Salinity in Drinking Water and the Risk of (Pre)Eclampsia and Gestational Hypertension in Coastal Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study
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{"title"=>"Salinity in drinking water and the risk of (Pre) eclampsia and gestational hypertension in coastal Bangladesh: A case-control study", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Aneire Ehmar", "last_name"=>"Khan", "scopus_author_id"=>"23479814400"}, {"first_name"=>"Pauline Franka Denise", "last_name"=>"Scheelbeek", "scopus_author_id"=>"35318886800"}, {"first_name"=>"Asma Begum", "last_name"=>"Shilpi", "scopus_author_id"=>"35786473600"}, {"first_name"=>"Queenie", "last_name"=>"Chan", "scopus_author_id"=>"55344439200"}, {"first_name"=>"Sontosh Kumar", "last_name"=>"Mojumder", "scopus_author_id"=>"23480585100"}, {"first_name"=>"Atiq", "last_name"=>"Rahman", "scopus_author_id"=>"56555809200"}, {"first_name"=>"Andy", "last_name"=>"Haines", "scopus_author_id"=>"19334435800"}, {"first_name"=>"Paolo", "last_name"=>"Vineis", "scopus_author_id"=>"7103293037"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84930980886", "sgr"=>"84930980886", "pui"=>"612503247", "pmid"=>"25268785", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0108715"}, "id"=>"790052e5-ebb2-3d84-b7cb-83a407ec12d3", "abstract"=>"Background: Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are among the leading\ncauses of maternal and perinatal death in low-income countries, but the\naetiology remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between\nsalinity in drinking water and the risk of (pre)eclampsia and\ngestational hypertension in a coastal community.\nMethods: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Dacope,\nBangladesh among 202 pregnant women with (pre) eclampsia or gestational\nhypertension, enrolled from the community served by the Upazilla Health\nComplex, Dacope and 1,006 matched controls from the same area.\nEpidemiological and clinical data were obtained from all participants.\nUrinary sodium and sodium levels in drinking water were measured.\nLogistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios, and 95%\nconfidence intervals.\nFindings: Drinking water sources had exceptionally high sodium levels\n(mean 516.6 mg/L, S.D 524.2). Women consuming tube-well (groundwater)\nwere at a higher disease risk than rainwater users (p<0.001). Adjusted\nrisks for (pre) eclampsia and gestational hypertension considered\ntogether increased in a dose-response manner for increasing sodium\nconcentrations (300.01-600 mg/L, 600.1-900 mg/L, >900.01 mg/L, compared\nto <300 mg/L) in drinking water (ORs 3.30 {[}95% CI 2.00-5.51], 4.40\n{[}2.70-7.25] and 5.48 {[}3.30-9.11] (p-trend<0.001). Significant\nassociations were seen for both (pre) eclampsia and gestational\nhypertension separately.\nInterpretation: Salinity in drinking water is associated with increased\nrisk of (pre) eclampsia and gestational hypertension in this population.\nGiven that coastal populations in countries such as Bangladesh are\nconfronted with high salinity exposure, which is predicted to further\nincrease as a result of sea level rise and other environmental\ninfluences, it is imperative to develop and evaluate affordable\napproaches to providing water with low salt content.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/salinity-drinking-water-risk-pre-eclampsia-gestational-hypertension-coastal-bangladesh-casecontrol-s", "reader_count"=>6, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1697805"], "description"=>"1<p>For brevity we refer to filtered pond water as ‘filter’.</p><p>Mean water sodium levels (mg/L) in the drinking water of cases and controls combined among a sub-sample of women (n = 755) and estimated sodium intake (g/day).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mg", "pre", "or", "Drinking Water", "sea level rise", "Upazilla Health Complex", "s.d", "sodium levels", "ci", "hypertension"], "article_id"=>1187904, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aneire Ehmar Khan", "Pauline Franka Denise Scheelbeek", "Asma Begum Shilpi", "Queenie Chan", "Sontosh Kumar Mojumder", "Atiq Rahman", "Andy Haines", "Paolo Vineis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108715.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_water_sodium_levels_mg_L_in_the_drinking_water_of_cases_and_controls_combined_among_a_sub_sample_of_women_n_8202_8202_755_and_estimated_sodium_intake_g_day_/1187904", "title"=>"Mean water sodium levels (mg/L) in the drinking water of cases and controls combined among a sub-sample of women (n = 755) and estimated sodium intake (g/day).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-30 03:35:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1697807"], "description"=>"1<p>‘Rain’ has been combined with any other water source because of small numbers in the rainwater only group.</p>2<p>For brevity we refer to filtered pond water as ‘filter’.</p>3<p>Those with multiple sources (except those who reported rainwater) and river have been grouped as ‘other’.