To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work
Publication Date
December 10, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Jarrett E. K. Byrnes, Jai Ranganathan, Barbara L. E. Walker & Zen Faulkes
Volume
9
Issue
12
Pages
e110329
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0110329
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25494306
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4262210
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25494306
Web of Science
000346611400002
Scopus
84916920037
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/crowdfund-research-scientists-build-audience-work
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Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jarrett E.K.", "last_name"=>"Byrnes", "scopus_author_id"=>"12782433000"}, {"first_name"=>"Jai", "last_name"=>"Ranganathan", "scopus_author_id"=>"10041564600"}, {"first_name"=>"Barbara L.E.", "last_name"=>"Walker", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402208796"}, {"first_name"=>"Zen", "last_name"=>"Faulkes", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602803806"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "arxiv"=>"10.7287/peerj.preprints.270v1", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84916920037", "sgr"=>"84916920037", "pui"=>"600717293", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"25494306", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0110329"}, "id"=>"e6a49cf7-21f2-327f-a444-c4718d2718be", "abstract"=>"As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or \"fanbase\" and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/crowdfund-research-scientists-build-audience-work", "reader_count"=>112, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>10, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>25, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>15, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>10, "Lecturer"=>4, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31, "Arts and Humanities"=>3, "Philosophy"=>1, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>13, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>9, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>7, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Design"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>2, "Social Sciences"=>16}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>16}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>3}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>7}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>31}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>9}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>13}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Netherlands"=>1, "United States"=>13, "Brazil"=>2, "Italy"=>1, "Germany"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>7}

Scopus | Further Information

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832847"], "description"=>"<p>Line represents best fit from model described in the text. Shaded grey area represents one standard error around the fit relationship.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266947, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_Facebook_8220_Likes_8221_and_the_number_of_page_views_after_a_project_has_achieved_its_funding_goal_/1266947", "title"=>"Relationship between Facebook “Likes” and the number of page views after a project has achieved its funding goal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832858"], "description"=>"<p>Coefficient estimates, standard errors, and t-tests of predictors in analyses of number of contributors in round 1.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266958, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coefficient_estimates_standard_errors_and_t_tests_of_predictors_in_analyses_of_number_of_contributors_in_round_1_/1266958", "title"=>"Coefficient estimates, standard errors, and t-tests of predictors in analyses of number of contributors in round 1.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832855"], "description"=>"<p>Distribution of #SciFund crowdfunding projects (across rounds) by academic discipline.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266955, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_SciFund_crowdfunding_projects_across_rounds_by_academic_discipline_/1266955", "title"=>"Distribution of #SciFund crowdfunding projects (across rounds) by academic discipline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832837"], "description"=>"<p>Line represents best fit from model described in the text. Shaded grey area represents the 95% confidence interval around the fit relationship.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266940, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Total_dollars_raised_plotted_against_the_number_of_contributors_/1266940", "title"=>"Total dollars raised plotted against the number of contributors.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832854"], "description"=>"<p>How online engagement leads to a crowdfunded research project.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266954, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_How_online_engagement_leads_to_a_crowdfunded_research_project_/1266954", "title"=>"How online engagement leads to a crowdfunded research project.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832871", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832872", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832873", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832874", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832875", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832876", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832877"], "description"=>"<div><p>As rates of traditional sources of scientific funding decline, scientists have become increasingly interested in crowdfunding as a means of bringing in new money for research. In fields where crowdfunding has become a major venue for fundraising such as the arts and technology, building an audience for one's work is key for successful crowdfunding. For science, to what extent does audience building, via engagement and outreach, increase a scientist's abilities to bring in money via crowdfunding? Here we report on an analysis of the #SciFund Challenge, a crowdfunding experiment in which 159 scientists attempted to crowdfund their research. Using data gathered from a survey of participants, internet metrics, and logs of project donations, we find that public engagement is the key to crowdfunding success. Building an audience or “fanbase” and actively engaging with that audience as well as seeking to broaden the reach of one's audience indirectly increases levels of funding. Audience size and effort interact to bring in more people to view a scientist's project proposal, leading to funding. We discuss how projects capable of raising levels of funds commensurate with traditional funding agencies will need to incorporate direct involvement of the public with science. We suggest that if scientists and research institutions wish to tap this new source of funds, they will need to encourage and reward activities that allow scientists to engage with the public.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266968, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>85, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_To_Crowdfund_Research_Scientists_Must_Build_an_Audience_for_Their_Work_/1266968", "title"=>"To Crowdfund Research, Scientists Must Build an Audience for Their Work", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832849"], "description"=>"<p>Line represents best fit from model described in the text. Shaded grey area represents on standard error around the fit relationship.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266949, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_monthly_blog_posts_and_number_of_Twitter_followers_/1266949", "title"=>"Relationship between monthly blog posts and number of Twitter followers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832866"], "description"=>"<p>Respondents could mention multiple factors. N refers to number of completed surveys.</p><p>Factors mentioned by SciFund project creators that <b>hurt</b> project fundraising.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266966, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.t012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factors_mentioned_by_SciFund_project_creators_that_hurt_project_fundraising_/1266966", "title"=>"Factors mentioned by SciFund project creators that <b>hurt</b> project fundraising.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832863"], "description"=>"<p>Likelihood ratio tests evaluating predictors of pre- (a,) and post-goal page views (b, c) in rounds 2 and 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266963, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.t009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Likelihood_ratio_tests_evaluating_predictors_of_pre_a_and_post_goal_page_views_b_c_in_rounds_2_and_3_/1266963", "title"=>"Likelihood ratio tests evaluating predictors of pre- (a,) and post-goal page views (b, c) in rounds 2 and 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832845"], "description"=>"<p>Line represents best fit from model described in the text. Shaded grey area represents the 95% confidence interval around the fit relationship. Point size is proportional to the number of Twitter followers.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266945, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_Facebook_8220_Likes_8221_number_of_Twitter_followers_and_project_page_views_before_a_project_hit_its_goal_/1266945", "title"=>"Relationship between Facebook “Likes”, number of Twitter followers, and project page views before a project hit its goal.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832862"], "description"=>"<p>Coefficient estimates, standard errors, and t-tests of predictors in analyses of number of contributors in rounds 2 and 3.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266962, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Coefficient_estimates_standard_errors_and_t_tests_of_predictors_in_analyses_of_number_of_contributors_in_rounds_2_and_3_/1266962", "title"=>"Coefficient estimates, standard errors, and t-tests of predictors in analyses of number of contributors in rounds 2 and 3.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832843"], "description"=>"<p>Plot shows the number of contributors plotted against the number of Facebook friends. Size of points shows the number of page views before achieving success. Color shows the number of project page views after goals were reached with blue representing no views to red representing many views. Line represents best fit from generalized linear model between x and y. Shaded grey area represents the 95% confidence interval around the fit relationship.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Project Proposal", "research institutions", "reward activities", "crowdfunding experiment", "funding decline", "increases levels", "internet metrics", "audience building", "funding agencies", "Audience size", "crowdfunding success", "Crowdfund Research", "SciFund Challenge", "project donations", "159 scientists"], "article_id"=>1266943, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Jarrett E. K. Byrnes", "Jai Ranganathan", "Barbara L. E. Walker", "Zen Faulkes"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110329.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Factors_affecting_number_of_contributors_to_a_project_/1266943", "title"=>"Factors affecting number of contributors to a project.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 03:02:17"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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