Demographic Outcomes and Ecosystem Implications of Giant Tortoise Reintroduction to Española Island, Galapagos
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{"title"=>"Demographic outcomes and ecosystem implications of giant tortoise reintroduction to Española Island, Galapagos", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"James P.", "last_name"=>"Gibbs", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202083301"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth A.", "last_name"=>"Hunter", "scopus_author_id"=>"55292679900"}, {"first_name"=>"Kevin T.", "last_name"=>"Shoemaker", "scopus_author_id"=>"36720545500"}, {"first_name"=>"Washington H.", "last_name"=>"Tapia", "scopus_author_id"=>"12791687700"}, {"first_name"=>"Linda J.", "last_name"=>"Cayot", "scopus_author_id"=>"37007546000"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84908519167", "sgr"=>"84908519167", "pui"=>"600310579", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pmid"=>"25350744", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0110742"}, "id"=>"18c055b8-af39-399b-a68d-0de503ee4e85", "abstract"=>"Restoration of extirpated species via captive breeding has typically relied on population viability as the primary criterion for evaluating success. This criterion is inadequate when species reintroduction is undertaken to restore ecological functions and interactions. Herein we report on the demographic and ecological outcomes of a five-decade-long population restoration program for a critically endangered species of \"ecosystem engineer\": the endemic Española giant Galapagos tortoise (Chelonoidis hoodensis). Our analysis of complementary datasets on tortoise demography and movement, tortoise-plant interactions and Española Island's vegetation history indicated that the repatriated tortoise population is secure from a strictly demographic perspective: about half of tortoises released on the island since 1975 were still alive in 2007, in situ reproduction is now significant, and future extinction risk is low with or without continued repatriation. Declining survival rates, somatic growth rates, and body condition of repatriates suggests, however, that resources for continued population growth are increasingly limited. Soil stable carbon isotope analyses indicated a pronounced shift toward woody plants in the recent history of the island's plant community, likely a legacy of changes in competitive relations between woody and herbaceous plants induced by now-eradicated feral goats and prolonged absence of tortoises. Woody plants are of concern because they block tortoise movement and hinder recruitment of cactus-a critical resource for tortoises. Tortoises restrict themselves to remnant cactus patches and areas of low woody plant density in the center of the island despite an apparent capacity to colonize a far greater range, likely because of a lack of cactus elsewhere on the island. We conclude that ecosystem-level criteria for success of species reintroduction efforts take much longer to achieve than population-level criteria; moreover, reinstatement of endangered species as fully functioning ecosystem engineers may often require large-scale habitat restoration efforts in concert with population restoration.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/demographic-outcomes-ecosystem-implications-giant-tortoise-reintroduction-espa%C3%B1ola-island-galapagos", "reader_count"=>82, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>17, "Student > Postgraduate"=>5, "Student > Master"=>17, "Other"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>15, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>21, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Design"=>1, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>21}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Belgium"=>1, "Poland"=>1, "Brazil"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767868"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of generalized additive mixed models fitted to giant tortoises (n = 909) on Española Island, Galapagos between 1975 and 2007 to explore relationships between (A) somatic growth rates (cm/year) and age/sex while controlling for time (year) and individual length (carapace length) (35.6% of deviance explained) and (B) body mass and age/sex while controlling for time (year) and individual length (carapace length) (97.8% of deviance explained).