Suppression of Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits the Generation of the Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl by Staphylococcus spp
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{"title"=>"Suppression of microbial metabolic pathways inhibits the generation of the human body odor component diacetyl by staphylococcus spp", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Takeshi", "last_name"=>"Hara", "scopus_author_id"=>"56423006300"}, {"first_name"=>"Hiroshi", "last_name"=>"Matsui", "scopus_author_id"=>"56423097800"}, {"first_name"=>"Hironori", "last_name"=>"Shimizu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56422977600"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600489762", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111833", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84911490315", "pmid"=>"25390046", "sgr"=>"84911490315"}, "id"=>"ad6557c7-c484-3b0f-9a28-0c6ea5d58af7", "abstract"=>"Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a key contributor to unpleasant odors emanating from the axillae, feet, and head regions. To investigate the mechanism of diacetyl generation on human skin, resident skin bacteria were tested for the ability to produce diacetyl via metabolism of the main organic acids contained in human sweat. L-lactate metabolism by Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis produced the highest amounts of diacetyl, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGR) and α-tocopheryl-L-ascorbate-2-O-phosphate diester potassium salt (EPC-K1), a phosphate diester of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, effectively inhibited diacetyl formation without bactericidal effects. Moreover, a metabolic flux analysis revealed that GGR and EPC-K1 suppressed diacetyl formation by inhibiting extracellular bacterial conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate or by altering intracellular metabolic flow into the citrate cycle, respectively, highlighting fundamentally distinct mechanisms by GGR and EPC-K1 to suppress diacetyl formation. These results provide new insight into diacetyl metabolism by human skin bacteria and identify a regulatory mechanism of diacetyl formation that can facilitate the development of effective deodorant agents.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/suppression-microbial-metabolic-pathways-inhibits-generation-human-body-odor-component-diacetyl-stap", "reader_count"=>33, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>10, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>3, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Other"=>3, "Student > Master"=>8, "Student > Bachelor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>4}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1, "France"=>1, "Portugal"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789747"], "description"=>"<p>Bacterial cultures supplemented with 2 mM pyruvate were incubated for 24 h. Results are given as means ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. Detection limits of diacetyl and acetoin were 0.12 µM and 17 µM, respectively.</p><p>Diacetyl and acetoin formation by <i>Staphylococcus</i> and <i>Corynebacterium</i> spp.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237837, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Diacetyl_and_acetoin_formation_by_Staphylococcus_and_Corynebacterium_spp_/1237837", "title"=>"Diacetyl and acetoin formation by <i>Staphylococcus</i> and <i>Corynebacterium</i> spp.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789746"], "description"=>"<p>Dashed and bold arrows indicate the down- and up-regulation of bacterial metabolism, respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237836, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>102, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Schematic_representation_of_observed_metabolic_flow_of_bacterial_metabolism_and_steps_affected_by_GGR_and_EPC_K1_addition_/1237836", "title"=>"Schematic representation of observed metabolic flow of bacterial metabolism and steps affected by GGR and EPC-K1 addition.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789743"], "description"=>"<p> µ<b>M EPC-K1 (□) or 1,3-butanediol as a control (</b>•<b>).</b><sup>13</sup>C-labeled metabolite ratio was calculated using the following equation: (<sup>13</sup>C-labeled metabolite concentration at each incubation time/total quantitation values of <sup>13</sup>C-labeled metabolite concentration at each incubation time)×1000. <sup>13</sup>C-labeled metabolites indicate the total quantitation values from <i>M</i><sub>1</sub> to <i>M</i><sub>i</sub>, where <i>M</i><sub>i</sub> represents the isotopomer fraction for each metabolite in which <i>i</i><sup>13</sup>C atoms are incorporated. Results are shown as means ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. N.D., not detected.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237833, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flux_profiling_of_13_C_labeled_glycolytic_and_tricarboxylic_acid_TCA_cycle_metabolites_A_and_12_C_succinate_B_of_S_aureus_following_treatment_with_7_2_/1237833", "title"=>"Flux profiling of <sup>13</sup>C-labeled glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle metabolites (A) and <sup>12</sup>C-succinate (B) of <i>S. aureus</i> following treatment with 7.2", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789741"], "description"=>"<p> <b>mg/ml GGR (A) and 7.2</b> µ<b>M EPC-K1 (B).</b> Control samples were treated with 50% (v/v) 1,3-butanediol. Viable cells were counted after a 6-h incubation. Results are shown as means ± standard deviation of three independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237831, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cell_counts_of_S_aureus_and_S_epidermidis_incubated_with_3_0_/1237831", "title"=>"Cell counts of <i>S. aureus</i> and <i>S. epidermidis</i> incubated with 3.0", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789742"], "description"=>"<p> <b>mg/ml GGR (Δ) and 7.2</b> µ<b>M EPC-K1 (□).</b> Shown are concentrations of l-lactate (A), pyruvate (B), acetoin (C), and diacetyl (D). Control samples (•) were treated with 1,3-butanediol. Results are shown as means ± standard deviation of three independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237832, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_course_of_changes_in_extracellular_metabolite_concentrations_A_D_and_growth_curves_E_of_S_aureus_following_treatment_with_3_0_/1237832", "title"=>"Time course of changes in extracellular metabolite concentrations (A–D) and growth curves (E) of <i>S. aureus</i> following treatment with 3.0", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789740"], "description"=>"<p>Inhibition by plant extracts and cosmetic ingredients was observed at 3.0 mg/ml and 7.2 µM, respectively. Each sample was incubated for 6 h. Abbreviations are: GGR, <i>Glycyrrhiza glabra</i> root; CSB, <i>Cinchona succirubra</i> bark; VVL, <i>Vitis vinifera</i> leaf; EPC-K1, α-tocopheryl-l-ascorbate-2-O-phosphate diester potassium salt. The error bars indicate the standard deviation of three independent samples. The inhibitory ratio (%) was calculated using the following equation: % = [(1−amount of diacetyl formation in each material)/(amount of diacetyl formation in the control)]×100.