Where Do Livestock Guardian Dogs Go? Movement Patterns of Free-Ranging Maremma Sheepdogs
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{"title"=>"Where do livestock guardian dogs go? Movement patterns of free-ranging Maremma sheepdogs", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Linda", "last_name"=>"Van Bommel", "scopus_author_id"=>"36480409300"}, {"first_name"=>"Chris N.", "last_name"=>"Johnson", "scopus_author_id"=>"7405667303"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84908635482", "pui"=>"600310287", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111444", "sgr"=>"84908635482", "pmid"=>"25353319"}, "id"=>"81addd1f-d767-3b37-ae7c-8b7c6c11c639", "abstract"=>"In many parts of the world, livestock guardian dogs (LGDs) are a relatively new and increasingly popular method for controlling the impact of wild predators on livestock. On large grazing properties in Australia, LGDs are often allowed to range freely over large areas, with minimal supervision by their owners. How they behave in this situation is mostly unknown. We fitted free-ranging Maremma sheepdogs with GPS tracking collars on three properties in Victoria, Australia; on two properties, four sheep were also fitted with GPS collars. We investigated how much time the Maremmas spent with their livestock, how far they moved outside the ranges of their stock, and tested whether they use their ranges sequentially, which is an effective way of maintaining a presence over a large area. The 95% kernel isopleth of the Maremmas ranged between 31 and 1161 ha, the 50% kernel isopleth ranged between 4 and 252 ha. Maremmas spent on average 90% of their time in sheep paddocks. Movements away from sheep occurred mostly at night, and were characterised by high-speed travel on relatively straight paths, similar to the change in activity at the edge of their range. Maremmas used different parts of their range sequentially, similar to sheep, and had a distinct early morning and late afternoon peak in activity. Our results show that while free-ranging LGDs spend the majority of their time with livestock, movements away from stock do occur. These movements could be important in allowing the dogs to maintain large territories, and could increase the effectiveness of livestock protection. Allowing LGDs to range freely can therefore be a useful management decision, but property size has to be large enough to accommodate the large areas that the dogs use.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/livestock-guardian-dogs-go-movement-patterns-freeranging-maremma-sheepdogs", "reader_count"=>39, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Master"=>8, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>26}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Chile"=>1, "France"=>1, "Australia"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1770751"], "description"=>"<p>A. Gillingal Station, B. Riversdale, C. Heatherlie. Image 1 of each property shows the vegetation on the sites, and the areas where the sheep or goats were grazed. In addition, for Heatherlie, the position of the electrified wild-dog fence is indicated. Image 2 of each property shows a representative example of a Maremma home range, depicting the 50%, 50%–90% and 90%–100% kernel isopleth areas. In this figure, tracking data was used from a Maremma in 2010 on Riversdale and in 2011 on Heatherlie, to coincide with sheep home ranges depicted in image 3. Image 3 of Riversdale and Heatherlie shows a representative example of a sheep home range, depicting the 50%, 50%–90% and 90%–100% kernel isopleth areas.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dogs use", "Maremma", "sheep paddocks", "livestock guardian dogs", "livestock protection", "afternoon peak", "range sequentially", "movement patterns", "property size", "results show", "management decision", "LGD", "ranges sequentially", "GPS collars"], "article_id"=>1222050, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Linda van Bommel", "Chris N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111444.g001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_three_research_properties_used_in_this_study_/1222050", "title"=>"The three research properties used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-29 02:54:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1770752"], "description"=>"<p>A. 50% kernel isopleth core area, and B. 95% kernel isopleth range. Each point represents the mean size of the range of an individual dog.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dogs use", "Maremma", "sheep paddocks", "livestock guardian dogs", "livestock protection", "afternoon peak", "range sequentially", "movement patterns", "property size", "results show", "management decision", "LGD", "ranges sequentially", "GPS collars"], "article_id"=>1222051, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Linda van Bommel", "Chris N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111444.g002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_age_of_the_Maremma_and_size_of_the_kernel_isopleth_home_range_14_Maremmas_in_total_/1222051", "title"=>"Relationship between age of the Maremma and size of the kernel isopleth home range (14 Maremmas in total).