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["woody plants", "Espa ñola giant Galapagos tortoise", "growth rates", "tortoise demography", "population viability", "woody plant density", "species reintroduction efforts", "population restoration", "habitat restoration efforts", "future extinction risk", "Demographic Outcomes", "species reintroduction", "block tortoise movement", "Ecosystem Implications", "ecosystem engineers", "remnant cactus patches", "survival rates", "tortoise population", "body condition", "Galapagos Restoration", "carbon isotope analyses", "Population growth", "Giant Tortoise Reintroduction", "Chelonoidis hoodensis"], "article_id"=>1220768, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James P. Gibbs", "Elizabeth A. Hunter", "Kevin T. Shoemaker", "Washington H. Tapia", "Linda J. Cayot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_generalized_additive_mixed_models_fitted_to_giant_tortoises_n_8202_8202_909_on_Espa_241_ola_Island_Galapagos_between_1975_and_2007_to_explore_relationships_between_A_somatic_growth_rates_cm_year_and_age_sex_while_controlling_for_time_year_and_/1220768", "title"=>"Summary of generalized additive mixed models fitted to giant tortoises (n = 909) on Española Island, Galapagos between 1975 and 2007 to explore relationships between (A) somatic growth rates (cm/year) and age/sex while controlling for time (year) and individual length (carapace length) (35.6% of deviance explained) and (B) body mass and age/sex while controlling for time (year) and individual length (carapace length) (97.8% of deviance explained).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-28 19:00:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767856"], "description"=>"<p>Closed circles depict expected survival rates for newly released juveniles, the dashed line cumulative number of tortoises released, and open circles the estimated number of released individuals remaining. Release years are denoted with carets located above the x axis, and the numbers above the carets indicate the total number of tortoises released during each repatriation event.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["woody plants", "Espa ñola giant Galapagos tortoise", "growth rates", "tortoise demography", "population viability", "woody plant density", "species reintroduction efforts", "population restoration", "habitat restoration efforts", "future extinction risk", "Demographic Outcomes", "species reintroduction", "block tortoise movement", "Ecosystem Implications", "ecosystem engineers", "remnant cactus patches", "survival rates", "tortoise population", "body condition", "Galapagos Restoration", "carbon isotope analyses", "Population growth", "Giant Tortoise Reintroduction", "Chelonoidis hoodensis"], "article_id"=>1220762, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James P. Gibbs", "Elizabeth A. Hunter", "Kevin T. Shoemaker", "Washington H. Tapia", "Linda J. Cayot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimates_derived_from_a_32_year_capture_recapture_data_set_of_abundance_and_vital_rates_of_giant_tortoises_reintroduced_to_Espa_ola_Island_Galapagos_depicted_by_release_sites_see_Fig_1_Tunas_and_Caco_combined_A_and_Gardner_B_/1220762", "title"=>"Estimates derived from a 32-year capture-recapture data set of abundance and vital rates of giant tortoises reintroduced to Española Island, Galapagos depicted by release sites (see Fig. 1): Tunas and Caco combined (A) and Gardner (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-28 19:00:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767836"], "description"=>"<p> Radiocarbon dating indicated that depths of 40 cm are approximately 500 years BP; therefore, samples below the 40 cm depth are grouped to show pre-disturbance averages. Points are δ<sup>13</sup>C values of the island’s dominant woody plants (<i>Bursera, Cordia, Croton, Parkinsonia, Prosopis</i>) and herbaceous plants (<i>Cyperus</i> and <i>Paspalum</i>) as well as cactus (<i>Opuntia</i>) (averaged across 10 samples of each, with standard errors for all means too miniscule to be evident in this graphic).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["woody plants", "Espa ñola giant Galapagos tortoise", "growth rates", "tortoise demography", "population viability", "woody plant density", "species reintroduction efforts", "population restoration", "habitat restoration efforts", "future extinction risk", "Demographic Outcomes", "species reintroduction", "block tortoise movement", "Ecosystem Implications", "ecosystem engineers", "remnant cactus patches", "survival rates", "tortoise population", "body condition", "Galapagos Restoration", "carbon isotope analyses", "Population growth", "Giant Tortoise Reintroduction", "Chelonoidis hoodensis"], "article_id"=>1220751, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James P. Gibbs", "Elizabeth A. Hunter", "Kevin T. Shoemaker", "Washington H. Tapia", "Linda J. Cayot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carbon_isotope_signatures_13_C_values_of_soils_at_increasingly_greater_depths_in_two_soil_pits_Gardner_and_El_Caco_on_Espa_241_ola_Island_Galapagos_/1220751", "title"=>"Carbon isotope signatures (δ<sup>13</sup>C values) of soils at increasingly greater depths in two soil pits (Gardner and El Caco) on Española Island, Galapagos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-28 19:00:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767865"], "description"=>"<p>Vital rates for the projection models were developed largely from a 32-year-capture-recapture database and carrying capacity (K) was determined using tortoise densities measured at field plots and modeled as a function of vegetation characteristics and distance from release sites. We modeled three management scenarios: (A, D) continued release of captive-raised tortoises for 25 years, (C, E) termination of tortoise repatriation, and (C, F) removal of 50 reproductive adult females at the beginning of the simulation (e.g., to accelerate repatriation efforts on other islands).