</p><p>Mean Systolic and Diastolic BP (mmHg) among cases and controls combined, by categories of water source.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mg", "pre", "or", "Drinking Water", "sea level rise", "Upazilla Health Complex", "s.d", "sodium levels", "ci", "hypertension"], "article_id"=>1187907, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aneire Ehmar Khan", "Pauline Franka Denise Scheelbeek", "Asma Begum Shilpi", "Queenie Chan", "Sontosh Kumar Mojumder", "Atiq Rahman", "Andy Haines", "Paolo Vineis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108715.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_Systolic_and_Diastolic_BP_mmHg_among_cases_and_controls_combined_by_categories_of_water_source_/1187907", "title"=>"Mean Systolic and Diastolic BP (mmHg) among cases and controls combined, by categories of water source.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-30 03:35:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1697810"], "description"=>"1<p>‘Rain’ has been combined with any other water source because of small numbers in the rainwater only group.</p>2<p>For brevity we refer to filtered pond water as ‘filter’.</p><p>Association of (pre)eclampsia and/or gestational hypertension with water source.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mg", "pre", "or", "Drinking Water", "sea level rise", "Upazilla Health Complex", "s.d", "sodium levels", "ci", "hypertension"], "article_id"=>1187908, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aneire Ehmar Khan", "Pauline Franka Denise Scheelbeek", "Asma Begum Shilpi", "Queenie Chan", "Sontosh Kumar Mojumder", "Atiq Rahman", "Andy Haines", "Paolo Vineis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108715.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_pre_eclampsia_and_or_gestational_hypertension_with_water_source_/1187908", "title"=>"Association of (pre)eclampsia and/or gestational hypertension with water source.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-30 03:35:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1697812"], "description"=>"<p>Association of (pre)eclampsia and/or gestational hypertension with water sodium concentrations in drinking water.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mg", "pre", "or", "Drinking Water", "sea level rise", "Upazilla Health Complex", "s.d", "sodium levels", "ci", "hypertension"], "article_id"=>1187911, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aneire Ehmar Khan", "Pauline Franka Denise Scheelbeek", "Asma Begum Shilpi", "Queenie Chan", "Sontosh Kumar Mojumder", "Atiq Rahman", "Andy Haines", "Paolo Vineis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108715.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Association_of_pre_eclampsia_and_or_gestational_hypertension_with_water_sodium_concentrations_in_drinking_water_/1187911", "title"=>"Association of (pre)eclampsia and/or gestational hypertension with water sodium concentrations in drinking water.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-30 03:35:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1697815"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy are among the leading causes of maternal and perinatal death in low-income countries, but the aetiology remains unclear. We investigated the relationship between salinity in drinking water and the risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in a coastal community.</p><p>Methods</p><p>A population-based case-control study was conducted in Dacope, Bangladesh among 202 pregnant women with (pre)eclampsia or gestational hypertension, enrolled from the community served by the Upazilla Health Complex, Dacope and 1,006 matched controls from the same area. Epidemiological and clinical data were obtained from all participants. Urinary sodium and sodium levels in drinking water were measured. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios, and 95% confidence intervals.</p><p>Findings</p><p>Drinking water sources had exceptionally high sodium levels (mean 516.6 mg/L, S.D 524.2). Women consuming tube-well (groundwater) were at a higher disease risk than rainwater users (p<0.001). Adjusted risks for (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension considered together increased in a dose-response manner for increasing sodium concentrations (300.01–600 mg/L, 600.1–900 mg/L, >900.01 mg/L, compared to <300 mg/L) in drinking water (ORs 3.30 [95% CI 2.00–5.51], 4.40 [2.70–7.25] and 5.48 [3.30–9.11] (p-trend<0.001). Significant associations were seen for both (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension separately.</p><p>Interpretation</p><p>Salinity in drinking water is associated with increased risk of (pre)eclampsia and gestational hypertension in this population. Given that coastal populations in countries such as Bangladesh are confronted with high salinity exposure, which is predicted to further increase as a result of sea level rise and other environmental influences, it is imperative to develop and evaluate affordable approaches to providing water with low salt content.