Residency Patterns and Migration Dynamics of Adult Bull Sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the East Coast of Southern Africa
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{"title"=>"Residency patterns and migration dynamics of adult bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) on the east coast of Southern Africa", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Ryan", "last_name"=>"Daly", "scopus_author_id"=>"22984606600"}, {"first_name"=>"Malcolm J.", "last_name"=>"Smale", "scopus_author_id"=>"36642207100"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul D.", "last_name"=>"Cowley", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005402701"}, {"first_name"=>"Pierre W.", "last_name"=>"Froneman", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004631792"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907833261", "sgr"=>"84907833261", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0109357", "pmid"=>"25295972", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"600116446"}, "id"=>"496673ef-e7e8-33ed-8397-ea8f68145bf9", "abstract"=>"Bull sharks (Carcharhinus leucas) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195-283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km x d(-1) (mean = 17.58 km x d(-1)) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/residency-patterns-migration-dynamics-adult-bull-sharks-carcharhinus-leucas-east-coast-southern-afri", "reader_count"=>72, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Researcher"=>16, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>11, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>7, "Student > Master"=>14, "Student > Bachelor"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Environmental Science"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>47}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>15}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"South Africa"=>1, "Mexico"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709671"], "description"=>"<p>Detection data is represented by black squares and presented on a timeline from January 2012 to December 2014 for all 18 tagged sharks. The first detection data point for an individual shark corresponds to the day the shark was tagged at the study site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Southern Africa Bull sharks", "study site", "bull shark migration dynamics", "Adult Bull Sharks", "migration events", "km", "Carcharhinus leucas", "residency patterns"], "article_id"=>1197662, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ryan Daly", "Malcolm J. Smale", "Paul D. Cowley", "Pierre W. Froneman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Daily_bull_shark_detection_data_from_all_receivers_at_the_study_site_/1197662", "title"=>"Daily bull shark detection data from all receivers at the study site.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 02:57:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709668"], "description"=>"<p>Figure 1a shows a map of southern Africa with the location of the study site at Ponta do Ouro in southern Mozambique. All other named locations represent acoustic receiver sites on the coast (represented by a circle) or within an estuary (represented by an x) from which additional bull shark detection data was obtained. Figure 1b shows the bathymetry of the Pinnacle reef complex with the colour scale indicating the corresponding depth of the reef showing the shallow spine surrounded by reef drop offs. Numbered flags represent the approximate location of three acoustic receivers on the reef.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Southern Africa Bull sharks", "study site", "bull shark migration dynamics", "Adult Bull Sharks", "migration events", "km", "Carcharhinus leucas", "residency patterns"], "article_id"=>1197659, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ryan Daly", "Malcolm J. Smale", "Paul D. Cowley", "Pierre W. Froneman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>104, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_site_Map_and_Pinnacle_reef_bathymetry_/1197659", "title"=>"Study site Map and Pinnacle reef bathymetry.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 02:57:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709680"], "description"=>"<p>The x-axis represents a time line showing months and year. The y-axis shows distance along the coast in kilometers (starting at Ponta do Ouro) corresponding with the coastal map of southern Mozambique. The solid square markings show annual bull shark detection events at the study site and other locations within Mozambique.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Southern Africa Bull sharks", "study site", "bull shark migration dynamics", "Adult Bull Sharks", "migration events", "km", "Carcharhinus leucas", "residency patterns"], "article_id"=>1197671, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ryan Daly", "Malcolm J. Smale", "Paul D. Cowley", "Pierre W. Froneman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bull_shark_migration_events_along_the_coast_of_Mozambique_/1197671", "title"=>"Bull shark migration events along the coast of Mozambique.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 02:57:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709681"], "description"=>"<p>TL represents total length. Total detections refer to all detections on all receivers at the study site over the length of the study.</p><p>Summary of all bull sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters at the Pinnacle reef.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Southern Africa Bull sharks", "study site", "bull shark migration dynamics", "Adult Bull Sharks", "migration events", "km", "Carcharhinus leucas", "residency patterns"], "article_id"=>1197672, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ryan Daly", "Malcolm J. Smale", "Paul D. Cowley", "Pierre W. Froneman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_all_bull_sharks_tagged_with_acoustic_transmitters_at_the_Pinnacle_reef_/1197672", "title"=>"Summary of all bull sharks tagged with acoustic transmitters at the Pinnacle reef.