A Direct Brain-to-Brain Interface in Humans
Publication Date
November 05, 2014
Journal
PLOS ONE
Authors
Rajesh P. N. Rao, Andrea Stocco, Matthew Bryan, Devapratim Sarma, et al
Volume
9
Issue
11
Pages
e111332
DOI
https://dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332
Publisher URL
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0111332
PubMed
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25372285
PubMed Central
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4221017
Europe PMC
http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/25372285
Web of Science
000344556900045
Scopus
84910682954
Mendeley
http://www.mendeley.com/research/direct-braintobrain-interface-humans
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{"title"=>"A direct brain-to-brain interface in humans", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Rajesh P.N.", "last_name"=>"Rao", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403068988"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrea", "last_name"=>"Stocco", "scopus_author_id"=>"36099547600"}, {"first_name"=>"Matthew", "last_name"=>"Bryan", "scopus_author_id"=>"55268403800"}, {"first_name"=>"Devapratim", "last_name"=>"Sarma", "scopus_author_id"=>"55516451300"}, {"first_name"=>"Tiffany M.", "last_name"=>"Youngquist", "scopus_author_id"=>"55898256400"}, {"first_name"=>"Joseph", "last_name"=>"Wu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56416852600"}, {"first_name"=>"Chantel S.", "last_name"=>"Prat", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004235526"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84910682954", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111332", "pui"=>"600434455", "pmid"=>"25372285", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84910682954", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"58ee9710-96f9-33e6-bda0-df9d138a1f39", "abstract"=>"We describe the first direct brain-to-brain interface in humans and present results from experiments involving six different subjects. Our non-invasive interface, demonstrated originally in August 2013, combines electroencephalography (EEG) for recording brain signals with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for delivering information to the brain. We illustrate our method using a visuomotor task in which two humans must cooperate through direct brain-to-brain communication to achieve a desired goal in a computer game. The brain-to-brain interface detects motor imagery in EEG signals recorded from one subject (the “sender”) and transmits this information over the internet to the motor cortex region of a second subject (the “receiver”). This allows the sender to cause a desired motor response in the receiver (a press on a touchpad) via TMS. We quantify the performance of the brain-to-brain interface in terms of the amount of information transmitted as well as the accuracies attained in (1) decoding the sender’s signals, (2) generating a motor response from the receiver upon stimulation, and (3) achieving the overall goal in the cooperative visuomotor task. Our results provide evidence for a rudimentary form of direct information transmission from one human brain to another using non-invasive means.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/direct-braintobrain-interface-humans", "reader_count"=>112, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>19, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>27, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>16, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>12, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7, "Arts and Humanities"=>2, "Philosophy"=>1, "Computer Science"=>11, "Engineering"=>22, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>1, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>9, "Neuroscience"=>15, "Design"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>4, "Psychology"=>19, "Social Sciences"=>2, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>9}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>2}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>4}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>19}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>12}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>2}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>1}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>22}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>15}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>7}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>11}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Philosophy"=>{"Philosophy"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>4, "Egypt"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780392"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Schematic diagram of set-up. Brain signals from one participant (the “Sender”) were recorded using EEG. When imagined hand movements were detected by the computer, a “Fire” command was transmitted over the internet to the TMS machine, which caused an upward movement of the right hand of a second participant (the “Receiver”), resulting in a press by the hand on a touchpad. This press triggered the firing of the cannon in the game seen by the Sender. Red lines mark the part of the architecture that corresponds to the direct brain-to-brain interface. (B) Screen shot from the game. In 50% of the trials, the pirate ship on the right side (skull-and-bones) shoots a rocket (top center) towards a city on the left. The Sender engages in motor imagery to move the white cursor on the left to hit the blue circular target in order to fire the cannon (bottom center) and destroy the rocket before it reaches the city. In the other 50% of the trials, a supply airplane moves from the right to the left side of the screen (not shown). The Sender rests in this case and refrains from imagery in order to avoid hitting the target.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229872, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Experimental_Set_Up_/1229872", "title"=>"Experimental Set-Up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780393"], "description"=>"<p>EEG signals being recorded from a subject (the “Sender”) as the subject watches the computer game (the game screen is to the left and not shown in the picture). The larger screen displays EEG signals processed by the BCI2000 software. The smaller laptop screen placed further away is from the live Skype session and shows a “Receiver” subject in the TMS lab across the University of Washington campus. (Image from the pilot study referred to in the text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229873, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>49, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EEG_Set_Up_/1229873", "title"=>"EEG Set-Up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780394"], "description"=>"<p>EEG signal during one rocket trial (red trace) and one airplane trial (blue trace) from the Sender in Pair 1 is shown. The traces demonstrate suppression of power in the mu control band (11–13 Hz) during the rocket trial due to motor imagery. Dashed vertical lines mark timestamps of key events in the transfer of information in the BBI from Sender to Receiver during the rocket trial.