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["woody plants", "Espa ñola giant Galapagos tortoise", "growth rates", "tortoise demography", "population viability", "woody plant density", "species reintroduction efforts", "population restoration", "habitat restoration efforts", "future extinction risk", "Demographic Outcomes", "species reintroduction", "block tortoise movement", "Ecosystem Implications", "ecosystem engineers", "remnant cactus patches", "survival rates", "tortoise population", "body condition", "Galapagos Restoration", "carbon isotope analyses", "Population growth", "Giant Tortoise Reintroduction", "Chelonoidis hoodensis"], "article_id"=>1220765, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James P. Gibbs", "Elizabeth A. Hunter", "Kevin T. Shoemaker", "Washington H. Tapia", "Linda J. Cayot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>156, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_projected_100_year_population_dynamics_for_the_repatriated_giant_tortoise_population_on_Espa_241_ola_Island_Galapagos_for_A_B_C_all_female_tortoises_8805_4_years_old_and_D_E_F_only_adult_female_tortoises_8805_18_years_/1220765", "title"=>"Summary of projected 100-year population dynamics for the repatriated giant tortoise population on Española Island, Galapagos, for (A, B, C) all female tortoises ≥4 years old, and (D, E, F) only adult female tortoises ≥18 years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-28 19:00:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767872", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767873", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767874"], "description"=>"<div><p>Restoration of extirpated species via captive breeding has typically relied on population viability as the primary criterion for evaluating success. This criterion is inadequate when species reintroduction is undertaken to restore ecological functions and interactions. Herein we report on the demographic and ecological outcomes of a five-decade-long population restoration program for a critically endangered species of “ecosystem engineer”: the endemic Española giant Galapagos tortoise (<i>Chelonoidis hoodensis</i>). Our analysis of complementary datasets on tortoise demography and movement, tortoise-plant interactions and Española Island’s vegetation history indicated that the repatriated tortoise population is secure from a strictly demographic perspective: about half of tortoises released on the island since 1975 were still alive in 2007, <i>in situ</i> reproduction is now significant, and future extinction risk is low with or without continued repatriation. Declining survival rates, somatic growth rates, and body condition of repatriates suggests, however, that resources for continued population growth are increasingly limited. Soil stable carbon isotope analyses indicated a pronounced shift toward woody plants in the recent history of the island’s plant community, likely a legacy of changes in competitive relations between woody and herbaceous plants induced by now-eradicated feral goats and prolonged absence of tortoises. Woody plants are of concern because they block tortoise movement and hinder recruitment of cactus–a critical resource for tortoises. Tortoises restrict themselves to remnant cactus patches and areas of low woody plant density in the center of the island despite an apparent capacity to colonize a far greater range, likely because of a lack of cactus elsewhere on the island. We conclude that ecosystem-level criteria for success of species reintroduction efforts take much longer to achieve than population-level criteria; moreover, reinstatement of endangered species as fully functioning ecosystem engineers may often require large-scale habitat restoration efforts in concert with population restoration.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["woody plants", "Espa ñola giant Galapagos tortoise", "growth rates", "tortoise demography", "population viability", "woody plant density", "species reintroduction efforts", "population restoration", "habitat restoration efforts", "future extinction risk", "Demographic Outcomes", "species reintroduction", "block tortoise movement", "Ecosystem Implications", "ecosystem engineers", "remnant cactus patches", "survival rates", "tortoise population", "body condition", "Galapagos Restoration", "carbon isotope analyses", "Population growth", "Giant Tortoise Reintroduction", "Chelonoidis hoodensis"], "article_id"=>1220769, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James P. Gibbs", "Elizabeth A. Hunter", "Kevin T. Shoemaker", "Washington H. Tapia", "Linda