=>"Peyton", "last_name"=>"Jacob", "scopus_author_id"=>"35445598100"}, {"first_name"=>"Christopher", "last_name"=>"Havel", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197603620"}, {"first_name"=>"Suzaynn F.", "last_name"=>"Schick", "scopus_author_id"=>"9233371900"}, {"first_name"=>"Prue", "last_name"=>"Talbot", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102670276"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907718321", "pui"=>"600099793", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0108258", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84907718321", "pmid"=>"25286392"}, "id"=>"2af6ebca-a6ef-3c56-856e-34e438d417ff", "abstract"=>"Thirdhand smoke (THS) refers to components of secondhand smoke that stick to indoor surfaces and persist in the environment. Little is known about exposure levels and possible remediation measures to reduce potential exposure in contaminated areas. This study deals with the effect of aging on THS components and evaluates possible exposure levels and remediation measures. We investigated the concentration of nicotine, five nicotine related alkaloids, and three tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) in smoke exposed fabrics. Two different extraction methods were used. Cotton terry cloth and polyester fleece were exposed to smoke in controlled laboratory conditions and aged before extraction. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was used for chemical analysis. Fabrics aged for 19 months after smoke exposure retained significant amounts of THS chemicals. During aqueous extraction, cotton cloth released about 41 times as much nicotine and about 78 times the amount of tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNAs) as polyester after one hour of aqueous extraction. Concentrations of nicotine and TSNAs in extracts of terry cloth exposed to smoke were used to estimate infant/toddler oral exposure and adult dermal exposure to THS. Nicotine exposure from THS residue can be 6.8 times higher in toddlers and 24 times higher in adults and TSNA exposure can be 16 times higher in toddlers and 56 times higher in adults than what would be inhaled by a passive smoker. In addition to providing exposure estimates, our data could be useful in developing remediation strategies and in framing public health policies for indoor environments with THS.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/thirdhand-cigarette-smoke-factors-affecting-exposure-remediation", "reader_count"=>38, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Chemistry"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>6, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>8, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>8}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>6}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Romania"=>1}, "group_count"=>6}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1706628"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Terry cloth is a loosely knit fabric made of loops of cotton which increase its surface area tremendously and contribute to the absorption of THS. (B) Polyester is a more tightly knit fabric with one fuzzy surface and (<b>C</b>) one compact tightly woven surface.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TSNA", "Exposure levels", "cotton terry cloth", "ths", "nicotine", "extraction", "Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke", "Factors Affecting Exposure", "remediation measures", "Remediation Thirdhand smoke"], "article_id"=>1195298, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Vasundhra Bahl", "Peyton Jacob III", "Christopher Havel", "Suzaynn F. Schick", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108258.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Micrographs_of_fabrics_used_for_THS_extraction_/1195298", "title"=>"Micrographs of fabrics used for THS extraction.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-06 02:56:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1706631"], "description"=>"<p>Terry cloth was extracted after 31 months of aging and polyester was extracted after 19 months of aging. Results for aqueous extracts are an average of three experiments, and all other groups are averages of two experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TSNA", "Exposure levels", "cotton terry cloth", "ths", "nicotine", "extraction", "Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke", "Factors Affecting Exposure", "remediation measures", "Remediation Thirdhand smoke"], "article_id"=>1195301, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Vasundhra Bahl", "Peyton Jacob III", "Christopher Havel", "Suzaynn F. Schick", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108258.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_chemical_concentrations_in_aqueous_and_methanol_8758_HCl_extracts_of_terry_cloth_and_polyester_exposed_to_THS_/1195301", "title"=>"Comparison of chemical concentrations in aqueous and methanol∶HCl extracts of terry cloth and polyester exposed to THS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-06 02:56:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1706632"], "description"=>"<p>Extractions were done for a total 5 hours with extraction medium being replaced every hour. After every hour, extracts were analyzed for nicotine and its derivatives. Graphs represent chemical concentrations in three different batches of extracts. No chemicals were found in extracts after 1 hour for terry cloth and after 2 hours for polyester.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TSNA", "Exposure levels", "cotton terry cloth", "ths", "nicotine", "extraction", "Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke", "Factors Affecting Exposure", "remediation measures", "Remediation Thirdhand smoke"], "article_id"=>1195302, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Vasundhra Bahl", "Peyton Jacob III", "Christopher Havel", "Suzaynn F. Schick", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108258.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Iterative_aqueous_extractions_from_terry_cloth_and_polyester_/1195302", "title"=>"Iterative aqueous extractions from terry cloth and polyester.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-06 02:56:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1706633"], "description"=>"<p>Extracts were made at RT and at 4°C for 1 and 2 hours. Each bar is the mean ± standard deviation of three experiments. Chemical concentrations did not vary significantly with temperature or time of extraction when tested by ANOVA.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TSNA", "Exposure levels", "cotton terry cloth", "ths", "nicotine", "extraction", "Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke", "Factors Affecting Exposure", "remediation measures", "Remediation Thirdhand smoke"], "article_id"=>1195303, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Vasundhra Bahl", "Peyton Jacob III", "Christopher Havel", "Suzaynn F. Schick", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108258.