Host Modulation by a Parasite: How Leishmania infantum Modifies the Intestinal Environment of Lutzomyia longipalpis to Favor Its Development
Publication Date
November 03, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Vania Cristina Santos, Vladimir Fazito Vale, Sydnei Magno Silva, Alexandre Alves Sousa Nascimento, et al
Volume
9
Issue
11
Pages
e111241
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111241
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0111241
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25365351
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4218848
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25365351
Web of Science
000345558100057
Scopus
84909594916
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/host-modulation-parasite-leishmania-infantum-modifies-intestinal-environment-lutzomyia-longipalpis-f
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"Host modulation by a parasite: How Leishmania infantum modifies the intestinal environment of Lutzomyia longipalpis to favor its development", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vania Cristina", "last_name"=>"Santos", "scopus_author_id"=>"25230842100"}, {"first_name"=>"Vladimir Fazito", "last_name"=>"Vale", "scopus_author_id"=>"55338005300"}, {"first_name"=>"Sydnei Magno", "last_name"=>"Silva", "scopus_author_id"=>"56783576200"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexandre Alves Sousa", "last_name"=>"Nascimento", "scopus_author_id"=>"35574556700"}, {"first_name"=>"Natalia Alvim Araujo", "last_name"=>"Saab", "scopus_author_id"=>"56410748500"}, {"first_name"=>"Rodrigo Pedro Pinto", "last_name"=>"Soares", "scopus_author_id"=>"7101994585"}, {"first_name"=>"Marilene Suzan Marques", "last_name"=>"Michalick", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602757414"}, {"first_name"=>"Ricardo Nascimento", "last_name"=>"Araujo", "scopus_author_id"=>"14122856600"}, {"first_name"=>"Marcos Horacio", "last_name"=>"Pereira", "scopus_author_id"=>"56246691700"}, {"first_name"=>"Ricardo Toshio", "last_name"=>"Fujiwara", "scopus_author_id"=>"9036129700"}, {"first_name"=>"Nelder Figueiredo", "last_name"=>"Gontijo", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603380227"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84909594916", "sgr"=>"84909594916", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25365351", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111241", "pui"=>"600373209"}, "id"=>"e9336703-e4d7-3794-a2e2-c5421f2e4088", "abstract"=>"Some reports have described the interference of Leishmania on sand flies physiology, and such behavior most likely evolved to favor the development and transmission of the parasite. Most of these studies showed that Leishmania could modulate the level of proteases in the midgut after an infective blood meal, and decreased proteolytic activity is indeed beneficial for the development of promastigotes in the gut of sand flies. In the present study, we performed a detailed investigation of the intestinal pH in Lutzomyia longipalpis females naturally infected with Leishmania infantum and investigated the production of trypsin by these insects using different approaches. Our results allowed us to propose a mechanism by which these parasites interfere with the physiology of L. longipalpis to decrease the production of proteolytic enzymes. According to our hypothesis L. infantum promastigotes indirectly interfere with the production of trypsin by modulating the mechanism that controls the intestinal pH via the action of a yet non-identified substance released by promastigote forms inside the midgut. This substance is not an acid, whose action would be restrict on to release H+ to the medium, but is a substance that is able to interfere with midgut physiology through a mechanism involving pH control. According to our hypothesis, as the pH decreases, the proteolytic enzymes efficiency is also reduced, leading to a decline in the supply of amino acids to the enterocytes: this decline reduces the stimulus for protease production because it is regulated by the supply of amino acids, thus leading to a delay in digestion.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/host-modulation-parasite-leishmania-infantum-modifies-intestinal-environment-lutzomyia-longipalpis-f", "reader_count"=>25, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Researcher"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>6, "Student > Bachelor"=>2, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>10}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Brazil"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84909594916"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84909594916?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84909594916&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84909594916&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84909594916", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84909594916", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84909594916", "dc:title"=>"Host modulation by a parasite: How Leishmania infantum modifies the intestinal environment of Lutzomyia longipalpis to favor its development", "dc:creator"=>"Santos V.