When Did Carcharocles megalodon Become Extinct? A New Analysis of the Fossil Record
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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727670", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727671", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727672", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727673", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727674", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727675"], "description"=>"<div><p><i>Carcharocles megalodon</i> (“Megalodon”) is the largest shark that ever lived. Based on its distribution, dental morphology, and associated fauna, it has been suggested that this species was a cosmopolitan apex predator that fed on marine mammals from the middle Miocene to the Pliocene (15.9–2.6 Ma). Prevailing theory suggests that the extinction of apex predators affects ecosystem dynamics. Accordingly, knowing the time of extinction of <i>C. megalodon</i> is a fundamental step towards understanding the effects of such an event in ancient communities. However, the time of extinction of this important species has never been quantitatively assessed. Here, we synthesize the most recent records of <i>C. megalodon</i> from the literature and scientific collections and infer the date of its extinction by making a novel use of the Optimal Linear Estimation (OLE) model. Our results suggest that <i>C. megalodon</i> went extinct around 2.6 Ma. Furthermore, when contrasting our results with known ecological and macroevolutionary trends in marine mammals, it became evident that the modern composition and function of modern gigantic filter-feeding whales was established after the extinction of <i>C. megalodon</i>. Consequently, the study of the time of extinction of <i>C. megalodon</i> provides the basis to improve our understanding of the responses of marine species to the removal of apex predators, presenting a deep-time perspective for the conservation of modern ecosystems.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["species", "extinction", "Marine mammals", "Optimal Linear Estimation", "apex predators", "megalodon", "ole"], "article_id"=>1212641, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Catalina Pimiento", "Christopher F. Clements"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111086.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111086.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111086.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111086.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111086.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111086.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/When_Did_Carcharocles_megalodon_Become_Extinct_A_New_Analysis_of_the_Fossil_Record/1212641", "title"=>"When Did <i>Carcharocles megalodon</i> Become Extinct? A New Analysis of the Fossil Record", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-10-22 03:20:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1727664"], "description"=>"<p>The orange area shows the distribution of inferred dates of extinction through time, whereas the green line shows the cumulative frequency of inferred dates of extinction. The modal peak represents the point in time by which the species was most likely to have gone extinct (2.6 Ma). Approximately 50% of simulations fell before the modal peak of inferred dates of extinction (2.6 Ma), whereas the remaining 50% are roughly evenly distributed between the mode and the present day. The two vertical dashed lines indicate the most recent and oldest inferred dates of extinction (160,000 years in the future and 3.5 Ma respectively). The horizontal bars represent the time range of each fossil occurrence. The blue bars are the occurrences used in OLE. The grey bar represents the occurrences that failed the age evaluation process and were not used in the analysis.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["species", "extinction", "Marine mammals", "Optimal Linear Estimation", "apex predators", "megalodon", "ole"], "article_id"=>1212635, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Catalina Pimiento", "Christopher F. Clements"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111086.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temporal_distribution_of_the_inferred_dates_of_extinction_of_Carcharocles_megalodon_using_the_Optimal_Linear_Estimation_OLE_model_bootstrapped_10_000_times_/1212635", "title"=>"Temporal distribution of the inferred dates of extinction of <i>Carcharocles megalodon</i> using the Optimal Linear Estimation (OLE) model bootstrapped 10,000 times.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-22 03:20:11"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[331]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[649, 1077]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[318]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Paleontology", "average_usage"=>[557, 890]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Conservation science", "average_usage"=>[419, 667]}]}
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Net::HTTPInternalServerError

Source
Counter
Time
2019-04-06 02:41:43 UTC
Target URL
http://counter-101.soma.plos.org/api/v1.0/stats/doi/10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0111086
Trace

/app/models/concerns/networkable.rb:21:in `get_result'
/app/models/source.rb:165:in `get_data'
/app/models/retrieval_status.rb:47:in `perform_get_data'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:52:in `block (2 levels) in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:51:in `block in perform'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `each'
/app/jobs/source_job.rb:35:in `perform'