Distributional Vowel Training Is Less Effective for Adults than for Infants. A Study Using the Mismatch Response
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{"title"=>"Distributional vowel training is less effective for adults than for infants. A study using the mismatch response", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Karin", "last_name"=>"Wanrooij", "scopus_author_id"=>"36440743800"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Boersma", "scopus_author_id"=>"8907724500"}, {"first_name"=>"Titia L.", "last_name"=>"Van Zuijen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6508265047"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84907855644", "pmid"=>"25289935", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84907855644", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"600116423", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0109806"}, "id"=>"018c599d-9071-3b31-b118-58d5985d8fd6", "abstract"=>"Distributional learning of speech sounds (i.e., learning from simple exposure to frequency distributions of speech sounds in the environment) has been observed in the lab repeatedly in both infants and adults. The current study is the first attempt to examine whether the capacity for using the mechanism is different in adults than in infants. To this end, a previous event-related potential study that had shown distributional learning of the English vowel contrast /æ/∼/ε/ in 2-to-3-month old Dutch infants was repeated with Dutch adults. Specifically, the adults were exposed to either a bimodal distribution that suggested the existence of the two vowels (as appropriate in English), or to a unimodal distribution that did not (as appropriate in Dutch). After exposure the participants were tested on their discrimination of a representative [æ] and a representative [ε], in an oddball paradigm for measuring mismatch responses (MMRs). Bimodally trained adults did not have a significantly larger MMR amplitude, and hence did not show significantly better neural discrimination of the test vowels, than unimodally trained adults. A direct comparison between the normalized MMR amplitudes of the adults with those of the previously tested infants showed that within a reasonable range of normalization parameters, the bimodal advantage is reliably smaller in adults than in infants, indicating that distributional learning is a weaker mechanism for learning speech sounds in adults (if it exists in that group at all) than in infants.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/distributional-vowel-training-less-effective-adults-infants-study-using-mismatch-response", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Psychology"=>7, "Computer Science"=>1, "Linguistics"=>7}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>7}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1707831"], "description"=>"<p>Mean MMR amplitudes (in µV) for the adults in the current study and the infants in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0109806#pone.0109806-Wanrooij1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["MMR amplitude", "MMR amplitudes", "bimodal distribution", "frequency distributions", "test vowels", "mismatch responses", "Dutch infants", "unimodal distribution", "Distributional Vowel Training", "Mismatch Response Distributional", "Dutch adults", "bimodal advantage", "normalization parameters"], "article_id"=>1196224, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Karin Wanrooij", "Paul Boersma", "Titia L. Van Zuijen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109806.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>48, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_MMR_amplitudes_in_V_for_the_adults_in_the_current_study_and_the_infants_in_4_/1196224", "title"=>"Mean MMR amplitudes (in µV) for the adults in the current study and the infants in [4].", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 02:54:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1707823"], "description"=>"<p>The unimodal (top) and bimodal (middle) distributions represent the Dutch vowel /ε/ and the English vowel contrast /ε/∼/æ/, respectively. Each solid vertical line indicates a vowel token with a specific F1 value. Each vowel token was presented only once (i.e., the height of the vertical lines is 1). The grey curves are the underlying probability density functions. When creating training distributions, the acoustic values of the test stimuli can be calculated by computing the intersections (black discs, bottom) of the unimodal and bimodal distributions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["MMR amplitude", "MMR amplitudes", "bimodal distribution", "frequency distributions", "test vowels", "mismatch responses", "Dutch infants", "unimodal distribution", "Distributional Vowel Training", "Mismatch Response Distributional", "Dutch adults", "bimodal advantage", "normalization parameters"], "article_id"=>1196216, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Karin Wanrooij", "Paul Boersma", "Titia L. Van Zuijen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109806.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>42, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distributions_of_first_formant_F1_values_in_ERB_/1196216", "title"=>"Distributions of first formant (F1) values (in ERB).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 02:54:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1707825"], "description"=>"<p>Standard (grey, thick curves), deviant (blue, thin curves) and MMR (red, thin curves), at eight electrodes (see rows), for the unimodally and bimodally trained infants in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0109806#pone.0109806-Wanrooij1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a> (the two columns on the left) and adults in the current study (the two columns on the right).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["MMR amplitude", "MMR amplitudes", "bimodal distribution", "frequency distributions", "test vowels", "mismatch responses", "Dutch infants", "unimodal distribution", "Distributional Vowel Training", "Mismatch Response Distributional", "Dutch adults", "bimodal advantage", "normalization parameters"], "article_id"=>1196218, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Karin Wanrooij", "Paul Boersma", "Titia L. Van Zuijen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109806.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grand_average_waveforms_/1196218", "title"=>"Grand average waveforms.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 02:54:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1707827"], "description"=>"<p>Unimodally (top) and bimodally (bottom) trained infants in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0109806#pone.0109806-Wanrooij1\" target=\"_blank\">[4]</a> (left; 32 electrodes) and adults in the current study (right; 64 electrodes). Voltages time-averaged between 167 and 217 ms after stimulus onset for adults, between 100 and 500 ms for infants. Blue is negative, red positive, white zero.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["MMR amplitude", "MMR amplitudes", "bimodal distribution", "frequency distributions", "test vowels", "mismatch responses", "Dutch infants", "unimodal distribution", "Distributional Vowel Training", "Mismatch Response Distributional", "Dutch adults", "bimodal advantage", "normalization parameters"], "article_id"=>1196220, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Karin Wanrooij", "Paul Boersma", "Titia L. Van Zuijen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109806.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_MMR_scalp_distributions_/1196220", "title"=>"MMR scalp distributions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 02:54:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1707828"], "description"=>"<p>Age group: infant, left vs. adult, right. Distribution Type: unimodal, grey vs. bimodal, black.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["MMR amplitude", "MMR amplitudes", "bimodal distribution", "frequency distributions", "test vowels", "mismatch responses", "Dutch infants", "unimodal distribution", "Distributional Vowel Training", "Mismatch Response Distributional", "Dutch adults", "bimodal advantage", "normalization parameters"], "article_id"=>1196222, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Karin Wanrooij", "Paul Boersma", "Titia L. Van Zuijen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109806.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_interaction_between_Age_Group_and_Distribution_Type_/1196222", "title"=>"The interaction between Age Group and Distribution Type.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 02:54:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1707830"], "description"=>"<p>Adult and infant studies in which MMRs to the same vowel pairs differing in quality ([standard]–[deviant]) were recorded.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["MMR amplitude", "MMR amplitudes", "bimodal distribution", "frequency distributions", "test vowels", "mismatch responses", "Dutch infants", "unimodal distribution", "Distributional Vowel Training", "Mismatch Response Distributional", "Dutch adults", "bimodal advantage", "normalization parameters"], "article_id"=>1196223, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Karin Wanrooij", "Paul Boersma", "Titia L. Van Zuijen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0109806.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adult_and_infant_studies_in_which_MMRs_to_the_same_vowel_pairs_differing_in_quality_standard_8211_deviant_were_recorded_/1196223", "title"=>"Adult and infant studies in which MMRs to the same vowel pairs differing in quality ([standard]–[deviant]) were recorded.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-07 02:54:08"}

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