Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy: Investigation into Carcass Decomposition in the Saanich Inlet, British Columbia Using a Baited Camera
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{"title"=>"Deep coastal marine taphonomy: investigation into carcass decomposition in the Saanich Inlet, British Columbia using a baited camera", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Gail S.", "last_name"=>"Anderson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7404223891"}, {"first_name"=>"Lynne S.", "last_name"=>"Bell", "scopus_author_id"=>"56183195000"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PloS one", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25329759", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0110710", "sgr"=>"84933556654", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84933556654", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"605041808"}, "id"=>"f0296666-3612-3f63-974d-d9dd22d1fe25", "abstract"=>"Decomposition and faunal colonization of a carcass in the terrestrial environment has been well studied, but knowledge of decomposition in the marine environment is based almost entirely on anecdotal reports. Three pig carcasses were deployed in Saanich Inlet, BC, over 3 years utilizing Ocean Network Canada's VENUS observatory. Each carcass was deployed in late summer/early fall at 99 m under a remotely controlled camera and observed several times a day. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, density and pressure were continuously measured. Carcass 1 was immediately colonized by Munida quadrispina, Pandalus platyceros and Metacarcinus magister, rapidly scavenged then dragged from view by Day 22. Artifacts specific to each of the crustaceans' feeding patterns were observed. Carcass 2 was scavenged in a similar fashion. Exposed tissue became covered by Orchomenella obtusa (Family Lysianassidae) which removed all the internal tissues rapidly. Carcass 3 attracted only a few M. quadrispina, remaining intact, developing a thick filamentous sulphur bacterial mat, until Day 92, when it was skeletonized by crustacea. The major difference between the deployments was dissolved oxygen levels. The first two carcasses were placed when oxygen levels were tolerable, becoming more anoxic. This allowed larger crustacea to feed. However, Carcass 3 was deployed when the water was already extremely anoxic, which prevented larger crustacea from accessing the carcass. The smaller M. quadrispina were unable to break the skin alone. The larger crustacea returned when the Inlet was re-oxygenated in spring. Oxygen levels, therefore, drive the biota in this area, although most crustacea endured stressful levels of oxygen to access the carcasses for much of the time. These data will be valuable in forensic investigations involving submerged bodies, indicating types of water conditions to which the body has been exposed, identifying post-mortem artifacts and providing realistic expectations for recovery divers and families of the deceased.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/deep-coastal-marine-taphonomy-investigation-carcass-decomposition-saanich-inlet-british-columbia-usi", "reader_count"=>44, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>10, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>9, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>9, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>5, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>5}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>7}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>16}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725161"], "description"=>"<p><i>M.m. = Metacarcinus</i> ( = Cancer) magister Dana, <i>M.q.</i> = <i>Munida quadrispina</i> (Brandt), <i>P.p.</i> = <i>Pandalus platyceros, H, g.</i> = <i>Hexanchus griseus Bonneterre, P.h.</i> = <i>Pycnopodia helianthoides</i> (Brandt), <i>O.r.</i> = <i>Octopus rubescens</i> Berry, <i>O.s.</i> = <i>Orchomenella obtusa</i> Sars, <i>L.e.</i> = <i>Lyopsetta exilis</i> (Jordan & Gilbert), S.e. = <i>Sagitta elegans</i> Verrill.</p><p>Comparison of faunal scavenging of all three carcasses over time, together with dissolved oxygen levels.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210635, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_faunal_scavenging_of_all_three_carcasses_over_time_together_with_dissolved_oxygen_levels_/1210635", "title"=>"Comparison of faunal scavenging of all three carcasses over time, together with dissolved oxygen levels.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725157"], "description"=>"<p>Carcass deployment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210631, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carcass_deployment_/1210631", "title"=>"Carcass deployment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725158"], "description"=>"<p>Victoria Experimental Network Under Sea (VENUS) instruments used in the study (adapted from <a href=\"http://www.oceannetworks.ca\" target=\"_blank\">www.oceannetworks.ca</a>) (VIP = VENUS Instrument Platform, DCT = Digital Camera Tripod, DCF = Digital Camera Frame).