Early-Life Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ADHD Behavior Problems
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{"title"=>"Early-Life Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ADHD Behavior Problems", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Frederica P.", "last_name"=>"Perera"}, {"first_name"=>"Hsin-wen", "last_name"=>"Chang"}, {"first_name"=>"Deliang", "last_name"=>"Tang"}, {"first_name"=>"Emily L.", "last_name"=>"Roen"}, {"first_name"=>"Julie", "last_name"=>"Herbstman"}, {"first_name"=>"Amy", "last_name"=>"Margolis"}, {"first_name"=>"Tzu-Jung", "last_name"=>"Huang"}, {"first_name"=>"Rachel L.", "last_name"=>"Miller"}, {"first_name"=>"Shuang", "last_name"=>"Wang"}, {"first_name"=>"Virginia", "last_name"=>"Rauh"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111670", "pmid"=>"25372862", "issn"=>"1932-6203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"c1dd84e6-3808-39c9-a720-36ec5a0253ee", "abstract"=>"IMPORTANCE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread urban air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuel and other organic material shown previously to be neurotoxic.\\n\\nOBJECTIVE: In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems and prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure, adjusting for postnatal exposure.\\n\\nMATERIALS AND METHODS: Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City were followed from in utero to 9 years. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was estimated by levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- DNA adducts in maternal and cord blood collected at delivery. Postnatal exposure was estimated by the concentration of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites at ages 3 or 5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and the Conners Parent Rating Scale- Revised.\\n\\nRESULTS: High prenatal adduct exposure, measured by elevated maternal adducts was significantly associated with all Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised subscales when the raw scores were analyzed continuously (N = 233). After dichotomizing at the threshold for moderately to markedly atypical symptoms, high maternal adducts were significantly associated with the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised DSM-IV Inattentive (OR = 5.06, 95% CI [1.43, 17.93]) and DSM-IV Total (OR = 3.37, 95% CI [1.10, 10.34]) subscales. High maternal adducts were positivity associated with the DSM-oriented Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale on the Child Behavior Checklist, albeit not significant. In the smaller sample with cord adducts, the associations between outcomes and high cord adduct exposure were not statistically significant (N = 162).\\n\\nCONCLUSION: The results suggest that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons encountered in New York City air may play a role in childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/earlylife-exposure-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-adhd-behavior-problems-4", "reader_count"=>73, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>18, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>12, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>10, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2, "Chemistry"=>4, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>13, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>12, "Neuroscience"=>3, "Psychology"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>12}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>10}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>13}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>9}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>2}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Czech Republic"=>1, "United States"=>2, "Malaysia"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>2}, "group_count"=>16}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779669"], "description"=>"a<p>Adjusting for postnatal PAH exposure (measured by metabolites at ages 3 or 5, adjusted for specific gravity), prenatal ETS, child sex, maternal education, child ethnicity, gestational age, maternal demoralization, heating season, HOME caretaking environment, maternal intelligence, child age at assessment, maternal ADHD, child anxiety/depression at age 9.</p>b<p>OR stands for odds Ratio; CI stands for Confidence Interval.</p>c<p>CBCL- Borderline or clinical defined as percentile ≥93<sup>rd</sup>; CPRS- Moderately to markedly atypical defined as T-score >65.</p><p>*p-value <0.05.</p><p>Associations between PAH Exposure and CBCL DSM-oriented Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity problems and ADHD Behavior Problems on the CPRS Subscales adjusting for postnatal exposure<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111670#nt121\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems", "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons", "hydrocarbon exposure", "Conners Parent Rating Scale", "New York City", "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems", "ADHD Behavior Problems ImportancePolycyclic", "Child Behavior Checklist", "cord adduct exposure", "ci", "dna", "New York City air", "polycyclic", "5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems"], "article_id"=>1229336, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Frederica P. Perera", "Hsin-Wen Chang", "Deliang Tang", "Emily L. Roen", "Julie Herbstman", "Amy Margolis", "Tzu-Jung Huang", "Rachel L. Miller", "Shuang Wang", "Virginia Rauh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111670.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Associations_between_PAH_Exposure_and_CBCL_DSM_oriented_Attention_Deficit_Hyperactivity_problems_and_ADHD_Behavior_Problems_on_the_CPRS_Subscales_adjusting_for_postnatal_exposure_a_/1229336", "title"=>"Associations between PAH Exposure and CBCL DSM-oriented Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity problems and ADHD Behavior Problems on the CPRS Subscales adjusting for postnatal exposure<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:21:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779666"], "description"=>"a<p>Subjects were included if they had data for maternal adducts and/or cord adducts, as well as data on CBCL, CPRS outcome and all covariates of interest.</p>b<p>Subjects not included are those that had available data on cord and/or maternal adducts but were missing data on the CBCL, CPRS outcomes and/or any covariates included in the final model.</p>c<p>Adduct levels were dichotomized as detectable/non-detectable (“high/low”).</p>d<p>PAH metabolites in child urine at ages 3 or 5 were dichotomized at the respective medians (“high/low”).</p>e<p>Children with urinary PAH metabolite measurement at ages 3 or 5.</p>f<p>Based on T score. Borderline or clinical defined as percentile ≥93<sup>rd</sup>.</p>g<p>Based on T score. Moderately to markedly atypical defined as T-score >65.</p>h<p>Percent African American; the remainder are Dominican.</p>i<p>Based on medical record data.</p>j<p>Nonverbal intelligence measured by the TONI-2.</p>k<p>Measure of maternal ADHD.</p>l<p>Age at administration.</p>m<p>HOME Inventory as a measure of the home caretaking environment.</p>n<p>Third trimester in heating season.</p>o<p>Based on CBCL Anxious/Depressed Syndrome Scale measured at age 9.</p><p>*p-value <0.05.