Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) of Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize and Modify CeO2 and Ag Nanoparticles
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of freshwater biofilms stabilize and modify CeO2 and Ag nanoparticles", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alexandra", "last_name"=>"Kroll", "scopus_author_id"=>"24481416800"}, {"first_name"=>"Renata", "last_name"=>"Behra", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603687871"}, {"first_name"=>"Ralf", "last_name"=>"Kaegi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55954451800"}, {"first_name"=>"Laura", "last_name"=>"Sigg", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006721053"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25333364", "sgr"=>"84908178790", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0110709", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84908178790", "pui"=>"600198892", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"a81b2c8c-b4e4-3795-ba9f-77ed3ab3a6c4", "abstract"=>"Streams are potential receiving compartments for engineered nanoparticles (NP). In streams, NP may remain dispersed or settle to the benthic compartment. Both dispersed and settling NP can accumulate in benthic biofilms called periphyton that are essential to stream ecosystems. Periphytic organisms excrete extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that interact with any material reaching the biofilms. To understand the interaction of NP with periphyton it is therefore crucial to study the interaction of NP with EPS. We investigated the influence of EPS on the physicochemical properties of selected NP (CeO2, Ag) under controlled conditions at pH 6, 7.6, 8.6 and light or dark exposure. We extracted EPS from five different periphyton communities, characterized the extracts, and exposed CeO2 and carbonate-stabilized Ag NP (0.5 and 5 mg/L, both 25 nm primary particle size) and AgNO3 to EPS (10 mg/L) over two weeks. We measured NP size distribution, shape, primary particle size, surface plasmon resonance, and dissolution. All EPS extracts were composed of biopolymers, building blocks of humic substances, low molecular weight (Mr) acids, and small amphiphilic or neutral compounds in varying concentrations. CeO2 NP were stabilized by EPS independent of pH and light/dark while dissolution increased over time in the dark at pH 6. EPS induced a size increase in Ag NP in the light with decreasing pH and the formation of metallic Ag NP from AgNO3 at the same conditions via EPS-enhanced photoreduction. NP transformation and formation were slower in the extract with the lowest biopolymer and low Mr acid concentrations. Periphytic EPS in combination with naturally varying pH and light/dark conditions influence the properties of the Ag and CeO2 NP tested and thus the exposure conditions within biofilms. Our results indicate that periphytic organisms may be exposed to a constantly changing mixture of engineered and naturally formed Ag NP and Ag+.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/extracellular-polymeric-substances-eps-freshwater-biofilms-stabilize-modify-ceo2-ag-nanoparticles", "reader_count"=>36, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>14, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>5, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Materials Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Chemistry"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>5}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Sweden"=>1, "Turkey"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

CrossRef

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84908178790"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84908178790?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84908178790&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84908178790&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84908178790", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84908178790", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84908178790", "dc:title"=>"Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of freshwater biofilms stabilize and modify CeO<inf>2</inf> and Ag nanoparticles", "dc:creator"=>"Kroll A.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"10", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-10-21", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"21 October 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0110709", "citedby-count"=>"52", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology", "affiliation-city"=>"Dubendorf", "affiliation-country"=>"Switzerland"}], "pubmed-id"=>"25333364", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e110709", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0110709", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"41", "xml_views"=>"10", "html_views"=>"116"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"27", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"22", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"90"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"66"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"35"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"56"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"37"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"49"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"18", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"41"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"51"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"60"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"46"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"57"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"75"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"58"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"23", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"76"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"84"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"15", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"21", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"17", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"20", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"33", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"12", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"43"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2020", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"28"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726297"], "description"=>"<p>n = 24 from 3 independent experiments.