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210632, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Victoria_Experimental_Network_Under_Sea_VENUS_instruments_used_in_the_study_adapted_from_www_oceannetworks_ca_VIP_VENUS_Instrument_Platform_DCT_Digital_Camera_Tripod_DCF_Digital_Camera_Frame_/1210632", "title"=>"Victoria Experimental Network Under Sea (VENUS) instruments used in the study (adapted from www.oceannetworks.ca) (VIP = VENUS Instrument Platform, DCT = Digital Camera Tripod, DCF = Digital Camera Frame).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725052"], "description"=>"<p>A. A few <i>Munida quadrispina</i> Benedict (squat lobster) <i>(M.q.)</i> attracted, but very few fauna present; B. Silt covering carcass and only a few <i>M.q.</i> present, but no damage visible. C. Some grazing marks in groin area from <i>M.q.</i> but skin not broken through; D. Bacterial mat forming over entire carcass. Note numerous <i>Lyopsetta exilis</i> (Jordan & Gilbert) (slender sole) on substrate; E. Sudden influx of large number of fish; F. Large numbers of <i>Pandalus platyceros</i> Brandt (three spot shrimp) as well as <i>Metacarcinus magister</i> Dana (Dungeness crab) with very few <i>M.q.</i> (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210567, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Progression_of_carcass_scavenging_and_degradation_for_Carcass_3_2008_2009_/1210567", "title"=>"Progression of carcass scavenging and degradation for Carcass 3 2008/2009.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725156"], "description"=>"<p>Pressure (decibar) for the duration of study for each carcass (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210630, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g015", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pressure_decibar_for_the_duration_of_study_for_each_carcass_Ocean_Network_Canada_8217_s_VENUS_observatory_/1210630", "title"=>"Pressure (decibar) for the duration of study for each carcass (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725153"], "description"=>"<p>Salinity (psu) for the duration of study for each carcass (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210627, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g012", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Salinity_psu_for_the_duration_of_study_for_each_carcass_Ocean_Network_Canada_8217_s_VENUS_observatory_/1210627", "title"=>"Salinity (psu) for the duration of study for each carcass (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725065"], "description"=>"<p><i>Pandalus platyceros</i> Brandt (three spot shrimp) on carcass (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210580, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sagitta_elegans_Verrill_arrow_worms_and_other_plankton_attracted_by_the_lights_on_Carcass_2_on_Day_2_/1210580", "title"=>"<i>Sagitta elegans</i> Verrill (arrow worms) and other plankton attracted by the lights on Carcass 2, on Day 2.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725152"], "description"=>"<p>Temperature (°C) for the duration of study for each carcass (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210626, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g011", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temperature_176_C_for_the_duration_of_study_for_each_carcass_Ocean_Network_Canada_8217_s_VENUS_observatory_/1210626", "title"=>"Temperature (°C) for the duration of study for each carcass (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725122"], "description"=>"<p><i>Munida quadrispina</i> Benedict (squat lobster) picking at the damaged area of the abdomen of Carcass 1 on Day 2 (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210600, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Munida_quadrispina_Benedict_squat_lobster_picking_at_the_damaged_area_of_the_abdomen_of_Carcass_1_on_Day_2_Ocean_Network_Canada_s_VENUS_observatory_/1210600", "title"=>"<i>Munida quadrispina</i> Benedict (squat lobster) picking at the damaged area of the abdomen of Carcass 1 on Day 2 (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725020"], "description"=>"<p>A. Carcass first placed, <i>Pandalus platyceros</i> Brandt (three spot shrimp) (<i>P.p.</i>) and <i>Metacarcinus magister</i> Dana (Dungeness crab) <i>(M.m.)</i> immediately attracted; B. Shark wound extremely attractive to all fauna; C. Intestines exposed, many <i>M.m.</i> and <i>Munida quadrispina</i> Benedict (squat lobster) (<i>M.q.