J. Cayot"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_Outcomes_and_Ecosystem_Implications_of_Giant_Tortoise_Reintroduction_to_Espa_241_ola_Island_Galapagos_/1220769", "title"=>"Demographic Outcomes and Ecosystem Implications of Giant Tortoise Reintroduction to Española Island, Galapagos", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-10-28 19:00:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767830"], "description"=>"<p>(A): gray dashed line is “tortoise zone” or maximum extent of tortoises observed on the island since the repatriation program was initiated; black circles are 2010 survey plot locations for tortoises, cactus, and woody plants; gray triangles are tortoise introduction sites (West: Tunas, central: Cacos, East: Gardner). Woody plant cover on Española Island (B; darker shades indicate higher percent woody plant cover), classified using cloud-free Quickbird satellite imagery (December 29, 2006, 0.6 meters resolution) into areas with and without woody vegetation using a supervised classification calibrated with plot woody plant density estimates (IDRISI Andes 5.0) (percent cover is the percent vegetated cells per 24 m×24 m area). Potentially highly suitable cactus restoration areas (C) with low slopes (<2.06 degrees, bottom quartile of available slopes) and low woody plant cover (<52% cover woody plants, bottom quartile of available woody plant cover); black areas have both low slopes and low woody cover, gray areas have either low slope or low woody cover.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["woody plants", "Espa ñola giant Galapagos tortoise", "growth rates", "tortoise demography", "population viability", "woody plant density", "species reintroduction efforts", "population restoration", "habitat restoration efforts", "future extinction risk", "Demographic Outcomes", "species reintroduction", "block tortoise movement", "Ecosystem Implications", "ecosystem engineers", "remnant cactus patches", "survival rates", "tortoise population", "body condition", "Galapagos Restoration", "carbon isotope analyses", "Population growth", "Giant Tortoise Reintroduction", "Chelonoidis hoodensis"], "article_id"=>1220747, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James P. Gibbs", "Elizabeth A. Hunter", "Kevin T. Shoemaker", "Washington H. Tapia", "Linda J. Cayot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Study_areas_on_Espa_241_ola_Island_/1220747", "title"=>"Study areas on Española Island.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-28 19:00:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767849"], "description"=>"<p>Closed circles in (A) and (B) represent the initial locations of all tortoises captured from 2000 to 2003 that were later recaptured. Arrows in (A) represent observed movement distances and directions. Minimum convex polygons (MCP) enclose the initial locations (grey) and initial plus final locations (red; differences represent the observed range expansion resulting from the observed movements). The grey polygons in (B) depict hypothetical MCPs (n = 500) for which initial locations have been decoupled from observed movement distances and directions. The observed final range area was smaller than all resulting hypothetical MCPs (C). In fact, those tortoises nearest to the range margins exhibited a strong tendency to move away from the nearest edge (D).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["woody plants", "Espa ñola giant Galapagos tortoise", "growth rates", "tortoise demography", "population viability", "woody plant density", "species reintroduction efforts", "population restoration", "habitat restoration efforts", "future extinction risk", "Demographic Outcomes", "species reintroduction", "block tortoise movement", "Ecosystem Implications", "ecosystem engineers", "remnant cactus patches", "survival rates", "tortoise population", "body condition", "Galapagos Restoration", "carbon isotope analyses", "Population growth", "Giant Tortoise Reintroduction", "Chelonoidis hoodensis"], "article_id"=>1220759, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James P. Gibbs", "Elizabeth A. Hunter", "Kevin T. Shoemaker", "Washington H. Tapia", "Linda J. Cayot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Movement_patterns_of_giant_tortoises_reintroduced_to_Espa_241_ola_Island_Galapagos_/1220759", "title"=>"Movement patterns of giant tortoises reintroduced to Española Island, Galapagos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-28 19:00:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767805"], "description"=>"<p>Adult male Galapagos giant tortoise (<i>Chelonoidis hoodensis</i>) resting beneath an adult arboreal prickly pear cactus (<i>Opuntia megasperma</i>) surrounding by woody plants (mostly muyuyo or <i>Cordia lutea</i>), Española Island, May 2010 (image: J. P. Gibbs).