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"11", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-11-03", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"3 November 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111241", "citedby-count"=>"7", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais", "affiliation-city"=>"Belo Horizonte", "affiliation-country"=>"Brazil"}], "pubmed-id"=>"25365351", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e111241", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0111241", "share_count"=>0, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>0}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"58", "xml_views"=>"11", "html_views"=>"256"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"78"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"42"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"26"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"40"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"36"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"15"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"55"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"17"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"0"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"2"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"0", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"4"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"3"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"1"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"8"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1777234"], "description"=>"<p>Sand flies were dissected at 48 hours after feeding on an uninfected dog (n = 26) or a naturally infected dog (n = 29); the trypsin activity was measured using the synthetic substrate L-BApNA and was expressed as enzymatic units (U), normalized to the quantity of homogenate equivalent to one midgut (U.midgut<sup>−1</sup>). Each dot represents the activity obtained from an individual insect, and the horizontal line represents the mean value. The trypsin activity was significantly lower in the infected sand flies compared to the uninfected insects (<i>p</i> = 0.0128).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["host Modulation", "infective blood meal", "Lutzomyia longipalpis females", "promastigote forms", "decline", "acid", "infantum promastigotes", "Intestinal Environment", "enzymes efficiency", "Lutzomyia longipalpis", "midgut physiology", "mechanism", "release H", "Leishmania infantum Modifies", "protease production", "hypothesis L", "parasite", "pH decreases", "trypsin", "Leishmania infantum", "pH control"], "article_id"=>1227410, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vânia Cristina Santos", "Vladimir Fazito Vale", "Sydnei Magno Silva", "Alexandre Alves Sousa Nascimento", "Natalia Alvim Araujo Saab", "Rodrigo Pedro Pinto Soares", "Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick", "Ricardo Nascimento Araújo", "Marcos Horácio Pereira", "Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara", "Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111241.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evaluation_of_the_trypsin_activity_in_infected_insects_/1227410", "title"=>"Evaluation of the trypsin activity in infected insects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-03 03:42:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1777238"], "description"=>"<p>Insects fed on an uninfected dog; 12 females were dissected every 12 h, and the trypsin activity was measured individually using the synthetic substrate L-BApNA. The activity is expressed as enzymatic units (U. midgut<sup>−1</sup>). The results are shown as the mean values ± standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["host Modulation", "infective blood meal", "Lutzomyia longipalpis females", "promastigote forms", "decline", "acid", "infantum promastigotes", "Intestinal Environment", "enzymes efficiency", "Lutzomyia longipalpis", "midgut physiology", "mechanism", "release H", "Leishmania infantum Modifies", "protease production", "hypothesis L", "parasite", "pH decreases", "trypsin", "Leishmania infantum", "pH control"], "article_id"=>1227414, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vânia Cristina Santos", "Vladimir Fazito Vale", "Sydnei Magno Silva", "Alexandre Alves Sousa Nascimento", "Natalia Alvim Araujo Saab", "Rodrigo Pedro Pinto Soares", "Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick", "Ricardo Nascimento Araújo", "Marcos Horácio Pereira", "Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara", "Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111241.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Trypsin_activity_during_blood_digestion_in_the_Lutzomyia_longipalpis_midgut_/1227414", "title"=>"Trypsin activity during blood digestion in the <i>Lutzomyia longipalpis</i> midgut.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-03 03:42:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1777239"], "description"=>"<p><i>Lutzomyia longipalpis</i> midguts were dissected and incubated at 30°C for 2 hours in the presence of different concentrations of amino acids (5, 10, and 20 mM). The trypsin activity was measured using L-BapNA as the substrate and was expressed as enzymatic units (U), normalized to the quantity of homogenate equivalent to one midgut (U.midgut<sup>−1</sup>). The results are shown as the mean values of three independent experiments ± standard deviation. Trypsin activity from the midguts exposed to 20 mM amino acids was significantly different from the control (<i>p</i> = 0.0258).