Ultrastructural Analysis of Candida albicans When Exposed to Silver Nanoparticles
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{"title"=>"Ultrastructural analysis of candida albicans when exposed to silver nanoparticles", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Roberto", "last_name"=>"Vazquez-Muñoz", "scopus_author_id"=>"56378700100"}, {"first_name"=>"Miguel", "last_name"=>"Avalos-Borja", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003869469"}, {"first_name"=>"Ernestina", "last_name"=>"Castro-Longoria", "scopus_author_id"=>"55993776400"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907759025", "pui"=>"600116597", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0108876", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84907759025", "pmid"=>"25290909"}, "id"=>"cac52571-a0da-336d-86b6-10a4e3d42eee", "abstract"=>"Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans, and recently some studies have reported the antifungal activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some Candida species. However, ultrastructural analyses on the interaction of AgNPs with these microorganisms have not been reported. In this work we evaluated the effect of AgNPs on C. albicans, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was found to have a fungicidal effect. The IC50 was also determined, and the use of AgNPs with fluconazole (FLC), a fungistatic drug, reduced cell proliferation. In order to understand how AgNPs interact with living cells, the ultrastructural distribution of AgNPs in this fungus was determined. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed a high accumulation of AgNPs outside the cells but also smaller nanoparticles (NPs) localized throughout the cytoplasm. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis confirmed the presence of intracellular silver. From our results it is assumed that AgNPs used in this study do not penetrate the cell, but instead release silver ions that infiltrate into the cell leading to the formation of NPs through reduction by organic compounds present in the cell wall and cytoplasm.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/ultrastructural-analysis-candida-albicans-exposed-silver-nanoparticles", "reader_count"=>48, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>7, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>8, "Student > Master"=>14, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Professor"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Materials Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>5, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>5}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Mexico"=>4}, "group_count"=>7}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1708243"], "description"=>"<p>Silver nanoparticle shows (111) planes with 0.24 nm spacing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flc", "Candida albicans", "mic", "antifungal activity", "IC 50", "Ultrastructural Analysis", "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy", "Candida species", "fungistatic drug", "Cell proliferation", "np", "silver nanoparticles", "cell wall", "ultrastructural analyses", "fungicidal effect", "transmission electron microscopy", "tem", "Silver Nanoparticles Candida albicans", "eds", "agnp", "release silver ions", "ultrastructural distribution", "intracellular silver"], "article_id"=>1196576, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Roberto Vazquez-Muñoz", "Miguel Avalos-Borja", "Ernestina Castro-Longoria"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108876.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Crystallographic_analysis_of_intracellular_nanoparticles_in_C_albicans_/1196576", "title"=>"Crystallographic analysis of intracellular nanoparticles in <i>C. albicans</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 03:11:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1708256"], "description"=>"<p>Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs for <i>C. albicans</i>, at different cell concentrations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flc", "Candida albicans", "mic", "antifungal activity", "IC 50", "Ultrastructural Analysis", "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy", "Candida species", "fungistatic drug", "Cell proliferation", "np", "silver nanoparticles", "cell wall", "ultrastructural analyses", "fungicidal effect", "transmission electron microscopy", "tem", "Silver Nanoparticles Candida albicans", "eds", "agnp", "release silver ions", "ultrastructural distribution", "intracellular silver"], "article_id"=>1196589, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Roberto Vazquez-Muñoz", "Miguel Avalos-Borja", "Ernestina Castro-Longoria"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108876.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Minimum_inhibitory_concentration_MIC_of_AgNPs_for_C_albicans_at_different_cell_concentrations_/1196589", "title"=>"Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgNPs for <i>C. albicans</i>, at different cell concentrations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 03:11:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1708218"], "description"=>"<p>A, D) High-angle annular dark-field imaging (HAADF) of analyzed cells; (B, E) EDS analysis showing the absence of silver in (A) and the presence of silver in (D); (C, F) Lineal EDS spectrum of (A) and (D), respectively. Red line in A and D indicates the transect where chemical analysis was performed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flc", "Candida albicans", "mic", "antifungal activity", "IC 50", "Ultrastructural Analysis", "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy", "Candida species", "fungistatic drug", "Cell proliferation", "np", "silver nanoparticles", "cell wall", "ultrastructural analyses", "fungicidal effect", "transmission electron microscopy", "tem", "Silver Nanoparticles Candida albicans", "eds", "agnp", "release silver ions", "ultrastructural distribution", "intracellular silver"], "article_id"=>1196557, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Roberto Vazquez-Muñoz", "Miguel Avalos-Borja", "Ernestina Castro-Longoria"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108876.