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229874, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EEG_Traces_during_the_Two_Trial_Types_and_Timing_of_Information_Transfer_from_Sender_to_Receiver_during_a_Rocket_Trial_/1229874", "title"=>"EEG Traces during the Two Trial Types and Timing of Information Transfer from Sender to Receiver during a Rocket Trial.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780395"], "description"=>"<p>The figure represents the approximate position of the TMS circle coil (in red) on the head of the three participants. The “+” sign represents the location of the vertex. The white arrow shows the direction of the inducing current in the coil; the numbers represent the intensity of the magnetic stimulation used for each receiver. As is commonplace in the TMS literature, the intensity of the stimulation is expressed as a percentage of the maximum stimulator output (which was 2.0 T).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229875, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>26, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Stimulation_Parameters_for_the_Three_Receivers_/1229875", "title"=>"Stimulation Parameters for the Three Receivers.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780396"], "description"=>"<p>During the experiment, the Receiver was accommodated on a BrainSight chair, with the back of the head resting against a neckrest (A) and kept in place by an adjustable arm with padded forehead prongs (B). A 90 mm circular TMS coil (C) was kept in place by an articulated arm (D). During the experiment, the receiver wore noise-cancellation earphones (not shown) while listening to a selection of music or to an audiobook of his/her own choice.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229876, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TMS_Set_Up_/1229876", "title"=>"TMS Set-Up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780397"], "description"=>"<p>ROC curves for each of the three pairs of subjects (columns), presented in terms of overall pair accuracy in the game (top panels), accuracy of the Sender (middle panels), and accuracy of the Receiver (bottom panels). Red lines and areas represent the experimental conditions, while grey lines and areas represent the control conditions.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229877, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_BBI_Accuracy_/1229877", "title"=>"BBI Accuracy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780398"], "description"=>"<p>Each panel shows the log power (mean +/−1 standard deviation) in the control band for a Sender during the final 2.5s before the cursor hit the target for all rocket trials (red). For comparison, data from airplane trials for the same time period are shown in blue. The control bands were as follows: Pair 1∶11–13 Hz; Pair 2∶18–20 Hz; Pair 3∶11–28 Hz. There is a clear separation in EEG control signals for the two types of trials for the Senders in Pairs 1 and 3, but not in Pair 2.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229878, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>8, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Task_related_EEG_Activity_for_the_Senders_in_the_Three_BBI_Pairs_/1229878", "title"=>"Task-related EEG Activity for the Senders in the Three BBI Pairs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780399"], "description"=>"<p>. Each vertical tick represents a trial; long lines represent behavioral responses. Experimental blocks are marked by a red background; control blocks by a grey background. The blue dashed line represents the block-specific value of the regression coefficient β (see text for details); the red line represents the block-specific value of the mutual information between the two vectors. Note that in all six experimental blocks, the value of β was significantly greater than zero while in all control blocks, the value was zero. Likewise, about 4 to 13 bits of information (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332#pone-0111332-t003\" target=\"_blank\">Table 3</a>) were transferred from one brain to another during experimental blocks, compared to zero bits in the control blocks.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229879, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Response_Vectors_for_the_Sender_and_Receiver_across_Three_Pairs_/1229879", "title"=>"Response Vectors for the Sender and Receiver across Three Pairs", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780400"], "description"=>"<p>Participant demographics.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229880, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Participant_demographics_/1229880", "title"=>"Participant demographics.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780401"], "description"=>"<p>Percentage of rockets and planes hit by pair.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229881, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>32, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_rockets_and_planes_hit_by_pair_/1229881", "title"=>"Percentage of rockets and planes hit by pair.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1780402"], "description"=>"<p>Values in parenthesis indicate the total number of bits transferred during the corresponding block.</p><p>Mutual information between Sender and Receiver response vectors across the different conditions and pairs of participants.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["tms", "human", "eeg", "subject", "information", "stimulation", "motor response", "recording brain signals", "interface", "motor cortex region", "sender", "visuomotor task", "receiver"], "article_id"=>1229882, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Rajesh P. N. Rao", "Andrea Stocco", "Matthew Bryan", "Devapratim Sarma", "Tiffany M. Youngquist", "Joseph Wu", "Chantel S. Prat"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111332.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>34, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mutual_information_between_Sender_and_Receiver_response_vectors_across_the_different_conditions_and_pairs_of_participants_/1229882", "title"=>"Mutual information between Sender and Receiver response vectors across the different conditions and pairs of participants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 04:20:17"}

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Relative Metric

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