A Case-Control Study of Maternal Periconceptual and Pregnancy Recreational Drug Use and Fetal Malformation Using Hair Analysis
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{"title"=>"A case-control study of maternal periconceptual and pregnancy recreational drug use and fetal malformation using hair analysis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anna L.", "last_name"=>"David", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402605276"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrew", "last_name"=>"Holloway", "scopus_author_id"=>"56412487500"}, {"first_name"=>"Louise", "last_name"=>"Thomasson", "scopus_author_id"=>"26326080200"}, {"first_name"=>"Argyro", "last_name"=>"Syngelaki", "scopus_author_id"=>"35489198100"}, {"first_name"=>"Kypros", "last_name"=>"Nicolaides", "scopus_author_id"=>"55429522900"}, {"first_name"=>"Roshni R.", "last_name"=>"Patel", "scopus_author_id"=>"8559556900"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"Sommerlad", "scopus_author_id"=>"56412555700"}, {"first_name"=>"Amie", "last_name"=>"Wilson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56412315200"}, {"first_name"=>"William", "last_name"=>"Martin", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402719192"}, {"first_name"=>"Lyn S.", "last_name"=>"Chitty", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006741537"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"600405793", "sgr"=>"84910021485", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111038", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84910021485", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pmid"=>"25360669"}, "id"=>"e325373e-e713-39f4-846b-d57666151462", "abstract"=>"OBJECTIVE: Maternal recreational drug use may be associated with the development of fetal malformations such as gastroschisis, brain and limb defects, the aetiology due to vascular disruption during organogenesis. Using forensic hair analysis we reported evidence of recreational drug use in 18% of women with a fetal gastroschisis. Here we investigate this association in a variety of fetal malformations using the same method. METHODS: In a multi-centre study, women with normal pregnancies (controls) and those with fetal abnormalities (cases) gave informed consent for hair analysis for recreational drug metabolites using mass spectrometry. Hair samples cut at the root were tested in sections corresponding to 3 month time periods (pre and periconceptual period). RESULTS: Women whose fetus had gastroschisis, compared to women with a normal control fetus, were younger (mean age 23.78±SD4.79 years, 18–37 vs 29.79±SD6 years, 18–42, p = 0.00001), were more likely to have evidence of recreational drug use (15, 25.4% vs 21, 13%, OR2.27, 95(th)CI 1.08–4.78, p = 0.028), and were less likely to report periconceptual folic acid use (31, 53.4% vs 124, 77.5%, OR0.33, 95(th)CI 0.18–0.63, p = 0.001). Age-matched normal control women were no less likely to test positive for recreational drugs than women whose fetus had gastroschisis. After accounting for all significant factors, only young maternal age remained significantly associated with gastroschisis. Women with a fetus affected by a non-neural tube central nervous system (CNS) anomaly were more likely to test positive for recreational drugs when compared to women whose fetus was normal (7, 35% vs 21, 13%, OR3.59, 95(th) CI1.20–10.02, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a significant association between non neural tube CNS anomalies and recreational drug use in the periconceptual period, first or second trimesters, but we cannot confirm this association with gastroschisis. We confirm the association of gastroschisis with young maternal age.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/casecontrol-study-maternal-periconceptual-pregnancy-recreational-drug-fetal-malformation-using-hair", "reader_count"=>28, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>6, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1775102"], "description"=>"<p>From there they were divided into three 3 cm segments, representing the three time periods of interest: periconceptual (prior to the month in which conception took place and during the month in which conception took place), 1st trimester (up to and including 12 weeks of gestation) and 2nd trimester (13 weeks of gestation onwards). In this example the hair sample was cut when the woman was at the end of the 2nd trimester, giving a 3 cm length of hair for each time period of study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fetus", "hair analysis", "Hair Analysis ObjectiveMaternal", "association", "drug use", "ci", "sd", "3 month time periods", "vs", "periconceptual", "gastroschisi", "Pregnancy Recreational Drug", "tube CNS anomalies"], "article_id"=>1225504, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anna L. David", "Andrew Holloway", "Louise Thomasson", "Argyro Syngelaki", "Kypros Nicolaides", "Roshni R. Patel", "Brian Sommerlad", "Amie Wilson", "William Martin", "Lyn S. Chitty"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111038.