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chemical_characterization_of_C_albicans_ultrathin_sections_/1196557", "title"=>"Chemical characterization of <i>C. albicans</i> ultrathin sections.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 03:11:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1708231"], "description"=>"<p>A) HAADF image in which analysis of internal AgNPs was carried out, B) Closer view of internal-external particles, C) Amplified image of analyzed internal particle, (D–F) Images of analyzed internal particle, G) EDS analysis showing the presence of silver, H) Variation of Ag and Os along a trace line at neighbor points near the particle indicated by a yellow arrow in Figs A to E; sampled points can be seen as black dots in D and E. Yellow arrows point out analyzed particle, red arrows point out extracellular AgNPs. Enclosed area in (F) indicates the zone where chemical analysis was conducted, and the image in the upper corner is the diffraction pattern of analyzed particle, confirming the presence of crystalline silver.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flc", "Candida albicans", "mic", "antifungal activity", "IC 50", "Ultrastructural Analysis", "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy", "Candida species", "fungistatic drug", "Cell proliferation", "np", "silver nanoparticles", "cell wall", "ultrastructural analyses", "fungicidal effect", "transmission electron microscopy", "tem", "Silver Nanoparticles Candida albicans", "eds", "agnp", "release silver ions", "ultrastructural distribution", "intracellular silver"], "article_id"=>1196565, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Roberto Vazquez-Muñoz", "Miguel Avalos-Borja", "Ernestina Castro-Longoria"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108876.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Chemical_characterization_of_intracellular_nanoparticles_/1196565", "title"=>"Chemical characterization of intracellular nanoparticles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 03:11:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1708212"], "description"=>"<p>A, B) Cells from control cultures observed under optical bright field microscopy and TEM, respectively; C, D) Cells exposed to silver nanoparticles were agglomerated and surrounded by AgNPs as seen by optical bright-field microscopy (C) and confirmed by TEM (D). Black arrows indicate <i>Candida</i> cells and white arrows indicate AgNPs aggregation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flc", "Candida albicans", "mic", "antifungal activity", "IC 50", "Ultrastructural Analysis", "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy", "Candida species", "fungistatic drug", "Cell proliferation", "np", "silver nanoparticles", "cell wall", "ultrastructural analyses", "fungicidal effect", "transmission electron microscopy", "tem", "Silver Nanoparticles Candida albicans", "eds", "agnp", "release silver ions", "ultrastructural distribution", "intracellular silver"], "article_id"=>1196551, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Roberto Vazquez-Muñoz", "Miguel Avalos-Borja", "Ernestina Castro-Longoria"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108876.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Microscopic_analysis_of_C_albicans_from_liquid_cultures_/1196551", "title"=>"Microscopic analysis of <i>C. albicans</i> from liquid cultures.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 03:11:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1708190"], "description"=>"<p>Liquid cultures were exposed to the IC<sub>50</sub> of FLC and several combinations of AgNPs-FLC.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flc", "Candida albicans", "mic", "antifungal activity", "IC 50", "Ultrastructural Analysis", "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy", "Candida species", "fungistatic drug", "Cell proliferation", "np", "silver nanoparticles", "cell wall", "ultrastructural analyses", "fungicidal effect", "transmission electron microscopy", "tem", "Silver Nanoparticles Candida albicans", "eds", "agnp", "release silver ions", "ultrastructural distribution", "intracellular silver"], "article_id"=>1196529, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Roberto Vazquez-Muñoz", "Miguel Avalos-Borja", "Ernestina Castro-Longoria"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108876.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_combined_effect_of_silver_nanoparticles_AgNPs_and_fluconazole_FLC_in_C_albicans_reduces_cell_proliferation_/1196529", "title"=>"The combined effect of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and fluconazole (FLC) in <i>C. albicans</i> reduces cell proliferation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 03:11:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1708188"], "description"=>"<p>A) Transmission electron micrograph of AgNPs functionalized with Polyvinylpyrrolidone (Vector-Vita Ltd., Russia), B) histogram of measured nanoparticles, C) High-angle annular dark-field imaging (HAADF) of AgNPs, D) Typical EDS analysis of particles along the trace indicated by a white line in (C).