</p><p>Characteristics of the children included in the analysis and those not included due to missing data.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems", "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons", "hydrocarbon exposure", "Conners Parent Rating Scale", "New York City", "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems", "ADHD Behavior Problems ImportancePolycyclic", "Child Behavior Checklist", "cord adduct exposure", "ci", "dna", "New York City air", "polycyclic", "5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems"], "article_id"=>1229333, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Frederica P. Perera", "Hsin-Wen Chang", "Deliang Tang", "Emily L. Roen", "Julie Herbstman", "Amy Margolis", "Tzu-Jung Huang", "Rachel L. Miller", "Shuang Wang", "Virginia Rauh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111670.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>12, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_the_children_included_in_the_analysis_and_those_not_included_due_to_missing_data_/1229333", "title"=>"Characteristics of the children included in the analysis and those not included due to missing data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:21:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779667"], "description"=>"a<p>Children included in analysis with all covariates.</p>b<p>CBCL “borderline or clinical” defined as percentile ≥93<sup>rd</sup>; CPRS “moderately to markedly atypical” defined as T-score >65.</p><p>Distribution of CBCL and CPRS Scores in children at age 9 (N = 250<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111670#nt117\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup>).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems", "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons", "hydrocarbon exposure", "Conners Parent Rating Scale", "New York City", "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems", "ADHD Behavior Problems ImportancePolycyclic", "Child Behavior Checklist", "cord adduct exposure", "ci", "dna", "New York City air", "polycyclic", "5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems"], "article_id"=>1229334, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Frederica P. Perera", "Hsin-Wen Chang", "Deliang Tang", "Emily L. Roen", "Julie Herbstman", "Amy Margolis", "Tzu-Jung Huang", "Rachel L. Miller", "Shuang Wang", "Virginia Rauh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111670.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>68, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_CBCL_and_CPRS_Scores_in_children_at_age_9_N_250_a_/1229334", "title"=>"Distribution of CBCL and CPRS Scores in children at age 9 (N = 250<sup>a</sup>).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:21:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779665"], "description"=>"<p>Number of children categorized as moderately to markedly atypical on the CPRS DSM-IV Hyperactive Impulsive and CPRS DSM-IV Inattentive Subscales<sup>a</sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems", "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons", "hydrocarbon exposure", "Conners Parent Rating Scale", "New York City", "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems", "ADHD Behavior Problems ImportancePolycyclic", "Child Behavior Checklist", "cord adduct exposure", "ci", "dna", "New York City air", "polycyclic", "5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems"], "article_id"=>1229332, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Frederica P. Perera", "Hsin-Wen Chang", "Deliang Tang", "Emily L. Roen", "Julie Herbstman", "Amy Margolis", "Tzu-Jung Huang", "Rachel L. Miller", "Shuang Wang", "Virginia Rauh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111670.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>35, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_children_categorized_as_moderately_to_markedly_atypical_on_the_CPRS_DSM_IV_Hyperactive_Impulsive_and_CPRS_DSM_IV_Inattentive_Subscales_a_/1229332", "title"=>"Number of children categorized as moderately to markedly atypical on the CPRS DSM-IV Hyperactive Impulsive and CPRS DSM-IV Inattentive Subscales<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:21:31"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1779668"], "description"=>"a<p>Children included in analysis with all covariates.</p>b<p>CBCL- Borderline or clinical defined as percentile ≥93<sup>rd</sup>; CPRS- Moderately to markedly atypical defined as T-score >65.</p><p>Number of children scoring in the borderline or clinical range on the CBCL and in the moderately to markedly atypical range on the CPRS in the analyses with maternal adducts or cord adducts<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111670#nt119\" target=\"_blank\">a</a></sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["childhood Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems", "Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons", "hydrocarbon exposure", "Conners Parent Rating Scale", "New York City", "Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems", "ADHD Behavior Problems ImportancePolycyclic", "Child Behavior Checklist", "cord adduct exposure", "ci", "dna", "New York City air", "polycyclic", "5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems"], "article_id"=>1229335, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Frederica P. Perera", "Hsin-Wen Chang", "Deliang Tang", "Emily L. Roen", "Julie Herbstman", "Amy Margolis", "Tzu-Jung Huang", "Rachel L. Miller", "Shuang Wang", "Virginia Rauh"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111670.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_children_scoring_in_the_borderline_or_clinical_range_on_the_CBCL_and_in_the_moderately_to_markedly_atypical_range_on_the_CPRS_in_the_analyses_with_maternal_adducts_or_cord_adducts_a_/1229335", "title"=>"Number of children scoring in the borderline or clinical range on the CBCL and in the moderately to markedly atypical range on the CPRS in the analyses with maternal adducts or cord adducts<sup>a</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-05 03:21:31"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"34", "pdf"=>"15", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"13", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"60", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"78", "pdf"=>"42", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"45", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"24", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"23", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"47", "full-text"=>"61", "pdf"=>"18", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"16", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"50", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biochemistry", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[320]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Environmental chemistry", "average_usage"=>[265]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Mental health and psychiatry", "average_usage"=>[299, 481]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Neurology", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[318]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences/Psychology", "average_usage"=>[314, 476]}]}
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