</p><p>Average concentrations of total and dissolved Ag with standard deviations (SD) in AgNO<sub>3</sub> dispersions as determined by ICP-MS of acid-digested samples incubated in light (100 µE/m<sup>2</sup>s) with (+) or without (−) EPS (10 mg DOC/L) for 168 h.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211518, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_concentrations_of_total_and_dissolved_Ag_with_standard_deviations_SD_in_AgNO_3_dispersions_as_determined_by_ICP_MS_of_acid_digested_samples_incubated_in_light_100_181_E_m_2_s_with_or_without_8722_EPS_10_mg_DOC_L_for_168_h_/1211518", "title"=>"Average concentrations of total and dissolved Ag with standard deviations (SD) in AgNO<sub>3</sub> dispersions as determined by ICP-MS of acid-digested samples incubated in light (100 µE/m<sup>2</sup>s) with (+) or without (−) EPS (10 mg DOC/L) for 168 h.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726294"], "description"=>"<p>A–B: Spectra of light absorption of AgNO<sub>3</sub> solutions (5 mg/L Ag) as determined by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Samples were incubated in light (100 µE/m<sup>2</sup>s) at pH 6 without (<b>A</b>) or with EPS (<b>B</b>, 10 mg DOC/L; 3 h –168 h spectra obtained with EPS extract 1; 336 h spectrum obtained with EPS extract 4). EPS control (<b>B</b>) contained 10 mg DOC/L EPS in 2 mM NaHCO<sub>3</sub>. Different EPS extracts did not differ in the absorption of light >300 nm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211515, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extracellular_Polymeric_Substances_EPS_of_Freshwater_Biofilms_Stabilize_and_Modify_CeO_2_Figure_7_and_Ag_Nanoparticles_/1211515", "title"=>"Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) of Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize and Modify CeO<sub>2 - Figure 7 </sub> and Ag Nanoparticles", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726293"], "description"=>"<p>Samples were incubated in the dark or in light (100 µE/m<sup>2</sup>s). n = 9 from 3 independent experiments, each experiment was done with one EPS extract (10 mg DOC/L). * Significant difference between EPS-free and EPS containing samples; # significant difference between light and dark treated samples, 168 h: p = 0.0012, df = 3 (between groups), F = 5.774, 336 h: p<0.0001, df = 3 (between groups), F = 66.56.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211514, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_mass_concentrations_with_standard_deviations_of_dissolved_Ag_in_5_mg_L_Ag_NP_dispersions_directly_after_addition_of_NP_0_h_8221_and_after_168_h_and_336_h_of_incubation_as_determined_by_ICP_MS_of_acid_digested_samples_/1211514", "title"=>"Mean mass concentrations with standard deviations of dissolved Ag in 5 mg/L Ag NP dispersions directly after addition of NP (,,0 h”) and after 168 h and 336 h of incubation as determined by ICP-MS of acid-digested samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726288"], "description"=>"<p>A–D: Mean hydrodynamic diameter of CeO<sub>2</sub> NP with standard deviations in 5 mg CeO<sub>2</sub>/L dispersions as determined by DLS (z-average/intensity distribution; <b>A, B</b>) and NTA (mean size, <b>C</b>) and mean EPM and zetapotential (<b>D</b>) with standard deviations determined by electrophoresis/DLS. Samples were incubated in the dark or in light (100 µE/m<sup>2</sup>s). n = 15 from 5 independent experiments with 3 replicates each, each experiment was done with one EPS extract (10 mg/L). 3 h DLS results in panel <b>A</b> for CeO<sub>2</sub> NP without EPS at pH 7.6 and 8.6 in the dark and for CeO<sub>2</sub> NP with EPS at pH 8.6 in the light were discarded due to high polydispersity. <b>A</b> ** significantly different from light-treated samples without EPS and ### significantly different from dark-treated sample with and without EPS, p<0.0001, df = 11 (between groups), F = 15.79. <b>B</b> * significantly different from light-treated samples without EPS, <sup>##</sup> significantly different from dark-treated samples with and without EPS, p = 0.001, dg = 11 (between groups), F = 6.52. <b>D</b> 168 h: ** (pH 6) and *** (pH 7.6 and 8.6) significantly different from light-treated samples without EPS, p<0.0001, df = 11 (between groups), F = 11.62.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211509, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extracellular_Polymeric_Substances_EPS_of_Freshwater_Biofilms_Stabilize_and_Modify_CeO_2_Figure_1_and_Ag_Nanoparticles_/1211509", "title"=>"Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) of Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize and Modify CeO<sub>2 - Figure 1 </sub> and Ag Nanoparticles", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726296"], "description"=>"<p>DOC: dissolved organic carbon, cDOC: chromatographable DOC, N: nitrogen, HS: humic substances, M<sub>r</sub>: molecular weight.</p><p>Properties of EPS extracts 1–5 as determined by weighing of dry mass, protein quantification and LC-OCD-OND.