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237830, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Inhibitory_effects_of_plant_extracts_A_and_cosmetic_ingredients_B_on_diacetyl_formation_/1237830", "title"=>"Inhibitory effects of plant extracts (A) and cosmetic ingredients (B) on diacetyl formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789749", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789750", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789751", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789752"], "description"=>"<div><p>Diacetyl (2,3-butanedione) is a key contributor to unpleasant odors emanating from the axillae, feet, and head regions. To investigate the mechanism of diacetyl generation on human skin, resident skin bacteria were tested for the ability to produce diacetyl via metabolism of the main organic acids contained in human sweat. l-Lactate metabolism by <i>Staphylococcus aureus</i> and <i>Staphylococcus epidermidis</i> produced the highest amounts of diacetyl, as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. <i>Glycyrrhiza glabra</i> root extract (GGR) and α-tocopheryl-l-ascorbate-2-O-phosphate diester potassium salt (EPC-K1), a phosphate diester of α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid, effectively inhibited diacetyl formation without bactericidal effects. Moreover, a metabolic flux analysis revealed that GGR and EPC-K1 suppressed diacetyl formation by inhibiting extracellular bacterial conversion of l-lactate to pyruvate or by altering intracellular metabolic flow into the citrate cycle, respectively, highlighting fundamentally distinct mechanisms by GGR and EPC-K1 to suppress diacetyl formation. These results provide new insight into diacetyl metabolism by human skin bacteria and identify a regulatory mechanism of diacetyl formation that can facilitate the development of effective deodorant agents.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237839, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/Suppression_of_Microbial_Metabolic_Pathways_Inhibits_the_Generation_of_the_Human_Body_Odor_Component_Diacetyl_by_Staphylococcus_spp/1237839", "title"=>"Suppression of Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits the Generation of the Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl by <i>Staphylococcus</i> spp", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789748"], "description"=>"a<p><i>S. aureus</i> cells were grown in semi-synthetic medium supplemented with 2 mM sodium l-lactate and 7.2 µM EPC-K1 for 5 h. 1,3-Butanediol was used as a control. Results are given as means ± standard deviation of six independent experiments.</p><p>Fatty acid profiles of <i>S. aureus</i> following EPC-K1 application.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237838, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fatty_acid_profiles_of_S_aureus_following_EPC_K1_application_/1237838", "title"=>"Fatty acid profiles of <i>S. aureus</i> following EPC-K1 application.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789745"], "description"=>"<p>The total amounts of fatty acids in the cells were calculated using the total quantitation values of fatty acids detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results are shown as means ± standard deviation (n = 6). *P<0.05 vs. 1,3-butanediol (control) (Student’s t-test).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237835, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Suppression_of_fatty_acid_biosynthesis_of_S_aureus_following_EPC_K1_application_/1237835", "title"=>"Suppression of fatty acid biosynthesis of <i>S. aureus</i> following EPC-K1 application.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789744"], "description"=>"<p> <b>nM HQNO (⋄).</b> Shown are the concentrations of l-lactate (A), pyruvate (B), acetoin (C), and diacetyl (D). Control samples (•) were treated with EtOH. <sup>13</sup>C-labeled metabolite ratio was calculated using the following equation: (<sup>13</sup>C-labeled metabolite concentration at each incubation time/total quantitation values of <sup>13</sup>C-labeled metabolite concentration at each incubation time)×1000. <sup>13</sup>C-labeled metabolites indicate the total quantitation values from <i>M</i><sub>1</sub> to <i>M</i><sub>i</sub>, where <i>M</i><sub>i</sub> represents the isotopomer fraction for each metabolite in which <i>i</i><sup>13</sup>C atoms are incorporated. Results are shown as means ± standard deviation of three independent experiments. N.D., not detected.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237834, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Time_course_of_changes_in_extracellular_metabolite_A_D_and_13_C_labeled_intracellular_metabolite_E_concentrations_of_S_aureus_following_treatment_with_77_/1237834", "title"=>"Time course of changes in extracellular metabolite (A–D) and <sup>13</sup>C-labeled intracellular metabolite (E) concentrations of <i>S. aureus</i> following treatment with 77", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1789739"], "description"=>"<p>Abbreviations are: Lac, l-lactate; Pyr, pyruvate; Ala, alanine; Gly, glycine; Ser, serine; Val, valine. Bacterial cultures supplemented with 2 mM each substrate were incubated for 6 h. Control samples were treated with sterilized water as substrate. The error bars indicate the standard deviation of three independent experiments.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Glycyrrhiza glabra root", "Microbial Metabolic Pathways Inhibits", "diacetyl formation", "ggr", "Staphylococcu", "resident skin bacteria", "metabolism", "Human Body Odor Component Diacetyl", "mechanism"], "article_id"=>1237829, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Takeshi Hara", "Hiroshi Matsui", "Hironori Shimizu"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111833.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evaluation_of_sweat_components_as_precursors_of_diacetyl_formation_/1237829", "title"=>"Evaluation of sweat components as precursors of diacetyl formation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-12 02:46:08"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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