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["host Modulation", "infective blood meal", "Lutzomyia longipalpis females", "promastigote forms", "decline", "acid", "infantum promastigotes", "Intestinal Environment", "enzymes efficiency", "Lutzomyia longipalpis", "midgut physiology", "mechanism", "release H", "Leishmania infantum Modifies", "protease production", "hypothesis L", "parasite", "pH decreases", "trypsin", "Leishmania infantum", "pH control"], "article_id"=>1227415, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vânia Cristina Santos", "Vladimir Fazito Vale", "Sydnei Magno Silva", "Alexandre Alves Sousa Nascimento", "Natalia Alvim Araujo Saab", "Rodrigo Pedro Pinto Soares", "Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick", "Ricardo Nascimento Araújo", "Marcos Horácio Pereira", "Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara", "Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111241.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evaluation_of_trypsin_production_induced_by_amino_acids_/1227415", "title"=>"Evaluation of trypsin production induced by amino acids.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-03 03:42:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1777240"], "description"=>"<p>At 24 hours after a blood meal using hamsters, the midguts from 12 sand flies were dissected and pooled. The supernatant was incubated with L-BApNA at different pH values (7.0–8.5). The experiment was performed in duplicate and repeated independently three times. The graphic represents the mean values ± standard deviation.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["host Modulation", "infective blood meal", "Lutzomyia longipalpis females", "promastigote forms", "decline", "acid", "infantum promastigotes", "Intestinal Environment", "enzymes efficiency", "Lutzomyia longipalpis", "midgut physiology", "mechanism", "release H", "Leishmania infantum Modifies", "protease production", "hypothesis L", "parasite", "pH decreases", "trypsin", "Leishmania infantum", "pH control"], "article_id"=>1227416, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vânia Cristina Santos", "Vladimir Fazito Vale", "Sydnei Magno Silva", "Alexandre Alves Sousa Nascimento", "Natalia Alvim Araujo Saab", "Rodrigo Pedro Pinto Soares", "Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick", "Ricardo Nascimento Araújo", "Marcos Horácio Pereira", "Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara", "Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111241.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>23, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Activity_of_trypsin_at_different_pH_values_/1227416", "title"=>"Activity of trypsin at different pH values.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-03 03:42:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1777241"], "description"=>"<p>Midguts were exposed for 2 hours to <i>Leishmania infantum</i> products and to amino acids at a final concentration of 30 mM, and the trypsin activity was measured in the supernatant; no products from <i>Leishmania</i> were included the control group. Each dot represents the activity normalized to one midgut of 11 independent experiments. There was no difference in the quantity of trypsin produced (<i>p</i> = 0.7421).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["host Modulation", "infective blood meal", "Lutzomyia longipalpis females", "promastigote forms", "decline", "acid", "infantum promastigotes", "Intestinal Environment", "enzymes efficiency", "Lutzomyia longipalpis", "midgut physiology", "mechanism", "release H", "Leishmania infantum Modifies", "protease production", "hypothesis L", "parasite", "pH decreases", "trypsin", "Leishmania infantum", "pH control"], "article_id"=>1227417, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vânia Cristina Santos", "Vladimir Fazito Vale", "Sydnei Magno Silva", "Alexandre Alves Sousa Nascimento", "Natalia Alvim Araujo Saab", "Rodrigo Pedro Pinto Soares", "Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick", "Ricardo Nascimento Araújo", "Marcos Horácio Pereira", "Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara", "Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111241.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Influence_of_Leishmania_products_on_midgut_trypsin_production_/1227417", "title"=>"Influence of <i>Leishmania</i> products on midgut trypsin production.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-03 03:42:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1777242"], "description"=>"<p>Fisher's exact test was used to compare the presence of digesting blood inside uninfected and infected females (*significant difference).</p><p>Delay in blood digestion in <i>Lutzomyia longipalpis</i> females infected with <i>Leishmania infantum</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["host Modulation", "infective blood meal", "Lutzomyia longipalpis females", "promastigote forms", "decline", "acid", "infantum promastigotes", "Intestinal Environment", "enzymes efficiency", "Lutzomyia longipalpis", "midgut physiology", "mechanism", "release H", "Leishmania infantum Modifies", "protease production", "hypothesis L", "parasite", "pH decreases", "trypsin", "Leishmania infantum", "pH control"], "article_id"=>1227418, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vânia Cristina Santos", "Vladimir Fazito Vale", "Sydnei Magno Silva", "Alexandre Alves Sousa Nascimento", "Natalia Alvim Araujo Saab", "Rodrigo Pedro Pinto Soares", "Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick", "Ricardo Nascimento Araújo", "Marcos Horácio Pereira", "Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara", "Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111241.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Delay_in_blood_digestion_in_Lutzomyia_longipalpis_females_infected_with_Leishmania_infantum_/1227418", "title"=>"Delay in blood digestion in <i>Lutzomyia longipalpis</i> females infected with <i>Leishmania infantum</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-03 03:42:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1777243"], "description"=>"<p>Students' T test was used to compare the intestinal pH measured in uninfected and infected females (*significant difference).