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-29 02:54:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1770753"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Relative to location in the kernel isopleths of Maremmas on the three properties (14 Maremmas in total). Movement speed increased significantly towards the edge of the home range (F<sub>9, 117</sub> = 46.2, P<0.01), the difference between the three properties is not significant. (B) Relative to location in the kernel isopleth of Maremmas compared to sheep when they were collared at the same time (9 Maremmas and 8 sheep). Maremmas had higher speed of movement than sheep, and a greater increase in movement speed towards the edge of their home range (F<sub>1, 10</sub> = 6.07, P<0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dogs use", "Maremma", "sheep paddocks", "livestock guardian dogs", "livestock protection", "afternoon peak", "range sequentially", "movement patterns", "property size", "results show", "management decision", "LGD", "ranges sequentially", "GPS collars"], "article_id"=>1222052, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Linda van Bommel", "Chris N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111444.g003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_speed_of_movement_/1222052", "title"=>"Mean speed of movement.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-29 02:54:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1770754"], "description"=>"<p>A. Maremmas on the three properties within each kernel isopleth area for all scales of analysis (14 Maremmas in total). Tortuosity values decreased significantly towards the edge of the home range at all scales of analysis (0.1 km: F<sub>2, 26</sub> = 4.67, P<0.05, 0.25 km: F<sub>2, 26</sub> = 16.58, P<0.01, 0.5 km: F<sub>2, 26</sub> = 16.17, P<0.01, 1 km: F<sub>2, 18</sub> = 16.44, P<0.01). B. Maremmas compared to sheep when they were collared at the same time for the 1km scale of analysis (9 Maremmas and 8 sheep). The other scales of analysis showed a similar trend, the differences between sheep and Maremmas were not significant. Median values of tortuosity for individual dogs within each kernel isopleth area were only included in the overall calculation if the overall number of line segments used to calculate that median was equal to or greater than 10.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dogs use", "Maremma", "sheep paddocks", "livestock guardian dogs", "livestock protection", "afternoon peak", "range sequentially", "movement patterns", "property size", "results show", "management decision", "LGD", "ranges sequentially", "GPS collars"], "article_id"=>1222053, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Linda van Bommel", "Chris N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111444.g004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_median_tortuosity_values_/1222053", "title"=>"Mean median tortuosity values.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-29 02:54:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1770755"], "description"=>"<p>Inside livestock areas tortuosity values were significantly higher for all four scales of analysis (0.1 km: F<sub>1, 9</sub> = 11.25, P<0.01; 0.25 km: F<sub>1, 9</sub> = 14.08, P<0.01; 0.5 km: F<sub>1, 9</sub> = 40.71, P<0.01 and 1 km: F<sub>1, 9</sub> = 31.96, P<0.01). Median values of tortuosity for individual dogs within each livestock area were only included in the overall calculation if the number of line segments that was used to calculate that median was equal to or greater than 10.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dogs use", "Maremma", "sheep paddocks", "livestock guardian dogs", "livestock protection", "afternoon peak", "range sequentially", "movement patterns", "property size", "results show", "management decision", "LGD", "ranges sequentially", "GPS collars"], "article_id"=>1222054, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Linda van Bommel", "Chris N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111444.g005"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Median_tortuosity_values_of_movement_paths_of_Maremmas_inside_and_outside_of_livestock_areas_at_four_different_scales_of_analysis_10_Maremmas_in_total_/1222054", "title"=>"Median tortuosity values of movement paths of Maremmas inside and outside of livestock areas at four different scales of analysis (10 Maremmas in total).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-29 02:54:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1770757"], "description"=>"<p>When the graph is positive, it indicates the times of the day that Maremmas are more likely to leave stock, when the graph is negative, it indicates the times of the day that Maremmas are less likely to leave stock. This number is calculated as follows: the percentage of the total number of locations for each category (with and without livestock) that fell within that hour of the day was calculated for each dog. Then for each hour, the percentage with livestock was subtracted from the percentage without livestock.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dogs use", "Maremma", "sheep paddocks", "livestock guardian dogs", "livestock protection", "afternoon peak", "range sequentially", "movement patterns", "property size", "results show", "management decision", "LGD", "ranges sequentially", "GPS collars"], "article_id"=>1222056, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Linda van Bommel", "Chris N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111444.g006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_time_of_the_day_at_which_Maremmas_are_more_likely_to_leave_their_livestock_10_Maremmas_in_total_/1222056", "title"=>"The time of the day at which Maremmas are more likely to leave their livestock (10 Maremmas in total).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-29 02:54:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1770758"], "description"=>"<p>Both species were collared during the same time period. First the overlap between the first day of the series and each of the 19 consecutive days was calculated, after which the process was repeated by using the second day as the initial day, and calculating the overlap between that day and each of 19 consecutive days.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dogs use", "Maremma", "sheep paddocks", "livestock guardian dogs", "livestock protection", "afternoon peak", "range sequentially", "movement patterns", "property size", "results show", "management decision", "LGD", "ranges sequentially", "GPS collars"], "article_id"=>1222057, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Linda van Bommel", "Chris N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111444.g007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_percentage_of_overlap_in_MCP_s_in_consecutive_20_day_periods_for_Maremmas_compared_to_sheep_the_difference_between_the_two_species_is_not_significant_9_Maremmas_and_8_sheep_/1222057", "title"=>"The percentage of overlap in MCP's in consecutive 20-day periods for Maremmas compared to sheep, the difference between the two species is not significant (9 Maremmas and 8 sheep).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-29 02:54:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1770760"], "description"=>"<p>Each point represents the mean movement speed of an individual dog (14 Maremmas in total).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dogs use", "Maremma", "sheep paddocks", "livestock guardian dogs", "livestock protection", "afternoon peak", "range sequentially", "movement patterns", "property size", "results show", "management decision", "LGD", "ranges sequentially", "GPS collars"], "article_id"=>1222059, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Linda van Bommel", "Chris N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111444.g008"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Relationship_between_age_of_the_Maremma_and_movement_speed_m_h_/1222059", "title"=>"Relationship between age of the Maremma and movement speed (m/h).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-29 02:54:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1770761"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Maremmas on the three research properties (14 Maremmas in total). The overall level of activity was significantly different between the three properties F<sub>2, 10</sub> = 5.47, P<0.05. (B) Maremmas compared to sheep when both were collared during the same time period (9 Maremmas and 8 sheep). The activity pattern was significantly different between the two species (F<sub>1, 14</sub> = 7.49, P<0.05). The Y-axis represents the average distance moved per hour in a 24 hour period.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dogs use", "Maremma", "sheep paddocks", "livestock guardian dogs", "livestock protection", "afternoon peak", "range sequentially", "movement patterns", "property size", "results show", "management decision", "LGD", "ranges sequentially", "GPS collars"], "article_id"=>1222060, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Linda van Bommel", "Chris N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111444.g009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Average_24_hour_activity_patterns_/1222060", "title"=>"Average 24-hour activity patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-29 02:54:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1770762"], "description"=>"<p>* M – male, F – female.</p><p># Information on losses of livestock before and after obtaining LGDs has been sourced from records kept by the farmers themselves.</p><p>Details of the three research properties.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["dogs use", "Maremma", "sheep paddocks", "livestock guardian dogs", "livestock protection", "afternoon peak", "range sequentially", "movement patterns", "property size", "results show", "management decision", "LGD", "ranges sequentially", "GPS collars"], "article_id"=>1222061, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Linda van Bommel", "Chris N. Johnson"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111444.t001"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>0, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Details_of_the_three_research_properties_/1222061", "title"=>"Details of the three research properties.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-29 02:54:23"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

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