Boosting Long-Term Memory via Wakeful Rest: Intentional Rehearsal Is Not Necessary, Consolidation Is Sufficient
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{"title"=>"Boosting long-term memory via wakeful rest: Intentional rehearsal is not necessary, consolidation is sufficient", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Michaela", "last_name"=>"Dewar", "scopus_author_id"=>"13204877900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jessica", "last_name"=>"Alber", "scopus_author_id"=>"55360633300"}, {"first_name"=>"Nelson", "last_name"=>"Cowan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102688380"}, {"first_name"=>"Sergio Della", "last_name"=>"Sala", "scopus_author_id"=>"55666265400"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600170073", "sgr"=>"84908108286", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25333957", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84908108286", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0109542", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"31df9827-3700-35d4-979e-c84597757712", "abstract"=>"People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as 'foreign names in a bridge club abroad' and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is not dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is sufficient for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/boosting-longterm-memory-via-wakeful-rest-intentional-rehearsal-not-necessary-consolidation-sufficie", "reader_count"=>76, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Researcher"=>11, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>23, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>10, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>45, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>2, "Linguistics"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>10}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>45}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>2}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "Japan"=>2, "United Kingdom"=>3, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1718203"], "description"=>"<p>15-minute retention was significantly higher in the minimal sensory stimulation group than in the high sensory stimulation group, and this benefit was maintained over 7 days. Error bars  =  standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhancement", "rest delay", "alternative account", "experiment", "wakefully", "material", "participant", "consolidation", "Sufficient People", "rest boosts", "bridge club", "retention", "recognition paradigm", "15 minutes", "necessary", "10 minutes", "boosting", "rehearsal", "rest period", "time points", "noun", "Intentional Rehearsal", "presentation", "wakeful", "utilised", "7 days", "representation", "Memory consolidation", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>1205184, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michaela Dewar", "Jessica Alber", "Nelson Cowan", "Sergio Della Sala"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109542.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_percentage_retention_scores_at_15_minute_and_7_day_delayed_free_recall_Delayed_Immediate_x_100_in_the_high_sensory_stimulation_and_minimal_sensory_stimulation_groups_in_Experiment_1_/1205184", "title"=>"Mean percentage retention scores at 15-minute and 7-day delayed free recall ((Delayed/Immediate) x 100) in the high sensory stimulation and minimal sensory stimulation groups in Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 02:44:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1718201"], "description"=>"<p>In Session 1, all participants were presented with a list of 15 common nouns, which they were told to remember for subsequent immediate free recall. Following this, participants in the high sensory stimulation group completed a spot-the-difference task for 10 minutes, whereas participants in the minimal sensory stimulation group rested wakefully for 10 minutes. All participants then completed a 5-minute distractor task (spot-the-difference), which was succeeded by a surprise delayed recall test of the word list. In Session 2, which took place 7 days after Session 1, participants completed another surprise delayed free recall of the word list, as well a 30-item yes/no recognition test, including a remember/know paradigm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhancement", "rest delay", "alternative account", "experiment", "wakefully", "material", "participant", "consolidation", "Sufficient People", "rest boosts", "bridge club", "retention", "recognition paradigm", "15 minutes", "necessary", "10 minutes", "boosting", "rehearsal", "rest period", "time points", "noun", "Intentional Rehearsal", "presentation", "wakeful", "utilised", "7 days", "representation", "Memory consolidation", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>1205182, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michaela Dewar", "Jessica Alber", "Nelson Cowan", "Sergio Della Sala"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109542.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Participants_were_assigned_randomly_to_the_high_sensory_stimulation_N_8202_8202_36_or_minimal_sensory_stimulation_N_8202_8202_34_group_/1205182", "title"=>"Participants were assigned randomly to the high sensory stimulation (N = 36) or minimal sensory stimulation (N = 34) group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 02:44:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1718210"], "description"=>"<div><p>People perform better on tests of delayed free recall if learning is followed immediately by a short wakeful rest than by a short period of sensory stimulation. Animal and human work suggests that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for the consolidation of recently acquired memories. However, an alternative account cannot be ruled out, namely that wakeful resting provides optimal conditions for intentional rehearsal of recently acquired memories, thus driving superior memory. Here we utilised non-recallable words to examine whether wakeful rest boosts long-term memory, even when new memories could not be rehearsed intentionally during the wakeful rest delay. The probing of non-recallable words requires a recognition paradigm. Therefore, we first established, via Experiment 1, that the rest-induced boost in memory observed via free recall can be replicated in a recognition paradigm, using concrete nouns. In Experiment 2, participants heard 30 non-recallable non-words, presented as ‘foreign names in a bridge club abroad’ and then either rested wakefully or played a visual spot-the-difference game for 10 minutes. Retention was probed via recognition at two time points, 15 minutes and 7 days after presentation. As in Experiment 1, wakeful rest boosted recognition significantly, and this boost was maintained for at least 7 days. Our results indicate that the enhancement of memory via wakeful rest is <i>not</i> dependent upon intentional rehearsal of learned material during the rest period. We thus conclude that consolidation is <i>sufficient</i> for this rest-induced memory boost to emerge. We propose that wakeful resting allows for superior memory consolidation, resulting in stronger and/or more veridical representations of experienced events which can be detected via tests of free recall and recognition.