</i>) feeding; D. Spinal column exposed, organs removed; E. Carcass dragged from weights and away from camera, much of carcass skeletonized, lasers indicate 10 cm; F. Carcass turned 180° by fauna, head area mostly intact with some grazing marks from <i>M.q.</i> (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210535, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Progression_of_carcass_scavenging_and_degradation_for_Carcass_1_2006_/1210535", "title"=>"Progression of carcass scavenging and degradation for Carcass 1, 2006.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725144"], "description"=>"<p>Note also <i>Munida quadrispina</i> Benedict (squat lobster) in lower left and on ear, and <i>Pandalus platyceros</i> Brandt (three spot shrimp) in upper left of picture (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210620, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Metacarcinus_magister_Dana_Dungeness_crab_pulling_tongue_from_Carcass_2_Day_4_/1210620", "title"=>"<i>Metacarcinus magister</i> Dana (Dungeness crab) pulling tongue from Carcass 2, Day 4.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725168", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725169", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725170", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725171", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725172", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725173", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725174", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725175", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725176", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725177"], "description"=>"<div><p>Decomposition and faunal colonization of a carcass in the terrestrial environment has been well studied, but knowledge of decomposition in the marine environment is based almost entirely on anecdotal reports. Three pig carcasses were deployed in Saanich Inlet, BC, over 3 years utilizing Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory. Each carcass was deployed in late summer/early fall at 99 m under a remotely controlled camera and observed several times a day. Dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, density and pressure were continuously measured. Carcass 1 was immediately colonized by <i>Munida quadrispina</i>, <i>Pandalus platyceros</i> and <i>Metacarcinus magister,</i> rapidly scavenged then dragged from view by Day 22. Artifacts specific to each of the crustaceans’ feeding patterns were observed. Carcass 2 was scavenged in a similar fashion. Exposed tissue became covered by <i>Orchomenella obtusa</i> (Family Lysianassidae) which removed all the internal tissues rapidly. Carcass 3 attracted only a few <i>M. quadrispina,</i> remaining intact, developing a thick filamentous sulphur bacterial mat, until Day 92, when it was skeletonized by crustacea. The major difference between the deployments was dissolved oxygen levels. The first two carcasses were placed when oxygen levels were tolerable, becoming more anoxic. This allowed larger crustacea to feed. However, Carcass 3 was deployed when the water was already extremely anoxic, which prevented larger crustacea from accessing the carcass. The smaller <i>M. quadrispina</i> were unable to break the skin alone. The larger crustacea returned when the Inlet was re-oxygenated in spring. Oxygen levels, therefore, drive the biota in this area, although most crustacea endured stressful levels of oxygen to access the carcasses for much of the time. These data will be valuable in forensic investigations involving submerged bodies, indicating types of water conditions to which the body has been exposed, identifying post-mortem artifacts and providing realistic expectations for recovery divers and families of the deceased.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210642, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.s009", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.s010"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>26, "page_views"=>551, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Deep_Coastal_Marine_Taphonomy_Investigation_into_Carcass_Decomposition_in_the_Saanich_Inlet_British_Columbia_Using_a_Baited_Camera_/1210642", "title"=>"Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy: Investigation into Carcass Decomposition in the Saanich Inlet, British Columbia Using a Baited Camera", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725159"], "description"=>"<p><i>M.m. = Metacarcinus ( = Cancer) magister</i> Dana, <i>M.q. = Munida quadrispina</i> Benedict, <i>O.s. = Orchomenella obtusa</i> Sars, <i>L.e. = Lyopsetta exilis</i> (Jordan & Gilbert).</p><p>Comparison of decomposition of all three carcasses over time.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210634, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Comparison_of_decomposition_of_all_three_carcasses_over_time_/1210634", "title"=>"Comparison of decomposition of all three carcasses over time.