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hair_samples_comprising_approximately_50_hairs_were_cut_at_the_level_of_the_hair_root_/1225504", "title"=>"Hair samples comprising approximately 50 hairs were cut at the level of the hair root.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 04:01:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1775109"], "description"=>"<p><b>Dependent variable is fetus with gastroschisis.</b></p><p>Binary logistic regression.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fetus", "hair analysis", "Hair Analysis ObjectiveMaternal", "association", "drug use", "ci", "sd", "3 month time periods", "vs", "periconceptual", "gastroschisi", "Pregnancy Recreational Drug", "tube CNS anomalies"], "article_id"=>1225511, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anna L. David", "Andrew Holloway", "Louise Thomasson", "Argyro Syngelaki", "Kypros Nicolaides", "Roshni R. Patel", "Brian Sommerlad", "Amie Wilson", "William Martin", "Lyn S. Chitty"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111038.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Binary_logistic_regression_/1225511", "title"=>"Binary logistic regression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 04:01:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1775110"], "description"=>"<p><b>Dependent variable is fetus with exomphalos.</b></p><p>Binary logistic regression.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fetus", "hair analysis", "Hair Analysis ObjectiveMaternal", "association", "drug use", "ci", "sd", "3 month time periods", "vs", "periconceptual", "gastroschisi", "Pregnancy Recreational Drug", "tube CNS anomalies"], "article_id"=>1225512, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anna L. David", "Andrew Holloway", "Louise Thomasson", "Argyro Syngelaki", "Kypros Nicolaides", "Roshni R. Patel", "Brian Sommerlad", "Amie Wilson", "William Martin", "Lyn S. Chitty"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111038.t008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Binary_logistic_regression_/1225512", "title"=>"Binary logistic regression.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 04:01:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1775108"], "description"=>"<p>OR: Odds Ratio.</p><p>Missing cases were excluded.</p><p>Fetal anomalies and non-recreational drug use.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fetus", "hair analysis", "Hair Analysis ObjectiveMaternal", "association", "drug use", "ci", "sd", "3 month time periods", "vs", "periconceptual", "gastroschisi", "Pregnancy Recreational Drug", "tube CNS anomalies"], "article_id"=>1225510, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anna L. David", "Andrew Holloway", "Louise Thomasson", "Argyro Syngelaki", "Kypros Nicolaides", "Roshni R. Patel", "Brian Sommerlad", "Amie Wilson", "William Martin", "Lyn S. Chitty"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111038.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fetal_anomalies_and_non_recreational_drug_use_/1225510", "title"=>"Fetal anomalies and non-recreational drug use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 04:01:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1775105"], "description"=>"<p>MDMA: methylenedioxymethamphetamine.</p><p>Presence of recreational drugs according to gestational time period analysed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fetus", "hair analysis", "Hair Analysis ObjectiveMaternal", "association", "drug use", "ci", "sd", "3 month time periods", "vs", "periconceptual", "gastroschisi", "Pregnancy Recreational Drug", "tube CNS anomalies"], "article_id"=>1225507, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anna L. David", "Andrew Holloway", "Louise Thomasson", "Argyro Syngelaki", "Kypros Nicolaides", "Roshni R. Patel", "Brian Sommerlad", "Amie Wilson", "William Martin", "Lyn S. Chitty"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111038.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Presence_of_recreational_drugs_according_to_gestational_time_period_analysed_/1225507", "title"=>"Presence of recreational drugs according to gestational time period analysed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 04:01:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1775104"], "description"=>"<p>NTD: neural tube defect.</p><p>* Transverse limb defects (7 cases), bowel atresia (3 cases: duodenal atresia or ileal atresia) .</p><p>** Trisomy 21 (10 cases), trisomy 18 (2 cases), 1 case each of trisomy 13, 45 X0, XXX, triploidy, unbalanced translocation, 15q deletion, terminal deletion of chromosome 5.</p><p>Δ Skeletal dysplasia (8 cases), multiple abnormalities (6 cases), autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (2 cases).</p><p>Cardiac anomalies included large septal defects, hypoplastic left or right heart, Ebstein's anomaly, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of the great arteries, left atrial isomerism, valvular atresias and double outlet right ventricle.</p><p>Other CNS anomalies included agenesis of corpus callosum, Dandy Walker spectrum, cerebellar hypoplasia, posterior fossa cyst, porencephalic cyst, severe ventriculomegaly and holoprosencephaly.</p><p>Renal anomaly: multicystic or dysplastic kidneys, lower urinary outflow tract obstruction.</p><p>Number of women recruited per group.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fetus", "hair analysis", "Hair Analysis ObjectiveMaternal", "association", "drug use", "ci", "sd", "3 month time periods", "vs", "periconceptual", "gastroschisi", "Pregnancy Recreational Drug", "tube CNS anomalies"], "article_id"=>1225506, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anna L. David", "Andrew Holloway", "Louise Thomasson", "Argyro Syngelaki", "Kypros Nicolaides", "Roshni R. Patel", "Brian Sommerlad", "Amie Wilson", "William Martin", "Lyn S. Chitty"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111038.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_women_recruited_per_group_/1225506", "title"=>"Number of women recruited per group.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 04:01:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1775107"], "description"=>"<p>OR: Odds Ratio compared to Normal Control Group; CI: confidence interval; NTD: neural tube defect; df: degrees of freedom.</p><p>Type of fetal anomaly and recreational drug use.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fetus", "hair analysis", "Hair Analysis ObjectiveMaternal", "association", "drug use", "ci", "sd", "3 month time periods", "vs", "periconceptual", "gastroschisi", "Pregnancy Recreational Drug", "tube CNS anomalies"], "article_id"=>1225509, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anna L. David", "Andrew Holloway", "Louise Thomasson", "Argyro Syngelaki", "Kypros Nicolaides", "Roshni R. Patel", "Brian Sommerlad", "Amie Wilson", "William Martin", "Lyn S. Chitty"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111038.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Type_of_fetal_anomaly_and_recreational_drug_use_/1225509", "title"=>"Type of fetal anomaly and recreational drug use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 04:01:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1775106"], "description"=>"<p>Δsmoking currently or in the last 6 months; OR: Odds Ratio; CI: confidence interval; *Mann-Whitney U test; **Chi squared test.</p><p>Social factors associated with recreational drug use.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fetus", "hair analysis", "Hair Analysis ObjectiveMaternal", "association", "drug use", "ci", "sd", "3 month time periods", "vs", "periconceptual", "gastroschisi", "Pregnancy Recreational Drug", "tube CNS anomalies"], "article_id"=>1225508, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anna L. David", "Andrew Holloway", "Louise Thomasson", "Argyro Syngelaki", "Kypros Nicolaides", "Roshni R. Patel", "Brian Sommerlad", "Amie Wilson", "William Martin", "Lyn S. Chitty"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111038.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Social_factors_associated_with_recreational_drug_use_/1225508", "title"=>"Social factors associated with recreational drug use.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 04:01:49"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1775103"], "description"=>"<p>NSAID: non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; df: degrees of freedom.</p><p>*Reported codeine/dihydrocodeine use.</p><p>Population demographics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fetus", "hair analysis", "Hair Analysis ObjectiveMaternal", "association", "drug use", "ci", "sd", "3 month time periods", "vs", "periconceptual", "gastroschisi", "Pregnancy Recreational Drug", "tube CNS anomalies"], "article_id"=>1225505, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Anna L. David", "Andrew Holloway", "Louise Thomasson", "Argyro Syngelaki", "Kypros Nicolaides", "Roshni R. Patel", "Brian Sommerlad", "Amie Wilson", "William Martin", "Lyn S. Chitty"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111038.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Population_demographics_/1225505", "title"=>"Population demographics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 04:01:49"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"53", "full-text"=>"56", "pdf"=>"34", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[267]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[266]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Nutrition", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[286]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[314, 476]}]}
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