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211517, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Properties_of_EPS_extracts_1_8211_5_as_determined_by_weighing_of_dry_mass_protein_quantification_and_LC_OCD_OND_/1211517", "title"=>"Properties of EPS extracts 1–5 as determined by weighing of dry mass, protein quantification and LC-OCD-OND.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726295"], "description"=>"<p>A–C: Mean hydrodynamic diameter of NP formed from AgNO<sub>3</sub> (5 mg/L dispersions) with standard deviations as determined DLS (intensity distribution (A) and NTA (B). Mean EPM and zetapotential with standard deviations determined by electrophoresis/DLS (C). Samples were incubated in light (100 µE/m<sup>2</sup>s). 3 h: n = 15, 5 independent experiments (EPS extracts 1–5, 10 mg DOC/L). 168 h: n = 12, 4 independent experiments (EPS extracts 1–3, 5). 336 h: n = 3, 1 experiment (EPS extract 4).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211516, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extracellular_Polymeric_Substances_EPS_of_Freshwater_Biofilms_Stabilize_and_Modify_CeO_2_Figure_8_and_Ag_Nanoparticles_/1211516", "title"=>"Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) of Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize and Modify CeO<sub>2 - Figure 8 </sub> and Ag Nanoparticles", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726292"], "description"=>"<p>A–B: Spectra of absolute light absorption of 5 mg/L Ag NP as determined by UV-VIS spectroscopy. Samples were incubated in light (100 µE/m<sup>2</sup>s) at pH 6 without (<b>A</b>) or with EPS (<b>B</b>, 10 mg DOC/L; 3–168 h spectra obtained with EPS extract 1; 336 h spectrum obtained with EPS extract 4). EPS control (<b>B</b>) contained 10 mg DOC/L EPS in 2 mM NaHCO<sub>3</sub>. Different EPS extracts did not differ in absorption of light >300 nm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211513, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>99, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extracellular_Polymeric_Substances_EPS_of_Freshwater_Biofilms_Stabilize_and_Modify_CeO_2_Figure_5_and_Ag_Nanoparticles_/1211513", "title"=>"Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) of Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize and Modify CeO<sub>2 - Figure 5 </sub> and Ag Nanoparticles", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726290"], "description"=>"<p>Samples were incubated in the dark or in light (100 µE/m<sup>2</sup>s). n = 9 in 3 independent experiments, each experiment was done with one EPS extract. *** Significant difference between EPS-free and EPS containing samples; ### significant difference between light and dark treated samples, 168 h: p<0.0001, df = 11 (between groups), F = 52.55, 336 h: p<0.0001, df = 11 (between groups), F = 25.65.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211511, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_mass_concentrations_with_standard_deviations_of_dissolved_Ce_in_5_mg_L_CeO_2_NP_dispersions_directly_after_addition_of_NP_0_h_8221_and_after_168_h_and_336_h_of_incubation_as_determined_by_ICP_MS_of_acid_digested_samples_/1211511", "title"=>"Mean mass concentrations with standard deviations of dissolved Ce in 5 mg/L CeO<sub>2</sub> NP dispersions directly after addition of NP (,,0 h”) and after 168 h and 336 h of incubation as determined by ICP-MS of acid-digested samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726291"], "description"=>"<p>A–D: Mean hydrodynamic diameter of Ag NP with standard deviations in 5 mg Ag NP/L dispersions with and without 10 mg DOC/L EPS as determined by DLS (z-average/intensity distribution; <b>A, B</b>) and NTA (mean size, <b>C</b>) and mean EPM and zetapotential (<b>D</b>) with standard deviations determined by electrophoresis/DLS. 3 h: n = 15, 5 independent experiments (E1–5). 168 h: n = 12, 4 independent experiments (E1–3, 5). 336 h: n = 3, 1 experiment (E4). Each experiment was done with one EPS extract. Samples were incubated in the dark or in light (100 µE/m<sup>2</sup>s). <b>B</b> 168 h: *** and ** significantly different from light-treated samples without EPS, <sup>###</sup> and <sup>##</sup> significantly different from dark-treated samples with and without EPS, p<0.0001, df = 11 (between groups), F = 49.51. <b>C</b> 168 h: *** significantly different from light-treated samples without EPS and <sup>###</sup> significantly different from dark-treated samples with and without EPS, p<0.001, df = 11 (between groups), F = 77.83. <b>D</b> 168 h: * significantly different from light-treated samples with EPS, p<0.001, df = 11 (between groups), F = 4.241.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211512, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Extracellular_Polymeric_Substances_EPS_of_Freshwater_Biofilms_Stabilize_and_Modify_CeO_2_Figure_4_and_Ag_Nanoparticles_/1211512", "title"=>"Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) of Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize and Modify CeO<sub>2 - Figure 4 </sub> and Ag Nanoparticles", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726289"], "description"=>"<p>TEM bright field image of CeO<sub>2</sub> NP after 24 h of stirring (5 mg/L, pH 7.6, 2 mM NaHCO<sub>3</sub>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211510, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TEM_bright_field_image_of_CeO_2_NP_after_24_h_of_stirring_5_mg_L_pH_7_6_2_mM_NaHCO_3_/1211510", "title"=>"TEM bright field image of CeO<sub>2</sub> NP after 24 h of stirring (5 mg/L, pH 7.6, 2 mM