Stable Isotope and Trace Element Studies on Gladiators and Contemporary Romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for Differences in Diet
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{"title"=>"Stable isotope and trace element studies on gladiators and contemporary romans from Ephesus (Turkey, 2nd and 3rd Ct. AD) - Implications for differences in diet", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sandra", "last_name"=>"Lösch", "scopus_author_id"=>"14527514400"}, {"first_name"=>"Negahnaz", "last_name"=>"Moghaddam", "scopus_author_id"=>"55985314300"}, {"first_name"=>"Karl", "last_name"=>"Grossschmidt", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602237072"}, {"first_name"=>"Daniele U.", "last_name"=>"Risser", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003632131"}, {"first_name"=>"Fabian", "last_name"=>"Kanz", "scopus_author_id"=>"6507848270"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"600170291", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0110489", "sgr"=>"84908024185", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84908024185", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"25333366"}, "id"=>"2bd337b3-640e-3645-a9d7-5329482cecb3", "abstract"=>"The gladiator cemetery discovered in Ephesus (Turkey) in 1993 dates to the 2nd and 3rd century AD. The aim of this study is to reconstruct diverse diet, social stratification, and migration of the inhabitants of Roman Ephesus and the distinct group of gladiators. Stable carbon, nitrogen, and sulphur isotope analysis were applied, and inorganic bone elements (strontium, calcium) were determined. In total, 53 individuals, including 22 gladiators, were analysed. All individuals consumed C3 plants like wheat and barley as staple food. A few individuals show indication of consumption of C4 plants. The δ13C values of one female from the gladiator cemetery and one gladiator differ from all other individuals. Their δ34S values indicate that they probably migrated from another geographical region or consumed different foods. The δ15N values are relatively low in comparison to other sites from Roman times. A probable cause for the depletion of 15N in Ephesus could be the frequent consumption of legumes. The Sr/Ca-ratios of the gladiators were significantly higher than the values of the contemporary Roman inhabitants. Since the Sr/Ca-ratio reflects the main Ca-supplier in the diet, the elevated values of the gladiators might suggest a frequent use of a plant ash beverage, as mentioned in ancient texts.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/stable-isotope-trace-element-studies-gladiators-contemporary-romans-ephesus-turkey-2nd-3rd-ct-ad-imp", "reader_count"=>46, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>2, "Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Arts and Humanities"=>12, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Social Sciences"=>9, "Computer Science"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>9}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>12}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719168"], "description"=>"<p>(a) Geographical location of ancient Ephesus. (b) City map of Roman Ephesus with investigated excavations sites. (c) Details of the excavation trench in 1993 (DAM93) including the gladiator cemetery (DAM93G). Images compiled with modified data from OpenStreetMap and CIA maps.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205962, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_area_at_the_west_coast_of_Turkey_/1205962", "title"=>"Study area at the west coast of Turkey.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719171"], "description"=>"<p>In situ gladiator tombstone excavated in the cemetery.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205965, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_situ_gladiator_tombstone_excavated_in_the_cemetery_/1205965", "title"=>"In situ gladiator tombstone excavated in the cemetery.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719173"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison between different groups (gladiators, NG-males, and NG-females).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205967, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stable_13_C_and_948_15_N_ratios_/1205967", "title"=>"Stable δ<sup>13</sup>C and δ<sup>15</sup>N ratios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719177"], "description"=>"<p>Comparison between different groups (gladiators, NG-males, and NG-females).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205971, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stable_13_C_and_948_34_S_ratios_/1205971", "title"=>"Stable δ<sup>13</sup>C and δ<sup>34</sup>S ratios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719178"], "description"=>"<p>Individual values and comparison between different groups (gladiators, NG-all, NG-males, and females).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205972, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sr_Ca_ratios_/1205972", "title"=>"Sr/Ca ratios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719179"], "description"=>"<p>Individuals excluded due to collagen quality criteria are shown in <i>italic</i> type; LOD, limit of detection; N/A, not applied; F, female; M, male.</p><p>Individual data of stable carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) isotope ratios for collagen and strontium (Sr), calcium (Ca) as well as Ca/P-ratios and Sr/Ca-ratios.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205973, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Individual_data_of_stable_carbon_C_nitrogen_N_and_sulfur_S_isotope_ratios_for_collagen_and_strontium_Sr_calcium_Ca_as_well_as_Ca_P_ratios_and_Sr_Ca_ratios_/1205973", "title"=>"Individual data of stable carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) isotope ratios for collagen and strontium (Sr), calcium (Ca) as well as Ca/P-ratios and Sr/Ca-ratios.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719180"], "description"=>"<p>*… μg/L.</p><p>Data of calcium (Ca); Ca/P-ratios, strontium (Sr), and Sr/Ca-ratios, as well as lanthanum (La) and pH for the analyzed samples of animal and cremated human bones respectively total soil and soil eluents.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205974, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Data_of_calcium_Ca_Ca_P_ratios_strontium_Sr_and_Sr_Ca_ratios_as_well_as_lanthanum_La_and_pH_for_the_analyzed_samples_of_animal_and_cremated_human_bones_respectively_total_soil_and_soil_eluents_/1205974", "title"=>"Data of calcium (Ca); Ca/P-ratios, strontium (Sr), and Sr/Ca-ratios, as well as lanthanum (La) and pH for the analyzed samples of animal and cremated human bones respectively total soil and soil eluents.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719181"], "description"=>"<p>* … Precision was estimated from the deviation of six independent replicates.</p><p>LOD … Limit of detection if sample weight is 500 mg ashed (500°C) bone.</p><p>Instrumentation characteristics for the ICP-OES measurements.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205975, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Instrumentation_characteristics_for_the_ICP_OES_measurements_/1205975", "title"=>"Instrumentation characteristics for the ICP-OES measurements.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719184"], "description"=>"<p>NG, non gladiator; SD, standard deviation; N/A, not applied.</p><p>Basic statistics for stable isotope ratios and Sr/Cr data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205977, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Basic_statistics_for_stable_isotope_ratios_and_Sr_Cr_data_/1205977", "title"=>"Basic statistics for stable isotope ratios and Sr/Cr data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719189"], "description"=>"<p>Significant <i>p</i> values are bold; NG, non gladiator.</p><p>Kruskal-Wallis respectively Mann-Whitney U tests performed for gladiator and non gladiator groups.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205978, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Kruskal_Wallis_respectively_Mann_Whitney_U_tests_performed_for_gladiator_and_non_gladiator_groups_/1205978", "title"=>"Kruskal-Wallis respectively Mann-Whitney U tests performed for gladiator and non gladiator groups.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1719190"], "description"=>"<p>Ratios of Ca and Sr for bone vs. total soil vs. soil eluent and bone vs. soil eluent gradients, as well as Sr/Ca-ratios in bone, soil and eluent for all investigated excavation locations.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["C 4 plants", "gladiator cemetery", "Ephesus", "individuals show indication", "sulphur isotope analysis", "Trace Element Studies", "plant ash beverage", "3 rd century AD", "3 rd Ct", "C 3 plants", "roman"], "article_id"=>1205979, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Sandra Lösch", "Negahnaz Moghaddam", "Karl Grossschmidt", "Daniele U. Risser", "Fabian Kanz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110489.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratios_of_Ca_and_Sr_for_bone_vs_total_soil_vs_soil_eluent_and_bone_vs_soil_eluent_gradients_as_well_as_Sr_Ca_ratios_in_bone_soil_and_eluent_for_all_investigated_excavation_locations_/1205979", "title"=>"Ratios of Ca and Sr for bone vs. total soil vs. soil eluent and bone vs. soil eluent gradients, as well as Sr/Ca-ratios in bone, soil and eluent for all investigated excavation locations.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-15 03:56:26"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[289]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[266]}]}
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