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 02:57:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709679"], "description"=>"<p>Bar charts represent the mean monthly residency indices from all tagged bull sharks detected at the Pinnacle reef. Error bars representing standard deviation. The dashed line represents the mean monthly sea temperatures (°C) recorded at the study site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Southern Africa Bull sharks", "study site", "bull shark migration dynamics", "Adult Bull Sharks", "migration events", "km", "Carcharhinus leucas", "residency patterns"], "article_id"=>1197670, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ryan Daly", "Malcolm J. Smale", "Paul D. Cowley", "Pierre W. Froneman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_monthly_residency_indices_and_mean_monthly_sea_temperature_/1197670", "title"=>"Mean monthly residency indices and mean monthly sea temperature.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 02:57:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709709", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709710", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709711", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709712"], "description"=>"<div><p>Bull sharks (<i>Carcharhinus leucas</i>) are globally distributed top predators that play an important ecological role within coastal marine communities. However, little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of their habitat use and associated ecological role. In this study, we employed passive acoustic telemetry to investigate the residency patterns and migration dynamics of 18 adult bull sharks (195–283 cm total length) tagged in southern Mozambique for a period of between 10 and 22 months. The majority of sharks (n = 16) exhibited temporally and spatially variable residency patterns interspersed with migration events. Ten individuals undertook coastal migrations that ranged between 433 and 709 km (mean  = 533 km) with eight of these sharks returning to the study site. During migration, individuals exhibited rates of movement between 2 and 59 km.d<sup>−1</sup> (mean  = 17.58 km.d<sup>−1</sup>) and were recorded travelling annual distances of between 450 and 3760 km (mean  = 1163 km). Migration towards lower latitudes primarily took place in austral spring and winter and there was a significant negative correlation between residency and mean monthly sea temperature at the study site. This suggested that seasonal change is the primary driver behind migration events but further investigation is required to assess how foraging and reproductive activity may influence residency patterns and migration. Results from this study highlight the need for further understanding of bull shark migration dynamics and suggest that effective conservation strategies for this vulnerable species necessitate the incorporation of congruent trans-boundary policies over large spatial scales.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Southern Africa Bull sharks", "study site", "bull shark migration dynamics", "Adult Bull Sharks", "migration events", "km", "Carcharhinus leucas", "residency patterns"], "article_id"=>1197695, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ryan Daly", "Malcolm J. Smale", "Paul D. Cowley", "Pierre W. Froneman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Residency_Patterns_and_Migration_Dynamics_of_Adult_Bull_Sharks_Carcharhinus_leucas_on_the_East_Coast_of_Southern_Africa/1197695", "title"=>"Residency Patterns and Migration Dynamics of Adult Bull Sharks (<i>Carcharhinus leucas</i>) on the East Coast of Southern Africa", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 02:57:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709674"], "description"=>"<p>Dendrogram showing the groupings of individual sharks based on their calculated residency indices at the study site.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Southern Africa Bull sharks", "study site", "bull shark migration dynamics", "Adult Bull Sharks", "migration events", "km", "Carcharhinus leucas", "residency patterns"], "article_id"=>1197665, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ryan Daly", "Malcolm J. Smale", "Paul D. Cowley", "Pierre W. Froneman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cluster_analysis_results_/1197665", "title"=>"Cluster analysis results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 02:57:44"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1709672"], "description"=>"<p>Each plot represents the detection frequency within each hour of a 24-hour period. The temporal distribution of most sharks (except 15 and 18) was significantly non-homogenous (Rao's spacing test, p<0.01). Individual sharks not represented had insufficient data for the analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Southern Africa Bull sharks", "study site", "bull shark migration dynamics", "Adult Bull Sharks", "migration events", "km", "Carcharhinus leucas", "residency patterns"], "article_id"=>1197663, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Ryan Daly", "Malcolm J. Smale", "Paul D. Cowley", "Pierre W. Froneman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109357.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Circular_plots_showing_the_temporal_detection_distribution_of_bull_sharks_at_the_Pinnacle_reef_/1197663", "title"=>"Circular plots showing the temporal detection distribution of bull sharks at the Pinnacle reef.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-08 02:57:44"}

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