Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls
Publication Date
October 08, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Lisa Noelle Cooper, Erik R. Seiffert, Mark Clementz, Sandra I. Madar, et al
Volume
9
Issue
10
Pages
e109232
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109232
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0109232
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25295875
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4189980
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25295875
Web of Science
000345204000050
Scopus
84907833919
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/anthracobunids-middle-eocene-india-pakistan-stem-perissodactyls
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{"title"=>"Anthracobunids from the middle eocene of India and Pakistan are stem perissodactyls", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Lisa Noelle", "last_name"=>"Cooper", "scopus_author_id"=>"16548853100"}, {"first_name"=>"Erik R.", "last_name"=>"Seiffert", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602133916"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark", "last_name"=>"Clementz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6506986349"}, {"first_name"=>"Sandra I.", "last_name"=>"Madar", "scopus_author_id"=>"56380200000"}, {"first_name"=>"Sunil", "last_name"=>"Bajpai", "scopus_author_id"=>"16214305000"}, {"first_name"=>"S. Taseer", "last_name"=>"Hussain", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403344589"}, {"first_name"=>"J. G M", "last_name"=>"Thewissen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003436896"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907833919", "sgr"=>"84907833919", "pui"=>"600116506", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"25295875", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0109232"}, "id"=>"1bd3c958-214a-3e39-b568-1e59eafea3f4", "abstract"=>"Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/anthracobunids-middle-eocene-india-pakistan-stem-perissodactyls", "reader_count"=>35, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>12}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>3, "Mexico"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710126/Figure_1.tif"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>A</i>) Crushed skull of <i>A. pinfoldi</i> (H-GSP 97106) in ventro-lateral view (left maxilla detached) and (<i>B</i>) dorsal view; (<i>C</i>) P2 of <i>A. wardi</i> (H-GSP 30229) in lingual view and (<i>D</i>) occlusal view; (<i>E</i>) Skull fragment of <i>A. wardi</i> (RR 411) in occlusal view, and (<i>F</i>) lateral view; (<i>G</i>) Mandible of <i>A. wardi</i> (H-GSP 96434) in occlusal view; (<i>H</i>) Mandible of <i>A. wardi</i> (H-GSP 96258) in lateral view, and (<i>I</i>) occlusal view. (<i>J</i>) Proximal phalanx of <i>A. pinfoldi</i> (H-GSP 97106.105) in dorsal view; (<i>K</i>) Proximal phalanx of <i>A. pinfoldi</i> (H-GSP 97106.101) in ventral view, and (<i>L</i>) lateral view; (<i>M</i>) Head of a metapodial of <i>A. pinfoldi (</i>H-GSP 97106.250) in dorsal view; (<i>N</i>) Phalangeal fragment of <i>A. pinfoldi</i> (H-GSP 97106.257) in dorsal-superior view; (<i>O</i>) Terminal phalanx of <i>A. pinfoldi</i> (H-GSP 97106.302) in dorsal-superior view. Scale bar is 1 cm in length.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthracobunid fossils", "perissodactyl", "Middle Eocene rocks", "Stem Perissodactyls Anthracobunidae"], "article_id"=>1198070, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lisa Noelle Cooper", "Erik R. Seiffert", "Mark Clementz", "Sandra I. Madar", "Sunil Bajpai", "S. Taseer Hussain", "J. G. M. Thewissen"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109232.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Cranial_elements_of_anthracobunids_from_the_middle_Eocene_of_Indo_Pakistan_/1198070", "title"=>"Cranial elements of anthracobunids from the middle Eocene of Indo-Pakistan.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 03:12:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710130/Figure_2.tif"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>A</i>) Right P2-M2 of <i>A. wardi</i> (LUVP-15006) in occlusal view, and (<i>B</i>) labial view; (<i>C</i>) left M1-M3 of <i>A. wardi</i> (RR-411) in occlusal view, and (<i>D</i>) labial view; (<i>E</i>) left P3-M3 of <i>A. pinfoldi</i> (H-GSP 82-31P) in occlusal view; (<i>F</i>) left M3 of <i>A. pinfoldi (</i>H-GSP 82-31P) in labial view; (<i>G</i>) right C-M3 of the cambaythere <i>Kalitherium</i> (IITR-SB-VLM 931) in occlusal view; (<i>H</i>) right M3 of <i>Kalitherium</i> (IITR-SB-VLM 931) in labial view; (<i>I</i>) left P4-M2 of <i>Nakusia</i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0109232#pone.0109232-Ginsburg1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a> in occlusal view; (<i>J</i>) left M2 of <i>Nakusia</i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0109232#pone.0109232-Ginsburg1\" target=\"_blank\">[6]</a> in labial view; (<i>K</i>) Mx of <i>Cambaytherium</i> (IITR-SB-VLM-521) in occlusal view; (<i>L</i>) right M3 of the phenacodontid ‘condylarth’ <i>Tetraclaenodon</i> (KU-8052) in occlusal view; (<i>M</i>) left p1-m3 of <i>A. wardi</i> (WIF/A 1101) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0109232#pone.0109232-Kumar1\" target=\"_blank\">[15]</a> in occlusal view; (<i>N</i>) left c-m3 of <i>A. wardi</i> (H-GSP 96258) in occlusal view, and (<i>O</i>) labial view; (<i>P</i>) left p1-m3 of <i>Obergfellia occidentalis</i> (H-GSP 1981) in occlusal view, and (<i>Q</i>) labial view (M1 inverted from right side). Scale bar is 1 cm in length. Illustrations by Jacqueline Dillard.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthracobunid fossils", "perissodactyl", "Middle Eocene rocks", "Stem Perissodactyls Anthracobunidae"], "article_id"=>1198074, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lisa Noelle Cooper", "Erik R. Seiffert", "Mark Clementz", "Sandra I. Madar", "Sunil Bajpai", "S. Taseer Hussain", "J. G. M. Thewissen"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109232.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Teeth_of_anthracobunids_other_stem_perissodactyls_and_condylarths_/1198074", "title"=>"Teeth of anthracobunids, other stem perissodactyls, and condylarths.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 03:12:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710132/Figure_3.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Bootstrap support for clades derived from each analysis contributing to the consensus is depicted by colored circles. A1  =  Atlantogenata constraint, transitions between polymorphic and “fixed” states in ordered morphoclines weighted as 0.5 steps; A2  =  Atlantogenata constraint, transitions between polymorphic and “fixed” states in ordered morphoclines weighted as one step; E1  =  Exafroplacentalia constraint, transitions between polymorphic and “fixed” states in ordered morphoclines weighted as 0.5 steps; E2  =  Exafroplacentalia constraint, transitions between polymorphic and “fixed” states in ordered morphoclines weighted as one step. Across all trees, anthracobunids and desmostylians were placed as perissodactyls, along with two enigmatic Asian taxa, the late Paleocene “condylarth” <i>Radinskya</i> and early Eocene <i>Cambaytherium</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthracobunid fossils", "perissodactyl", "Middle Eocene rocks", "Stem Perissodactyls Anthracobunidae"], "article_id"=>1198076, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lisa Noelle Cooper", "Erik R. Seiffert", "Mark Clementz", "Sandra I. Madar", "Sunil Bajpai", "S. Taseer Hussain", "J. G. M. Thewissen"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109232.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Adams_consensus_of_all_trees_recovered_from_parsimony_analyses_that_included_some_ordered_multistate_characters_with_continental_geography_see_states_in_upper_left_hand_corner_optimized_onto_the_tree_using_parsimony_relationships_among_extant_taxa_were_c/1198076", "title"=>"Adams consensus of all trees recovered from parsimony analyses that included some ordered multistate characters, with continental geography (see states in upper left-hand corner) optimized onto the tree using parsimony (relationships among extant taxa were constrained by a “molecular scaffold”).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 03:12:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710146/Figure_4.tif"], "description"=>"<p>(<i>D</i>) Bar diagram of bone compactness, a quantification of the amount of bone per midshaft cross-section, compared here between fossil and extant ungulates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthracobunid fossils", "perissodactyl", "Middle Eocene rocks", "Stem Perissodactyls Anthracobunidae"], "article_id"=>1198079, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lisa Noelle Cooper", "Erik R. Seiffert", "Mark Clementz", "Sandra I. Madar", "Sunil Bajpai", "S. Taseer Hussain", "J. G. M. Thewissen"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109232.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Histological_midshaft_sections_for_the_A_humerus_of_Ichthyolestes_H_GSP_96227_B_femur_of_Odocoileus_and_C_radius_of_Anthracobune_H_GSP_97106_/1198079", "title"=>"Histological midshaft sections for the (<i>A</i>) humerus of <i>Ichthyolestes</i> (H-GSP 96227), (<i>B</i>) femur of <i>Odocoileus</i>, and (C) radius of <i>Anthracobune</i> (H-GSP 97106).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 03:12:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710147/Figure_5.tif"], "description"=>"<p>Results shown as mean ±S.D. for the sample populations. Data from (<i>A</i>) early Eocene and (<i>B, C</i>) middle Eocene taxa from India and Pakistan. Circles, perissodactyls; red circles, anthracobunids; squares, artiodactyls; triangles, cetaceans; inverse triangles, creodonts; diamonds, condylarths. See Suppl. Info. for details.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthracobunid fossils", "perissodactyl", "Middle Eocene rocks", "Stem Perissodactyls Anthracobunidae"], "article_id"=>1198080, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lisa Noelle Cooper", "Erik R. Seiffert", "Mark Clementz", "Sandra I. Madar", "Sunil Bajpai", "S. Taseer Hussain", "J. G. M. Thewissen"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109232.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Bivariate_plot_of_18_O_and_948_13_C_values_for_enamel_samples_of_early_and_middle_Eocene_mammals_from_India_and_Pakistan_/1198080", "title"=>"Bivariate plot of δ<sup>18</sup>O and δ<sup>13</sup>C values for enamel samples of early and middle Eocene mammals from India and Pakistan.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 03:12:02"}
  • {"files"=>["https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710161/Figure_S1.tif", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710162/Figure_S2.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710163/Figure_S3.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710164/Figure_S4.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710165/Figure_S5.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710166/Table_S1.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710167/Table_S2.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710168/Table_S3.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710169/Table_S4.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710170/Table_S5.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710172/Table_S6.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710173/Table_S7.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710174/Table_S8.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710175/Table_S9.pdf", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710176/Matrix_Nexus_S1", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710177/Matrix_Tree_S1", "https://s3-eu-west-1.amazonaws.com/pstorage-plos-3567654/1710178/Text_S1.docx"], "description"=>"<div><p>Anthracobunidae is an Eocene family of large mammals from south Asia that is commonly considered to be part of the radiation that gave rise to elephants (proboscideans) and sea cows (sirenians). We describe a new collection of anthracobunid fossils from Middle Eocene rocks of Indo-Pakistan that more than doubles the number of known anthracobunid fossils and challenges their putative relationships, instead implying that they are stem perissodactyls. Cranial, dental, and postcranial elements allow a revision of species and the recognition of a new anthracobunid genus. Analyses of stable isotopes and long bone geometry together suggest that most anthracobunids fed on land, but spent a considerable amount of time near water. This new evidence expands our understanding of stem perissodactyl diversity and sheds new light on perissodactyl origins.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["anthracobunid fossils", "perissodactyl", "Middle Eocene rocks", "Stem Perissodactyls Anthracobunidae"], "article_id"=>1198091, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Lisa Noelle Cooper", "Erik R. Seiffert", "Mark Clementz", "Sandra I. Madar", "Sunil Bajpai", "S. Taseer Hussain", "J. G. M. Thewissen"], "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109232"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Anthracobunids_from_the_Middle_Eocene_of_India_and_Pakistan_Are_Stem_Perissodactyls_/1198091", "title"=>"Anthracobunids from the Middle Eocene of India and Pakistan Are Stem Perissodactyls", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 03:12:02"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[318]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Geology", "average_usage"=>[447, 640]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[557, 890]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Habitats", "average_usage"=>[348, 516]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}]}
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