Measuring What Latent Fingerprint Examiners Consider Sufficient Information for Individualization Determinations
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{"title"=>"Measuring what latent fingerprint examiners consider sufficient information for individualization determinations", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Bradford T.", "last_name"=>"Ulery", "scopus_author_id"=>"53865517600"}, {"first_name"=>"R. Austin", "last_name"=>"Hicklin", "scopus_author_id"=>"53864913300"}, {"first_name"=>"Maria Antonia", "last_name"=>"Roberts", "scopus_author_id"=>"55074907000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jo Ann", "last_name"=>"Buscaglia", "scopus_author_id"=>"7801470125"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84910632698", "sgr"=>"84910632698", "pui"=>"600434492", "isbn"=>"19326203 (ISSN)", "pmid"=>"25372036", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0110179"}, "id"=>"983aecd5-af16-3f17-9d53-4d392301b933", "abstract"=>"Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination--not an objective metric--that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying \"the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked\" is not the same as \"the prints had N corresponding minutiae.\" More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/measuring-latent-fingerprint-examiners-consider-sufficient-information-individualization-determinati", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Chemistry"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>4, "Computer Science"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Luxembourg"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779857"], "description"=>"<p>Each pair of fingerprints was assigned to one of 64 bins indicating the true mating and factor level for each of four dimensions. The factor levels for mated pairs describe the corresponding information available in the area of overlap. Nonmated pairs were described based on “apparent correspondences.”</p><p>Design dimensions used for data selection.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229504, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Design_dimensions_used_for_data_selection_/1229504", "title"=>"Design dimensions used for data selection.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779838"], "description"=>"<p>In (B), 1.6% of determinations with 12 or more corresponding minutiae marked were not individualized. A few responses in (B) indicate NV with corresponding minutiae due to examiners changing their value determinations during Comparison.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229485, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Associations_of_A_minutia_count_and_value_determinations_from_analysis_of_the_latent_n_8202_8202_3730_B_corresponding_minutia_count_and_determinations_from_comparison_of_latent_and_exemplar_prints_on_mated_data_n_8202_8202_2796_/1229485", "title"=>"Associations of (A) minutia count and value determinations from analysis of the latent (n = 3730); (B) corresponding minutia count and determinations from comparison of latent and exemplar prints on mated data (n = 2796).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779855"], "description"=>"<p>Logistic models estimating the probability of individualization based on corresponding minutia counts, on mated image pairs: (green) probability that an examiner would individualize based on the <b><i>same</i></b> examiner's corresponding minutia counts (6.0% misclassification, see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179#pone-0110179-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>); (red) probability that <b><i>another</i></b> examiner would individualize based on this examiner's minutia counts (20.4% misclassification, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179#pone-0110179-t004\" target=\"_blank\">Table 4</a>); (blue) probability that an examiner would individualize based on the <b><i>median</i></b> of all examiners' corresponding minutia counts (13.6% misclassification, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179#pone-0110179-t005\" target=\"_blank\">Table 5</a>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229502, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measuring_What_Latent_Fingerprint_Examiners_Consider_Sufficient_Information_for_Individualization_Determinations_Figure_7_/1229502", "title"=>"Measuring What Latent Fingerprint Examiners Consider Sufficient Information for Individualization Determinations - Figure 7", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779834"], "description"=>"<p>Each examiner was assigned a distinct, randomized sequence of latent-exemplar image pairs. For each pair, the latent was presented first for a value decision. If the latent was determined to be no value, the test proceeded directly to the latent from the next image pair; otherwise, an exemplar was presented for comparison and evaluation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229481, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Test_workflow_/1229481", "title"=>"Test workflow.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779851"], "description"=>"<p>(n = 452 responses; 6 to 16 responses per image pair.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229498, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Detail_of_Figure_5_for_the_39_image_pairs_that_had_median_corresponding_minutia_counts_between_6_and_9_5_with_the_addition_of_box_plots_showing_interquartile_range_minima_and_maxima_/1229498", "title"=>"Detail of Figure 5 for the 39 image pairs that had median corresponding minutia counts between 6 and 9.5, with the addition of box plots showing interquartile range, minima, and maxima.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779860"], "description"=>"<p>(14,608 paired responses by 165 examiners, reweighted to n = 231 mated image pairs) See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179#pone-0110179-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for definitions of predictor variables.</p><p>Misclassification rates for models using one examiner's annotations and determinations to predict a second examiner's individualization determinations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229507, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Misclassification_rates_for_models_using_one_examiner_s_annotations_and_determinations_to_predict_a_second_examiner_s_individualization_determinations_/1229507", "title"=>"Misclassification rates for models using one examiner's annotations and determinations to predict a second examiner's individualization determinations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779845"], "description"=>"<p>Corresponding points are shown here in red, unassociated in blue; minutiae as circles, deltas as triangles, other points as rhombuses; noncorresponding points as red Xs. Examiners B–E individualized; F excluded. Determinations by the 11 examiners assigned this image pair: 2 NV, 3 VEO (2 of which were changed to VID during Comparison), 6 VID; 1 inconclusive, 1 exclusion, 7 individualization.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229492, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_of_a_mated_image_pair_A_showing_variations_in_annotation_among_five_examiners_B_8211_F_/1229492", "title"=>"Example of a mated image pair (A), showing variations in annotation among five examiners (B–F).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779859"], "description"=>"<p>(n = 2796 responses by 165 examiners to 231 mated image pairs)</p><p>Image pair and examiner effects on corresponding minutia counts, showing restricted maximum likelihood estimates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229506, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Image_pair_and_examiner_effects_on_corresponding_minutia_counts_showing_restricted_maximum_likelihood_estimates_/1229506", "title"=>"Image pair and examiner effects on corresponding minutia counts, showing restricted maximum likelihood estimates.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779835"], "description"=>"<p>Corresponding features are indicated here in red, unassociated features in yellow, and debatable correspondences with question marks. This examiner marked 8 corresponding minutiae, 2 debatable correspondences, individualized, and assessed it as very difficult. Determinations by the 9 examiners assigned this image pair: 5 NV, 4 VID (1 changed to NV during Comparison); 1 inconclusive, 2 individualization.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229482, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Example_annotation_of_a_mated_image_pair_/1229482", "title"=>"Example annotation of a mated image pair.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779862"], "description"=>"<p>n = 2671 responses. CD_rate: proportion of examiners who marked a core or delta. MedianOverallClarity: Overall Clarity from the median corresponding clarity map. DF  =  degrees of freedom. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179#pone.0110179.s012\" target=\"_blank\">Appendix S12</a> for additional models and performance measures.</p><p>Misclassification rates for models describing individualization as a dependent response to (A) image pairs and examiners and (B) attributes of the image pairs as estimated by median statistics (derived from all examiner responses).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229509, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Misclassification_rates_for_models_describing_individualization_as_a_dependent_response_to_A_image_pairs_and_examiners_and_B_attributes_of_the_image_pairs_as_estimated_by_median_statistics_derived_from_all_examiner_responses_/1229509", "title"=>"Misclassification rates for models describing individualization as a dependent response to (A) image pairs and examiners and (B) attributes of the image pairs as estimated by median statistics (derived from all examiner responses).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779847"], "description"=>"<p>Each column of points contains the set of all responses for a given image pair. Some points are superimposed, indicated through color blending. X-axis is sorted by median, then by mean corresponding minutia count. Latents that were determined NV and not compared are shown as having zero corresponding minutiae. NV responses with one or more corresponding minutiae are due to examiners changing their value determinations during Comparison. (n = 2796 responses by 165 examiners to 231 mated image pairs.)</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229494, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Corresponding_minutia_count_y_axis_and_determination_color_by_image_pair_x_axis_/1229494", "title"=>"Corresponding minutia count (y-axis) and determination (color) by image pair (x-axis).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779858"], "description"=>"<p>(n = 2671 responses by 165 examiners on 231 mated pairs)</p><p>Misclassification rates for models describing associations between annotations and individualization determinations by the same examiner.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229505, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Misclassification_rates_for_models_describing_associations_between_annotations_and_individualization_determinations_by_the_same_examiner_/1229505", "title"=>"Misclassification rates for models describing associations between annotations and individualization determinations by the same examiner.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779885", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779886", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779887", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779888", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779889", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779890", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779891", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779892", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779893", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779894", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779895", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779896", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779897", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779898", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779899", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779900", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779901", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779902", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779903", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779904", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779905", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779906"], "description"=>"<div><p>Latent print examiners use their expertise to determine whether the information present in a comparison of two fingerprints (or palmprints) is sufficient to conclude that the prints were from the same source (individualization). When fingerprint evidence is presented in court, it is the examiner's determination—not an objective metric—that is presented. This study was designed to ascertain the factors that explain examiners' determinations of sufficiency for individualization. Volunteer latent print examiners (n = 170) were each assigned 22 pairs of latent and exemplar prints for examination, and annotated features, correspondence of features, and clarity. The 320 image pairs were selected specifically to control clarity and quantity of features. The predominant factor differentiating annotations associated with individualization and inconclusive determinations is the count of corresponding minutiae; other factors such as clarity provided minimal additional discriminative value. Examiners' counts of corresponding minutiae were strongly associated with their own determinations; however, due to substantial variation of both annotations and determinations among examiners, one examiner's annotation and determination on a given comparison is a relatively weak predictor of whether another examiner would individualize. The extensive variability in annotations also means that we must treat any individual examiner's minutia counts as interpretations of the (unknowable) information content of the prints: saying “the prints had N corresponding minutiae marked” is not the same as “the prints had N corresponding minutiae.” More consistency in annotations, which could be achieved through standardization and training, should lead to process improvements and provide greater transparency in casework.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229530, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.s022"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>58, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measuring_What_Latent_Fingerprint_Examiners_Consider_Sufficient_Information_for_Individualization_Determinations_/1229530", "title"=>"Measuring What Latent Fingerprint Examiners Consider Sufficient Information for Individualization Determinations", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779856"], "description"=>"<p>Colored by determination: inconclusive (black), individualization (gray); NV not included.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["exemplar prints", "control clarity", "minutia counts", "Individualization Determinations Latent print examiners use", "Latent Fingerprint Examiners", "22 pairs", "information content", "discriminative value", "determination", "320 image pairs", "Sufficient Information", "annotation", "process improvements", "print examiners", "minutiae", "fingerprint evidence"], "article_id"=>1229503, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Bradford T. Ulery", "R. Austin Hicklin", "Maria Antonia Roberts", "JoAnn Buscaglia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110179.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_corresponding_minutia_counts_by_A_the_majority_of_participants_n_8202_8202_2062_comparisons_of_mated_pairs_by_155_examiners_and_B_those_participants_following_a_12_point_standard_n_8202_8202_135_comparisons_of_mated_pairs_by_10_examiners_/1229503", "title"=>"Distribution of corresponding minutia counts by (A) the majority of participants (n = 2062 comparisons of mated pairs by 155 examiners) and (B) those participants following a 12-point standard (n = 135 comparisons of mated pairs by 10 examiners).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:37:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"100", "full-text"=>"118", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"173", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"291", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"17", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"107", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"181", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"44", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
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