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mg", "pre", "or", "Drinking Water", "sea level rise", "Upazilla Health Complex", "s.d", "sodium levels", "ci", "hypertension"], "article_id"=>1187914, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aneire Ehmar Khan", "Pauline Franka Denise Scheelbeek", "Asma Begum Shilpi", "Queenie Chan", "Sontosh Kumar Mojumder", "Atiq Rahman", "Andy Haines", "Paolo Vineis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108715", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Salinity_in_Drinking_Water_and_the_Risk_of_Pre_Eclampsia_and_Gestational_Hypertension_in_Coastal_Bangladesh_A_Case_Control_Study_/1187914", "title"=>"Salinity in Drinking Water and the Risk of (Pre)Eclampsia and Gestational Hypertension in Coastal Bangladesh: A Case-Control Study", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-30 03:35:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1697787"], "description"=>"<p>Recruitment of cases and controls.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mg", "pre", "or", "Drinking Water", "sea level rise", "Upazilla Health Complex", "s.d", "sodium levels", "ci", "hypertension"], "article_id"=>1187886, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aneire Ehmar Khan", "Pauline Franka Denise Scheelbeek", "Asma Begum Shilpi", "Queenie Chan", "Sontosh Kumar Mojumder", "Atiq Rahman", "Andy Haines", "Paolo Vineis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108715.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Recruitment_of_cases_and_controls_/1187886", "title"=>"Recruitment of cases and controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-30 03:35:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1697789"], "description"=>"<p>Mean 24-hr urinary sodium (mmol/d) in controls (n = 912) by water source.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mg", "pre", "or", "Drinking Water", "sea level rise", "Upazilla Health Complex", "s.d", "sodium levels", "ci", "hypertension"], "article_id"=>1187888, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aneire Ehmar Khan", "Pauline Franka Denise Scheelbeek", "Asma Begum Shilpi", "Queenie Chan", "Sontosh Kumar Mojumder", "Atiq Rahman", "Andy Haines", "Paolo Vineis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108715.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_24_hr_urinary_sodium_mmol_d_in_controls_n_8202_8202_912_by_water_source_/1187888", "title"=>"Mean 24-hr urinary sodium (mmol/d) in controls (n = 912) by water source.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-30 03:35:51"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1697794"], "description"=>"<p>Map of Dacope sub-district showing the mean sodium levels of drinking water measured in various water sources.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mg", "pre", "or", "Drinking Water", "sea level rise", "Upazilla Health Complex", "s.d", "sodium levels", "ci", "hypertension"], "article_id"=>1187893, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aneire Ehmar Khan", "Pauline Franka Denise Scheelbeek", "Asma Begum Shilpi", "Queenie Chan", "Sontosh Kumar Mojumder", "Atiq Rahman", "Andy Haines", "Paolo Vineis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108715.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>88, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_Dacope_sub_district_showing_the_mean_sodium_levels_of_drinking_water_measured_in_various_water_sources_/1187893", "title"=>"Map of Dacope sub-district showing the mean sodium levels of drinking water measured in various water sources.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-09-30 03:35:51"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1697802"], "description"=>"<p>*Not directly comparable, but correlated. See text for further explanation.</p><p>**See text for explanation.</p><p>Comparison of blood pressure, anthropometric variables and mean urine and drinking water sodium levels in cases and controls.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["mg", "pre", "or", "Drinking Water", "sea level rise", "Upazilla Health Complex", "s.d", "sodium levels", "ci", "hypertension"], "article_id"=>1187901, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aneire Ehmar Khan", "Pauline Franka Denise Scheelbeek", "Asma Begum Shilpi", "Queenie Chan", "Sontosh Kumar Mojumder", "Atiq Rahman", "Andy Haines", "Paolo Vineis"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108715.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_blood_pressure_anthropometric_variables_and_mean_urine_and_drinking_water_sodium_levels_in_cases_and_controls_/1187901", "title"=>"Comparison of blood pressure, anthropometric variables and mean urine and drinking water sodium levels in cases and controls.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-09-30 03:35:51"}

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Relative Metric

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