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhancement", "rest delay", "alternative account", "experiment", "wakefully", "material", "participant", "consolidation", "Sufficient People", "rest boosts", "bridge club", "retention", "recognition paradigm", "15 minutes", "necessary", "10 minutes", "boosting", "rehearsal", "rest period", "time points", "noun", "Intentional Rehearsal", "presentation", "wakeful", "utilised", "7 days", "representation", "Memory consolidation", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>1205191, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michaela Dewar", "Jessica Alber", "Nelson Cowan", "Sergio Della Sala"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109542", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Boosting_Long_Term_Memory_via_Wakeful_Rest_Intentional_Rehearsal_Is_Not_Necessary_Consolidation_Is_Sufficient_/1205191", "title"=>"Boosting Long-Term Memory via Wakeful Rest: Intentional Rehearsal Is Not Necessary, Consolidation Is Sufficient", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 02:44:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1718206"], "description"=>"<p>Immediately after presentation, participants in the high sensory stimulation group completed a spot-the-difference task for 10 minutes, whereas participants in the minimal sensory stimulation group rested wakefully for 10 minutes. All participants then completed a 5-minute distractor task (spot-the-difference), which was succeeded by a 30-item (15 targets, 15 foils), yes/no non-word name recognition test, including a remember/know paradigm. 7 days later, participants completed a second and different 30-item (15 targets, 15 foils) yes/no non-word name recognition test, again including a remember/know paradigm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhancement", "rest delay", "alternative account", "experiment", "wakefully", "material", "participant", "consolidation", "Sufficient People", "rest boosts", "bridge club", "retention", "recognition paradigm", "15 minutes", "necessary", "10 minutes", "boosting", "rehearsal", "rest period", "time points", "noun", "Intentional Rehearsal", "presentation", "wakeful", "utilised", "7 days", "representation", "Memory consolidation", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>1205187, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michaela Dewar", "Jessica Alber", "Nelson Cowan", "Sergio Della Sala"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109542.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Participants_were_presented_with_30_face_non_word_name_pairs_at_the_beginning_of_Session_1_and_instructed_to_try_to_remember_as_many_non_word_names_as_possible_for_subsequent_recognition_testing_/1205187", "title"=>"Participants were presented with 30 face/non-word name pairs at the beginning of Session 1, and instructed to try to remember as many non-word names as possible for subsequent recognition testing.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 02:44:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1718209"], "description"=>"<p>Mean recognition performance (+ SEM) of the minimal sensory stimulation groups (wakeful rest delay) and the high sensory stimulation groups (spot-the-difference delay) in Experiment 1 and 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhancement", "rest delay", "alternative account", "experiment", "wakefully", "material", "participant", "consolidation", "Sufficient People", "rest boosts", "bridge club", "retention", "recognition paradigm", "15 minutes", "necessary", "10 minutes", "boosting", "rehearsal", "rest period", "time points", "noun", "Intentional Rehearsal", "presentation", "wakeful", "utilised", "7 days", "representation", "Memory consolidation", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>1205189, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michaela Dewar", "Jessica Alber", "Nelson Cowan", "Sergio Della Sala"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109542.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_recognition_performance_SEM_of_the_minimal_sensory_stimulation_groups_wakeful_rest_delay_and_the_high_sensory_stimulation_groups_spot_the_difference_delay_in_Experiment_1_and_2_/1205189", "title"=>"Mean recognition performance (+ SEM) of the minimal sensory stimulation groups (wakeful rest delay) and the high sensory stimulation groups (spot-the-difference delay) in Experiment 1 and 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 02:44:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1718207"], "description"=>"<p>The minimal sensory stimulation group showed superior recognition performance relative to the high sensory stimulation group in a paradigm employing non-recallable stimuli after 15 minutes, and this benefit was maintained for 7 days. Error bars  =  standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhancement", "rest delay", "alternative account", "experiment", "wakefully", "material", "participant", "consolidation", "Sufficient People", "rest boosts", "bridge club", "retention", "recognition paradigm", "15 minutes", "necessary", "10 minutes", "boosting", "rehearsal", "rest period", "time points", "noun", "Intentional Rehearsal", "presentation", "wakeful", "utilised", "7 days", "representation", "Memory consolidation", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>1205188, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michaela Dewar", "Jessica Alber", "Nelson Cowan", "Sergio Della Sala"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109542.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_d_prime_d_8242_scores_for_the_high_sensory_and_minimal_sensory_stimulation_groups_after_15_minutes_and_after_7_days_in_Experiment_2_/1205188", "title"=>"Mean d-prime (d)′ scores for the high sensory and minimal sensory stimulation groups after 15 minutes and after 7 days in Experiment 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 02:44:37"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1718204"], "description"=>"<p>The proportion of ‘remember’ responses was higher in the minimal sensory stimulation than in the high sensory stimulation group. Error bars  =  standard error of the mean.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["enhancement", "rest delay", "alternative account", "experiment", "wakefully", "material", "participant", "consolidation", "Sufficient People", "rest boosts", "bridge club", "retention", "recognition paradigm", "15 minutes", "necessary", "10 minutes", "boosting", "rehearsal", "rest period", "time points", "noun", "Intentional Rehearsal", "presentation", "wakeful", "utilised", "7 days", "representation", "Memory consolidation", "stimulation"], "article_id"=>1205185, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Michaela Dewar", "Jessica Alber", "Nelson Cowan", "Sergio Della Sala"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109542.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_remember_and_know_responses_for_hits_in_the_high_sensory_and_minimal_sensory_stimulation_groups_after_7_days_in_Experiment_1_/1205185", "title"=>"Proportion of ‘remember’ and ‘know’ responses for <i>hits</i> in the high sensory and minimal sensory stimulation groups after 7 days in Experiment 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 02:44:37"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Neuroscience", "average_usage"=>[289]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[318]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Linguistics", "average_usage"=>[348, 505]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[314, 476]}]}
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