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentration_of_chemicals_in_aqueous_extracts_of_THS_from_terry_cloth_when_temperature_and_time_of_extraction_were_varied_/1195303", "title"=>"Concentration of chemicals in aqueous extracts of THS from terry cloth when temperature and time of extraction were varied.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-06 02:56:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1706634"], "description"=>"<p>Aqueous extracts of THS were made from terry cloth after 11, 16 and 19 months of aging and from polyester after 11 and 19 months of aging. (A) Nicotine and (B) Myosmine, N-formylnornicotine, bipyridine and cotinine were present in higher concentration than (C) nicotelline, NNK, NNA and NNN. Each bar is the average ± standard deviation of three extracts, except polyester (aged 19 months) which had only two experiments. ANOVA was used for testing significance followed by Dunnett's posthoc test in which comparisons were made to the samples aged for 11 months. **** p<0.0001; *** 0.0001</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TSNA", "Exposure levels", "cotton terry cloth", "ths", "nicotine", "extraction", "Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke", "Factors Affecting Exposure", "remediation measures", "Remediation Thirdhand smoke"], "article_id"=>1195304, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Vasundhra Bahl", "Peyton Jacob III", "Christopher Havel", "Suzaynn F. Schick", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108258.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_aging_on_the_concentration_of_nicotine_and_its_derivatives_in_aqueous_extracts_of_terry_cloth_and_polyester_exposed_to_THS_/1195304", "title"=>"Effect of aging on the concentration of nicotine and its derivatives in aqueous extracts of terry cloth and polyester exposed to THS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-06 02:56:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1706636"], "description"=>"<p>Terry cloth absorbs nicotine and related chemicals as these are polar in nature and can form hydrogen bonds with the free hydroxyl groups in terry cloth.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TSNA", "Exposure levels", "cotton terry cloth", "ths", "nicotine", "extraction", "Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke", "Factors Affecting Exposure", "remediation measures", "Remediation Thirdhand smoke"], "article_id"=>1195306, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Vasundhra Bahl", "Peyton Jacob III", "Christopher Havel", "Suzaynn F. Schick", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108258.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chemical_interactions_of_nicotine_and_its_derivatives_with_terry_cloth_through_hydrogen_bonds_/1195306", "title"=>"Chemical interactions of nicotine and its derivatives with terry cloth through hydrogen bonds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-06 02:56:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1706637"], "description"=>"<p>Chemicals identified in aqueous THS extracts.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TSNA", "Exposure levels", "cotton terry cloth", "ths", "nicotine", "extraction", "Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke", "Factors Affecting Exposure", "remediation measures", "Remediation Thirdhand smoke"], "article_id"=>1195307, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Vasundhra Bahl", "Peyton Jacob III", "Christopher Havel", "Suzaynn F. Schick", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108258.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chemicals_identified_in_aqueous_THS_extracts_/1195307", "title"=>"Chemicals identified in aqueous THS extracts.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-06 02:56:57"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1706638"], "description"=>"a<p> Based on smoking 1 pack/day.</p>b<p> Based on respiration rate of 30 breaths/minute and tidal volume of 60 ml in a room with 30 µg/m<sup>3</sup> nicotine and 53 ng/m<sup>3</sup> of TSNA.</p>c<p> Based on 1 hour of mouthing 5 grams of terry cloth exposed to 133 cigarettes and aged 19 months.</p><p>Estimated nicotine and TSNAs exposure to a toddler.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["TSNA", "Exposure levels", "cotton terry cloth", "ths", "nicotine", "extraction", "Thirdhand Cigarette Smoke", "Factors Affecting Exposure", "remediation measures", "Remediation Thirdhand smoke"], "article_id"=>1195308, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Vasundhra Bahl", "Peyton Jacob III", "Christopher Havel", "Suzaynn F. Schick", "Prue Talbot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108258.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_nicotine_and_TSNAs_exposure_to_a_toddler_/1195308", "title"=>"Estimated nicotine and TSNAs exposure to a toddler.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-06 02:56:57"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"127", "full-text"=>"148", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"144", "full-text"=>"142", "pdf"=>"17", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"150", "full-text"=>"161", "pdf"=>"21", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"13", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"156", "full-text"=>"167", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"12", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"154", "full-text"=>"165", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"23", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"170", "full-text"=>"184", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"152", "full-text"=>"176", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"134", "full-text"=>"147", "pdf"=>"20", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"144", "full-text"=>"167", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"232", "full-text"=>"258", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"157", "full-text"=>"168", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"104", "full-text"=>"116", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"153", "full-text"=>"165", "pdf"=>"11", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"125", "full-text"=>"138", "pdf"=>"10", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"153", "full-text"=>"169", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"118", "full-text"=>"125", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Behavior", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[331]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Mathematics", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
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