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["woody plants", "Espa ñola giant Galapagos tortoise", "growth rates", "tortoise demography", "population viability", "woody plant density", "species reintroduction efforts", "population restoration", "habitat restoration efforts", "future extinction risk", "Demographic Outcomes", "species reintroduction", "block tortoise movement", "Ecosystem Implications", "ecosystem engineers", "remnant cactus patches", "survival rates", "tortoise population", "body condition", "Galapagos Restoration", "carbon isotope analyses", "Population growth", "Giant Tortoise Reintroduction", "Chelonoidis hoodensis"], "article_id"=>1220737, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James P. Gibbs", "Elizabeth A. Hunter", "Kevin T. Shoemaker", "Washington H. Tapia", "Linda J. Cayot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>294, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adult_male_Galapagos_giant_tortoise_Chelonoidis_hoodensis_resting_beneath_an_adult_arboreal_prickly_pear_cactus_Opuntia_megasperma_surrounding_by_woody_plants_mostly_muyuyo_or_Cordia_lutea_Espa_ola_Island_May_2010_image_J_P_Gibbs_/1220737", "title"=>"Adult male Galapagos giant tortoise (<i>Chelonoidis hoodensis</i>) resting beneath an adult arboreal prickly pear cactus (<i>Opuntia megasperma</i>) surrounding by woody plants (mostly muyuyo or <i>Cordia lutea</i>), Española Island, May 2010 (image: J. P. Gibbs).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-28 19:00:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767841"], "description"=>"<p>Density of tortoises, tortoise droppings, and cactus are expressed as number/hectare; woody plants as stems/100 m<sup>2</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["woody plants", "Espa ñola giant Galapagos tortoise", "growth rates", "tortoise demography", "population viability", "woody plant density", "species reintroduction efforts", "population restoration", "habitat restoration efforts", "future extinction risk", "Demographic Outcomes", "species reintroduction", "block tortoise movement", "Ecosystem Implications", "ecosystem engineers", "remnant cactus patches", "survival rates", "tortoise population", "body condition", "Galapagos Restoration", "carbon isotope analyses", "Population growth", "Giant Tortoise Reintroduction", "Chelonoidis hoodensis"], "article_id"=>1220754, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James P. Gibbs", "Elizabeth A. Hunter", "Kevin T. Shoemaker", "Washington H. Tapia", "Linda J. Cayot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>262, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationships_derived_from_binary_classification_trees_between_density_of_tortoises_A_and_tortoise_droppings_B_with_thresholds_of_adult_cactus_density_and_large_diameter_woody_plant_density_between_small_diameter_woody_plants_C_with_thresholds_of_large_d/1220754", "title"=>"Relationships derived from binary classification trees between <i>density of tortoises</i> (A) and <i>tortoise droppings</i> (B) with thresholds of adult cactus density and large diameter woody plant density; between <i>small diameter woody plants</i> (C) with thresholds of large diameter woody plant density; and between <i>density of juvenile cactus</i> (D) with thresholds of large diameter woody plant density and adult cactus density.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-28 19:00:01"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1767866"], "description"=>"<p>Parameters estimated from the 32-year capture-recapture dataset include juvenile and adult survival, temporal variation in survival, and survival at year-of-release (see text).</p><p>Summary of input parameters used to simulate the population dynamics of Española giant tortoises during and after repatriation to Española Island, Galapagos.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["woody plants", "Espa ñola giant Galapagos tortoise", "growth rates", "tortoise demography", "population viability", "woody plant density", "species reintroduction efforts", "population restoration", "habitat restoration efforts", "future extinction risk", "Demographic Outcomes", "species reintroduction", "block tortoise movement", "Ecosystem Implications", "ecosystem engineers", "remnant cactus patches", "survival rates", "tortoise population", "body condition", "Galapagos Restoration", "carbon isotope analyses", "Population growth", "Giant Tortoise Reintroduction", "Chelonoidis hoodensis"], "article_id"=>1220767, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["James P. Gibbs", "Elizabeth A. Hunter", "Kevin T. Shoemaker", "Washington H. Tapia", "Linda J. Cayot"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110742.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_input_parameters_used_to_simulate_the_population_dynamics_of_Espa_241_ola_giant_tortoises_during_and_after_repatriation_to_Espa_241_ola_Island_Galapagos_/1220767", "title"=>"Summary of input parameters used to simulate the population dynamics of Española giant tortoises during and after repatriation to Española Island, Galapagos.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-28 19:00:01"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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