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flc", "Candida albicans", "mic", "antifungal activity", "IC 50", "Ultrastructural Analysis", "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy", "Candida species", "fungistatic drug", "Cell proliferation", "np", "silver nanoparticles", "cell wall", "ultrastructural analyses", "fungicidal effect", "transmission electron microscopy", "tem", "Silver Nanoparticles Candida albicans", "eds", "agnp", "release silver ions", "ultrastructural distribution", "intracellular silver"], "article_id"=>1196527, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Roberto Vazquez-Muñoz", "Miguel Avalos-Borja", "Ernestina Castro-Longoria"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108876.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characterization_of_silver_nanoparticles_AgNPs_used_in_this_study_/1196527", "title"=>"Characterization of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 03:11:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1708259"], "description"=>"<p>The IC<sub>50</sub> for each cell concentration is underlined.</p><p>Cell density and concentrations of AgNPs and FLC used to determine the half–maximal inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) of fluconazole (FLC) and AgNPs (silver) to inhibit <i>C. albicans.</i></p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flc", "Candida albicans", "mic", "antifungal activity", "IC 50", "Ultrastructural Analysis", "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy", "Candida species", "fungistatic drug", "Cell proliferation", "np", "silver nanoparticles", "cell wall", "ultrastructural analyses", "fungicidal effect", "transmission electron microscopy", "tem", "Silver Nanoparticles Candida albicans", "eds", "agnp", "release silver ions", "ultrastructural distribution", "intracellular silver"], "article_id"=>1196592, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Roberto Vazquez-Muñoz", "Miguel Avalos-Borja", "Ernestina Castro-Longoria"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108876.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_density_and_concentrations_of_AgNPs_and_FLC_used_to_determine_the_half_maximal_inhibitory_concentration_IC_50_of_fluconazole_FLC_and_AgNPs_silver_to_inhibit_C_albicans_/1196592", "title"=>"Cell density and concentrations of AgNPs and FLC used to determine the half–maximal inhibitory concentration (IC<sub>50</sub>) of fluconazole (FLC) and AgNPs (silver) to inhibit <i>C. albicans.</i>", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 03:11:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1708201"], "description"=>"<p>A) Representative image of a culture to determine the IC<sub>50</sub> of AgNPs and FLC; B) subcultures of the combined effect of the IC<sub>50</sub> of AgNPs (18 µg/mL) and two concentrations of FLC; C) subcultures of the combined effect of the MIC of AgNPs (42 µg/mL) and two concentrations of FLC. In B–C the IC<sub>50</sub> of FLC (31 µg/mL) was used in the inoculations on the left side of the plate and 300 µg/mL of FLC on the right side.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flc", "Candida albicans", "mic", "antifungal activity", "IC 50", "Ultrastructural Analysis", "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy", "Candida species", "fungistatic drug", "Cell proliferation", "np", "silver nanoparticles", "cell wall", "ultrastructural analyses", "fungicidal effect", "transmission electron microscopy", "tem", "Silver Nanoparticles Candida albicans", "eds", "agnp", "release silver ions", "ultrastructural distribution", "intracellular silver"], "article_id"=>1196540, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Roberto Vazquez-Muñoz", "Miguel Avalos-Borja", "Ernestina Castro-Longoria"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108876.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>206, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subcultures_of_C_albicans_in_YPD_agar_plates_after_24_h_of_incubation_/1196540", "title"=>"Subcultures of <i>C. albicans</i> in YPD agar plates after 24 h of incubation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 03:11:52"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1708254"], "description"=>"<p>A, B) Sections of cells in which extracellular agglomeration of AgNPs coincided with the accumulation of smaller AgNPs in the cell wall and cytoplasm, C) Size distribution of intracellular AgNPs.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["flc", "Candida albicans", "mic", "antifungal activity", "IC 50", "Ultrastructural Analysis", "Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy", "Candida species", "fungistatic drug", "Cell proliferation", "np", "silver nanoparticles", "cell wall", "ultrastructural analyses", "fungicidal effect", "transmission electron microscopy", "tem", "Silver Nanoparticles Candida albicans", "eds", "agnp", "release silver ions", "ultrastructural distribution", "intracellular silver"], "article_id"=>1196586, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Roberto Vazquez-Muñoz", "Miguel Avalos-Borja", "Ernestina Castro-Longoria"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0108876.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>41, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TEM_images_showing_interaction_of_silver_nanoparticles_with_C_albicans_/1196586", "title"=>"TEM images showing interaction of silver nanoparticles with <i>C. albicans</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 03:11:52"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"34", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"278", "full-text"=>"306", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"110", "full-text"=>"124", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Mycology", "average_usage"=>[348, 543]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Nanotechnology", "average_usage"=>[230, 417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Chemistry", "average_usage"=>[262]}]}
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