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725155"], "description"=>"<p>Conductivity (S/m) for the duration of study for each carcass. (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210629, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g014", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Conductivity_S_m_for_the_duration_of_study_for_each_carcass_Ocean_Network_Canada_8217_s_VENUS_observatory_/1210629", "title"=>"Conductivity (S/m) for the duration of study for each carcass. (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725067"], "description"=>"<p>Oxygen measured using Aanderaa Optode 4175 every 60 s. (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210582, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Dissolved_oxygen_mL_L_for_the_duration_of_study_for_each_carcass_/1210582", "title"=>"Dissolved oxygen (mL/L) for the duration of study for each carcass.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725145"], "description"=>"<p><i>Octopus rubescens</i> Berry (ruby octopus) at bottom of image (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210621, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Pandalus_platyceros_Brandt_three_spot_shrimp_picking_at_the_damaged_area_of_left_rear_leg_of_Carcass_1_on_Day_6_/1210621", "title"=>"<i>Pandalus platyceros</i> Brandt (three spot shrimp) picking at the damaged area of left rear leg of Carcass 1 on Day 6.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725154"], "description"=>"<p>Density (Kg/m<sup>3</sup>) for the duration of study for each carcass. (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210628, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g013", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Density_Kg_m_3_for_the_duration_of_study_for_each_carcass_Ocean_Network_Canada_8217_s_VENUS_observatory_/1210628", "title"=>"Density (Kg/m<sup>3</sup>) for the duration of study for each carcass. (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725151"], "description"=>"<p>Sulphurous bacterial mat formed on carcass (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210625, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g010", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sulphurous_bacterial_mat_formed_on_carcass_Ocean_Network_Canada_8217_s_VENUS_observatory_/1210625", "title"=>"Sulphurous bacterial mat formed on carcass (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725031"], "description"=>"<p>A. <i>Chionectes tanneri</i> Rathbun (tanner crab) attracted to the face; B. <i>Metacarcinus magister</i> Dana (Dungeness crab) <i>(M.m.)</i> reaching into abdominal area and consuming internal tissues with <i>Munida quadrispina</i> Benedict (squat lobster) (<i>M.q.)</i> and <i>Pandalus platyceros</i> Brandt (three spot shrimp) <i>(P.p.)</i> waiting nearby; C. Rib ends exposed and large numbers of <i>M.q.</i> dominate the carcass; D. <i>Orchomenella obtusa</i> Sars (<i>O.o.</i>) cover the exposed tissue; E. Half of carcass removed by shark, carcass being skeletonised from inside out by <i>O.o.</i> with <i>M.q.</i> feeding on skin; F. Skin pulled over torso and cranium by <i>M.q.</i> exposing skeleton (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210546, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Progression_of_carcass_scavenging_and_degradation_for_Carcass_2_2007_/1210546", "title"=>"Progression of carcass scavenging and degradation for Carcass 2, 2007.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1725149"], "description"=>"<p><i>Munida quadrispina</i> Benedict (squat lobster) and <i>Pandalus platyceros</i> Brandt (three spot shrimp) feeding at abdominal area when larger crabs not present and also feeding at claw marks (Ocean Network Canada’s VENUS observatory).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["bc", "Day 22. Artifacts", "quadrispina", "Deep Coastal Marine Taphonomy", "carcass", "Baited Camera Decomposition", "crustacea", "oxygen levels", "venus", "Carcass 3", "Saanich Inlet"], "article_id"=>1210623, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Gail S. Anderson", "Lynne S. Bell"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110710.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Artifacts_in_skin_caused_by_Metacarcinus_magister_Dana_Dungeness_crab_/1210623", "title"=>"Artifacts in skin caused by <i>Metacarcinus magister</i> Dana (Dungeness crab).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-20 03:02:00"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"24", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"40", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
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Relative Metric

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