NaHCO<sub>3</sub>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726298", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726299", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726300", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726301", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726302", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726303", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726304", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726305", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726306", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726307", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726308", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726309", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726310", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726311", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726312", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726313", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726314", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726315", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726316", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726317", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726318", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726319", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1726320"], "description"=>"<div><p>Streams are potential receiving compartments for engineered nanoparticles (NP). In streams, NP may remain dispersed or settle to the benthic compartment. Both dispersed and settling NP can accumulate in benthic biofilms called periphyton that are essential to stream ecosystems. Periphytic organisms excrete extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that interact with any material reaching the biofilms. To understand the interaction of NP with periphyton it is therefore crucial to study the interaction of NP with EPS. We investigated the influence of EPS on the physicochemical properties of selected NP (CeO<sub>2</sub>, Ag) under controlled conditions at pH 6, 7.6, 8.6 and light or dark exposure. We extracted EPS from five different periphyton communities, characterized the extracts, and exposed CeO<sub>2</sub> and carbonate-stabilized Ag NP (0.5 and 5 mg/L, both 25 nm primary particle size) and AgNO<sub>3</sub> to EPS (10 mg/L) over two weeks. We measured NP size distribution, shape, primary particle size, surface plasmon resonance, and dissolution. All EPS extracts were composed of biopolymers, building blocks of humic substances, low molecular weight (M<sub>r</sub>) acids, and small amphiphilic or neutral compounds in varying concentrations. CeO<sub>2</sub> NP were stabilized by EPS independent of pH and light/dark while dissolution increased over time in the dark at pH 6. EPS induced a size increase in Ag NP in the light with decreasing pH and the formation of metallic Ag NP from AgNO<sub>3</sub> at the same conditions via EPS-enhanced photoreduction. NP transformation and formation were slower in the extract with the lowest biopolymer and low M<sub>r</sub> acid concentrations. Periphytic EPS in combination with naturally varying pH and light/dark conditions influence the properties of the Ag and CeO<sub>2</sub> NP tested and thus the exposure conditions within biofilms. Our results indicate that periphytic organisms may be exposed to a constantly changing mixture of engineered and naturally formed Ag NP and Ag<sup>+</sup>.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["NP size distribution", "Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize", "pH 6. EPS", "Ag Nanoparticles Streams", "Extracellular Polymeric Substances", "Mr acid concentrations", "particle size", "Ag NP", "Modify CeO 2", "surface plasmon resonance", "CeO 2 NP", "AgNO 3"], "article_id"=>1211519, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexandra Kroll", "Renata Behra", "Ralf Kaegi", "Laura Sigg"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s010", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s011", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s012", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s013", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s014", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s015", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s016", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s017", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s018", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s019", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s020", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s021", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s022", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110709.s023"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>117, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Extracellular_Polymeric_Substances_EPS_of_Freshwater_Biofilms_Stabilize_and_Modify_CeO_2_and_Ag_Nanoparticles/1211519", "title"=>"Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) of Freshwater Biofilms Stabilize and Modify CeO<sub>2</sub> and Ag Nanoparticles", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-10-21 03:49:39"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"15", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"26", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"15", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"16", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"17", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Microbiology", "average_usage"=>[317]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[320]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[313]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Nanotechnology", "average_usage"=>[230, 417]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Materials science", "average_usage"=>[259]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[266]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts