Lack of Involvement of CEP Adducts in TLR Activation and in Angiogenesis
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{"title"=>"Lack of involvement of CEP adducts in TLR activation and in angiogenesis", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"John", "last_name"=>"Gounarides", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603462677"}, {"first_name"=>"Jennifer S.", "last_name"=>"Cobb", "scopus_author_id"=>"56400262400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jing", "last_name"=>"Zhou", "scopus_author_id"=>"56399535700"}, {"first_name"=>"Frank", "last_name"=>"Cook", "scopus_author_id"=>"56400385700"}, {"first_name"=>"Xuemei", "last_name"=>"Yang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56399507200"}, {"first_name"=>"Hong", "last_name"=>"Yin", "scopus_author_id"=>"57197472055"}, {"first_name"=>"Erik", "last_name"=>"Meredith", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602703450"}, {"first_name"=>"Chang", "last_name"=>"Rao", "scopus_author_id"=>"36454114000"}, {"first_name"=>"Qian", "last_name"=>"Huang", "scopus_author_id"=>"56512871000"}, {"first_name"=>"Yong Yao", "last_name"=>"Xu", "scopus_author_id"=>"15842480700"}, {"first_name"=>"Karen", "last_name"=>"Anderson", "scopus_author_id"=>"55584808184"}, {"first_name"=>"Andrea", "last_name"=>"De Erkenez", "scopus_author_id"=>"8774013100"}, {"first_name"=>"Sha Mei", "last_name"=>"Liao", "scopus_author_id"=>"57191646272"}, {"first_name"=>"Maura", "last_name"=>"Crowley", "scopus_author_id"=>"56400348000"}, {"first_name"=>"Natasha", "last_name"=>"Buchanan", "scopus_author_id"=>"56389308300"}, {"first_name"=>"Stephen", "last_name"=>"Poor", "scopus_author_id"=>"56389512600"}, {"first_name"=>"Yubin", "last_name"=>"Qiu", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403279551"}, {"first_name"=>"Elizabeth", "last_name"=>"Fassbender", "scopus_author_id"=>"56389590700"}, {"first_name"=>"Siyuan", "last_name"=>"Shen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56389077800"}, {"first_name"=>"Amber", "last_name"=>"Woolfenden", "scopus_author_id"=>"8567470400"}, {"first_name"=>"Amy", "last_name"=>"Jensen", "scopus_author_id"=>"56400068200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rosemarie", "last_name"=>"Cepeda", "scopus_author_id"=>"57003121300"}, {"first_name"=>"Bijan", "last_name"=>"Etemad-Gilbertson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56401128100"}, {"first_name"=>"Shelby", "last_name"=>"Giza", "scopus_author_id"=>"56400889800"}, {"first_name"=>"Muneto", "last_name"=>"Mogi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55855937700"}, {"first_name"=>"Bruce", "last_name"=>"Jaffee", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006752353"}, {"first_name"=>"Sassan", "last_name"=>"Azarian", "scopus_author_id"=>"57056022400"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84908406299", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111472", "pui"=>"600290368", "pmid"=>"25343517", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84908406299", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"6dc0d8c5-94b5-3111-abb9-ab5c038f0b55", "abstract"=>"Proteins that are post-translationally adducted with 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) have been proposed to play a pathogenic role in age-related macular degeneration, by inducing angiogenesis in a Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner. We have investigated the involvement of CEP adducts in angiogenesis and TLR activation, to assess the therapeutic potential of inhibiting CEP adducts and TLR2 for ocular angiogenesis. As tool reagents, several CEP-adducted proteins and peptides were synthetically generated by published methodology and adduction was confirmed by NMR and LC-MS/MS analyses. Structural studies showed significant changes in secondary structure in CEP-adducted proteins but not the untreated proteins. Similar structural changes were also observed in the treated unadducted proteins, which were treated by the same adduction method except for one critical step required to form the CEP group. Thus some structural changes were unrelated to CEP groups and were artificially induced by the synthesis method. In biological studies, the CEP-adducted proteins and peptides failed to activate TLR2 in cell-based assays and in an in vivo TLR2-mediated retinal leukocyte infiltration model. Neither CEP adducts nor TLR agonists were able to induce angiogenesis in a tube formation assay. In vivo, treatment of animals with CEP-adducted protein had no effect on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Furthermore, in vivo inactivation of TLR2 by deficiency in Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) had no effect on abrasion-induced corneal neovascularization. Thus the CEP-TLR2 axis, which is implicated in other wound angiogenesis models, does not appear to play a pathological role in a corneal wound angiogenesis model. Collectively, our data do not support the mechanism of action of CEP adducts in TLR2-mediated angiogenesis proposed by others.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/lack-involvement-cep-adducts-tlr-activation-angiogenesis", "reader_count"=>23, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>12}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Other"=>12}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Psychology"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>15}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1757434/Figure_1.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jennifer S. Cobb", "Frank Cook", "Erik Meredith", "Chang Rao", "YongYao Xu", "Andrea De Erkenez", "Sha-Mei Liao", "Maura Crowley", "Natasha Buchanan", "Stephen Poor", "Yubin Qiu", "Elizabeth Fassbender", "Siyuan Shen", "Amber Woolfenden", "Amy Jensen", "Rosemarie Cepeda", "Bijan Etemad-Gilbertson", "Shelby Giza", "Muneto Mogi", "Bruce Jaffee", "Sassan Azarian", "Qian Huang", "Karen Anderson", "Jing Zhou", "Xuemei Yang", "John Gounarides", "Hong Yin"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nmr", "protein", "TLR 2", "leukocyte infiltration model", "wound angiogenesis model", "Myeloid Differentiation factor 88", "tube formation assay", "CEP adducts", "wound angiogenesis models"], "title"=>"<p>Structural Analyses of CEP Adducts.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Structural_Analyses_of_CEP_Adducts_/1218065", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.g001"], "published_date"=>"2014-10-24 15:28:41", "article_id"=>1218065, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>A) <i>SDS-PAGE analysis</i>. Aliquots of HSA-CTL1 (untreated), HSA-CTL2 (treated but unadducted) and HSA-CEP were subjected to reducing SDS-PAGE on 4–10% gels. Compared to HSA-CTL1, both HSA-CTL2 and HSA-CEP showed an increase in high-MW bands. B) <i>Size exclusion chromatography</i>. SEC under non-denaturing conditions indicated an increase in faster-eluting peaks in HSA-CTL2 and HSA-CEP compared to HSA-CTL1. C) <i>Circular dichroism</i>. CD analysis revealed a loss of secondary structure in HSA-CTL2 and HSA-CEP compared to HSA-CTL1.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1757436/Figure_2.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jennifer S. Cobb", "Frank Cook", "Erik Meredith", "Chang Rao", "YongYao Xu", "Andrea De Erkenez", "Sha-Mei Liao", "Maura Crowley", "Natasha Buchanan", "Stephen Poor", "Yubin Qiu", "Elizabeth Fassbender", "Siyuan Shen", "Amber Woolfenden", "Amy Jensen", "Rosemarie Cepeda", "Bijan Etemad-Gilbertson", "Shelby Giza", "Muneto Mogi", "Bruce Jaffee", "Sassan Azarian", "Qian Huang", "Karen Anderson", "Jing Zhou", "Xuemei Yang", "John Gounarides", "Hong Yin"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nmr", "protein", "TLR 2", "leukocyte infiltration model", "wound angiogenesis model", "Myeloid Differentiation factor 88", "tube formation assay", "CEP adducts", "wound angiogenesis models"], "title"=>"<p>Cell-Based TLR Activation Assays.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_Based_TLR_Activation_Assays_/1218068", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.g002"], "published_date"=>"2014-10-24 15:28:41", "article_id"=>1218068, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p >Various CEP adducts and TLR agonists were tested in HEK293 or THP-1 cells. Readouts were NFkB reporter signal or IL-8 secretion (columns), as indicated. In addition, the same wells were analyzed for viability with the CellTiter-Glo kit (axis on right; square symbols) to ensure that any lack of activation was not due to cell toxicity. HEK293 cells were treated with the following reagents: HSA-CTL1, HSA-CTL2, or HSA-CEP: 0, 3.9, 7.8, 15.6, 32.6, 62.5, and 125 and 250 &#181;g/ml; Pam3CSK4&#8758; 0, 1.5, 3.2, 6.3, 12.5, 25, 50, 100 ng/mL. THP-1 cells were treated with the following reagents: HSA-CTL1, HSA-CTL2, or HSA-CEP: 62.5, 125, and 250 &#181;g/mL; Pam3CSK4&#8758; 4, 20, and 100 ng/mL; FSL-1&#8758;0.4, 2, and 10 ng/mL; LPS: 4, 20, and 100 ng/mL; R837 or R848&#8758;0.4, 2, and 10 &#181;M; ODN2006G5&#8758;0.2, 1, and 5 &#181;M.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1764461/Figure_S1.tif", "http://files.figshare.com/1764462/Figure_S2.tif", "http://files.figshare.com/1764463/Figure_S3.tif", "http://files.figshare.com/1764464/Table_S1.doc", "http://files.figshare.com/1764465/File_S1.docx"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jennifer S. Cobb", "Frank Cook", "Erik Meredith", "Chang Rao", "YongYao Xu", "Andrea De Erkenez", "Sha-Mei Liao", "Maura Crowley", "Natasha Buchanan", "Stephen Poor", "Yubin Qiu", "Elizabeth Fassbender", "Siyuan Shen", "Amber Woolfenden", "Amy Jensen", "Rosemarie Cepeda", "Bijan Etemad-Gilbertson", "Shelby Giza", "Muneto Mogi", "Bruce Jaffee", "Sassan Azarian", "Qian Huang", "Karen Anderson", "Jing Zhou", "Xuemei Yang", "John Gounarides", "Hong Yin"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nmr", "protein", "TLR 2", "leukocyte infiltration model", "wound angiogenesis model", "Myeloid Differentiation factor 88", "tube formation assay", "CEP adducts", "wound angiogenesis models"], "title"=>"<p>Lack of Involvement of CEP Adducts in TLR Activation and in Angiogenesis</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Lack_of_Involvement_of_CEP_Adducts_in_TLR_Activation_and_in_Angiogenesis_/1220502", "defined_type"=>4, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.s001", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.s002", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.s003", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.s004", "http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.s005"], "published_date"=>"2014-10-24 17:36:39", "article_id"=>1220502, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<div><p>Proteins that are post-translationally adducted with 2-(ω-carboxyethyl)pyrrole (CEP) have been proposed to play a pathogenic role in age-related macular degeneration, by inducing angiogenesis in a Toll Like Receptor 2 (TLR2)-dependent manner. We have investigated the involvement of CEP adducts in angiogenesis and TLR activation, to assess the therapeutic potential of inhibiting CEP adducts and TLR2 for ocular angiogenesis. As tool reagents, several CEP-adducted proteins and peptides were synthetically generated by published methodology and adduction was confirmed by NMR and LC-MS/MS analyses. Structural studies showed significant changes in secondary structure in CEP-adducted proteins but not the untreated proteins. Similar structural changes were also observed in the treated unadducted proteins, which were treated by the same adduction method except for one critical step required to form the CEP group. Thus some structural changes were unrelated to CEP groups and were artificially induced by the synthesis method. In biological studies, the CEP-adducted proteins and peptides failed to activate TLR2 in cell-based assays and in an <i>in vivo</i> TLR2-mediated retinal leukocyte infiltration model. Neither CEP adducts nor TLR agonists were able to induce angiogenesis in a tube formation assay. <i>In vivo</i>, treatment of animals with CEP-adducted protein had no effect on laser-induced choroidal neovascularization. Furthermore, <i>in vivo</i> inactivation of TLR2 by deficiency in Myeloid Differentiation factor 88 (Myd88) had no effect on abrasion-induced corneal neovascularization. Thus the CEP-TLR2 axis, which is implicated in other wound angiogenesis models, does not appear to play a pathological role in a corneal wound angiogenesis model. Collectively, our data do not support the mechanism of action of CEP adducts in TLR2-mediated angiogenesis proposed by others.</p></div>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1757440/Figure_3.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>1, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jennifer S. Cobb", "Frank Cook", "Erik Meredith", "Chang Rao", "YongYao Xu", "Andrea De Erkenez", "Sha-Mei Liao", "Maura Crowley", "Natasha Buchanan", "Stephen Poor", "Yubin Qiu", "Elizabeth Fassbender", "Siyuan Shen", "Amber Woolfenden", "Amy Jensen", "Rosemarie Cepeda", "Bijan Etemad-Gilbertson", "Shelby Giza", "Muneto Mogi", "Bruce Jaffee", "Sassan Azarian", "Qian Huang", "Karen Anderson", "Jing Zhou", "Xuemei Yang", "John Gounarides", "Hong Yin"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nmr", "protein", "TLR 2", "leukocyte infiltration model", "wound angiogenesis model", "Myeloid Differentiation factor 88", "tube formation assay", "CEP adducts", "wound angiogenesis models"], "title"=>"<p>Retinal Leukocyte Infiltration Assay.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Retinal_Leukocyte_Infiltration_Assay_/1218071", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.g003"], "published_date"=>"2014-10-24 15:28:41", "article_id"=>1218071, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>A) Mice were injected intraperitoneally with either PBS, Pam3CSK4 (25 µg per animal, in PBS), or dipeptide-CEP (400 µg per animal, in PBS) and the retinas were analyzed 8 hours later. Retinal infiltration by neutrophils (Gr1+ cells) or macrophages (F4/80+ cells) was assessed by immunostaining with the respective markers and quantitated with Axiovision, as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. Statistical analysis was performed using the Student t-test. Only statistically significant differences are indicated in the graph. B) Shown are representative images of the experiment in <b>Figure 3A</b>. Arrows indicate examples of macrophages or neutrophils in the corresponding images. <i>CEP</i>, Dipeptide-CEP; <i>Pam3</i>, Pam3CSK4.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1757442/Figure_4.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jennifer S. Cobb", "Frank Cook", "Erik Meredith", "Chang Rao", "YongYao Xu", "Andrea De Erkenez", "Sha-Mei Liao", "Maura Crowley", "Natasha Buchanan", "Stephen Poor", "Yubin Qiu", "Elizabeth Fassbender", "Siyuan Shen", "Amber Woolfenden", "Amy Jensen", "Rosemarie Cepeda", "Bijan Etemad-Gilbertson", "Shelby Giza", "Muneto Mogi", "Bruce Jaffee", "Sassan Azarian", "Qian Huang", "Karen Anderson", "Jing Zhou", "Xuemei Yang", "John Gounarides", "Hong Yin"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nmr", "protein", "TLR 2", "leukocyte infiltration model", "wound angiogenesis model", "Myeloid Differentiation factor 88", "tube formation assay", "CEP adducts", "wound angiogenesis models"], "title"=>"<p>Tube Formation Assay.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Tube_Formation_Assay_/1218074", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.g004"], "published_date"=>"2014-10-24 15:28:41", "article_id"=>1218074, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>Shown are representative images of the experiments in presented numerically in <a target=\"_blank\" href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472#pone-0111472-t001\"><b>Table 1</b></a><b>.</b> The figure shows images for untreated negative control (untreated), positive control (VEGF 165, 4 ng/mL), HSA-CEP (2 µg/mL), Pam3CSK4 (500 nM), LPS (10 ng/mL), poly (I:C) (10 µg/mL). The arrow in the untreated image shows an example of an island of unmigrated HUVEC cells, which is also seen in other images.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1757444/Figure_5.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jennifer S. Cobb", "Frank Cook", "Erik Meredith", "Chang Rao", "YongYao Xu", "Andrea De Erkenez", "Sha-Mei Liao", "Maura Crowley", "Natasha Buchanan", "Stephen Poor", "Yubin Qiu", "Elizabeth Fassbender", "Siyuan Shen", "Amber Woolfenden", "Amy Jensen", "Rosemarie Cepeda", "Bijan Etemad-Gilbertson", "Shelby Giza", "Muneto Mogi", "Bruce Jaffee", "Sassan Azarian", "Qian Huang", "Karen Anderson", "Jing Zhou", "Xuemei Yang", "John Gounarides", "Hong Yin"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nmr", "protein", "TLR 2", "leukocyte infiltration model", "wound angiogenesis model", "Myeloid Differentiation factor 88", "tube formation assay", "CEP adducts", "wound angiogenesis models"], "title"=>"<p>Mouse Laser-Induced CNV Assay.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Mouse_Laser_Induced_CNV_Assay_/1218076", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.g005"], "published_date"=>"2014-10-24 15:28:41", "article_id"=>1218076, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Subretinal injection of MSA-CEP does not increase CNV area compared to mice injected with saline or MSA-CTL2. Bar graph shows mean area of CNV +/− SEM from first experiment evaluating the effect of subretinal injection of saline, 0.5 µg of rhVEGF165, 3.8 µg of MSA-CTL2, 3.8 µg of MSA-CEP, or 6.6 µg of 4G3 (an anti-mVEGF antibody) on laser-induced CNV in C57BL/6J mice. The number above each bar is the percentage inhibition relative to average CNV area in mice injected with MSA-CTL2. Subretinal injection of VEGF increases CNV area and subretinal injection of an anti-mVEGF antibody inhibits CNV area. * p<0.05, **** p<0.0001 by ANOVA with a Dunnett’s post hoc analysis. (B) Representative fluorescent images of CNV lesions 7 days after laser from mice injected in the subretinal space with MSA-CEP, MSA-CTL2, VEGF or a VEGF Antibody as described above. Scale bar = 100 microns. <i>CTL2</i>, MSA-CTL2; <i>CEP</i>, MSA-CEP.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1757445/Figure_6.tif"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jennifer S. Cobb", "Frank Cook", "Erik Meredith", "Chang Rao", "YongYao Xu", "Andrea De Erkenez", "Sha-Mei Liao", "Maura Crowley", "Natasha Buchanan", "Stephen Poor", "Yubin Qiu", "Elizabeth Fassbender", "Siyuan Shen", "Amber Woolfenden", "Amy Jensen", "Rosemarie Cepeda", "Bijan Etemad-Gilbertson", "Shelby Giza", "Muneto Mogi", "Bruce Jaffee", "Sassan Azarian", "Qian Huang", "Karen Anderson", "Jing Zhou", "Xuemei Yang", "John Gounarides", "Hong Yin"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nmr", "protein", "TLR 2", "leukocyte infiltration model", "wound angiogenesis model", "Myeloid Differentiation factor 88", "tube formation assay", "CEP adducts", "wound angiogenesis models"], "title"=>"<p>Mouse CoNV Assay.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Mouse_CoNV_Assay_/1218077", "defined_type"=>1, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.g006"], "published_date"=>"2014-10-24 15:28:41", "article_id"=>1218077, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>A) Adult <i>Myd88&#8722;/&#8722;</i> (KO) and littermate <i>Myd88+/+</i> (WT) mice (N = 7 to 8 animals/group) were subjected to corneal abrasion on Day 0. On Day 21 post-abrasion animals were euthanized and CoNV area (+/− SEM) was measured by fluorescence microscopy, as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472#s4\" target=\"_blank\">Materials and Methods</a>. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way ANOVA. Within each genotype, the abraded group was significantly different from the naïve group (p<0.0001). However, comparison between the two genotypes showed no significant effect of the <i>Myd88</i> deficiency on CoNV area in response to abrasion. B) Representative images of the 4 groups shown in <b>Figure 6A</b>.</p>"}
  • {"files"=>["http://files.figshare.com/1757447/Table_1.xls"], "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "users"=>["Jennifer S. Cobb", "Frank Cook", "Erik Meredith", "Chang Rao", "YongYao Xu", "Andrea De Erkenez", "Sha-Mei Liao", "Maura Crowley", "Natasha Buchanan", "Stephen Poor", "Yubin Qiu", "Elizabeth Fassbender", "Siyuan Shen", "Amber Woolfenden", "Amy Jensen", "Rosemarie Cepeda", "Bijan Etemad-Gilbertson", "Shelby Giza", "Muneto Mogi", "Bruce Jaffee", "Sassan Azarian", "Qian Huang", "Karen Anderson", "Jing Zhou", "Xuemei Yang", "John Gounarides", "Hong Yin"], "links"=>[], "tags"=>["nmr", "protein", "TLR 2", "leukocyte infiltration model", "wound angiogenesis model", "Myeloid Differentiation factor 88", "tube formation assay", "CEP adducts", "wound angiogenesis models"], "title"=>"<p>Evaluation of CEP Adducts and TLR Agonists in the Tube Formation Assay.</p>", "figshare_url"=>"http://figshare.com/articles/_Evaluation_of_CEP_Adducts_and_TLR_Agonists_in_the_Tube_Formation_Assay_/1218078", "defined_type"=>3, "doi"=>["http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111472.t001"], "published_date"=>"2014-10-24 15:28:41", "article_id"=>1218078, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "description"=>"<p>Evaluation of CEP Adducts and TLR Agonists in the Tube Formation Assay.</p>"}

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Relative Metric

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