</p><p>pH in the abdominal midgut of infected and uninfected <i>Lutzomyia longipalpis</i> females during and after blood digestion.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["host Modulation", "infective blood meal", "Lutzomyia longipalpis females", "promastigote forms", "decline", "acid", "infantum promastigotes", "Intestinal Environment", "enzymes efficiency", "Lutzomyia longipalpis", "midgut physiology", "mechanism", "release H", "Leishmania infantum Modifies", "protease production", "hypothesis L", "parasite", "pH decreases", "trypsin", "Leishmania infantum", "pH control"], "article_id"=>1227419, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vânia Cristina Santos", "Vladimir Fazito Vale", "Sydnei Magno Silva", "Alexandre Alves Sousa Nascimento", "Natalia Alvim Araujo Saab", "Rodrigo Pedro Pinto Soares", "Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick", "Ricardo Nascimento Araújo", "Marcos Horácio Pereira", "Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara", "Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111241.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_pH_in_the_abdominal_midgut_of_infected_and_uninfected_Lutzomyia_longipalpis_females_during_and_after_blood_digestion_/1227419", "title"=>"pH in the abdominal midgut of infected and uninfected <i>Lutzomyia longipalpis</i> females during and after blood digestion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-03 03:42:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1777244"], "description"=>"<p>Obs.: Ingestion of 199 medium without amino acids did not alkalize midguts upper to pH 6.5 (data no show). Fisher's exact test was used to compare the treatments A B C D E (*significant difference).</p><p>pH in the abdominal midgut of <i>Lutzomyia longipalpis</i> females fed on 100 mM amino acids solution plus 199 medium with and without <i>Leishmania</i> products submitted to different treatments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["host Modulation", "infective blood meal", "Lutzomyia longipalpis females", "promastigote forms", "decline", "acid", "infantum promastigotes", "Intestinal Environment", "enzymes efficiency", "Lutzomyia longipalpis", "midgut physiology", "mechanism", "release H", "Leishmania infantum Modifies", "protease production", "hypothesis L", "parasite", "pH decreases", "trypsin", "Leishmania infantum", "pH control"], "article_id"=>1227420, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vânia Cristina Santos", "Vladimir Fazito Vale", "Sydnei Magno Silva", "Alexandre Alves Sousa Nascimento", "Natalia Alvim Araujo Saab", "Rodrigo Pedro Pinto Soares", "Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick", "Ricardo Nascimento Araújo", "Marcos Horácio Pereira", "Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara", "Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111241.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_pH_in_the_abdominal_midgut_of_Lutzomyia_longipalpis_females_fed_on_100_mM_amino_acids_solution_plus_199_medium_with_and_without_Leishmania_products_submitted_to_different_treatments_/1227420", "title"=>"pH in the abdominal midgut of <i>Lutzomyia longipalpis</i> females fed on 100 mM amino acids solution plus 199 medium with and without <i>Leishmania</i> products submitted to different treatments.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-03 03:42:28"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1777245"], "description"=>"<p>Fisher's exact test was used to compare the treatments.</p><p>pH in the abdominal midgut of <i>Lutzomyia longipalpis</i> females fed 199 medium plus 100 mM amino acids with or without lipophosphoglycan (LPG) purified from <i>Leishmania infantum</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["host Modulation", "infective blood meal", "Lutzomyia longipalpis females", "promastigote forms", "decline", "acid", "infantum promastigotes", "Intestinal Environment", "enzymes efficiency", "Lutzomyia longipalpis", "midgut physiology", "mechanism", "release H", "Leishmania infantum Modifies", "protease production", "hypothesis L", "parasite", "pH decreases", "trypsin", "Leishmania infantum", "pH control"], "article_id"=>1227421, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Vânia Cristina Santos", "Vladimir Fazito Vale", "Sydnei Magno Silva", "Alexandre Alves Sousa Nascimento", "Natalia Alvim Araujo Saab", "Rodrigo Pedro Pinto Soares", "Marilene Suzan Marques Michalick", "Ricardo Nascimento Araújo", "Marcos Horácio Pereira", "Ricardo Toshio Fujiwara", "Nelder Figueiredo Gontijo"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111241.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_pH_in_the_abdominal_midgut_of_Lutzomyia_longipalpis_females_fed_199_medium_plus_100_mM_amino_acids_with_or_without_lipophosphoglycan_LPG_purified_from_Leishmania_infantum_/1227421", "title"=>"pH in the abdominal midgut of <i>Lutzomyia longipalpis</i> females fed 199 medium plus 100 mM amino acids with or without lipophosphoglycan (LPG) purified from <i>Leishmania infantum</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-03 03:42:28"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Microbiology", "average_usage"=>[317]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Physiology", "average_usage"=>[280]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Hematology", "average_usage"=>[256]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts