Genetics Reveal the Origin and Timing of a Cryptic Insular Introduction of Muskrats in North America
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{"title"=>"Genetics reveal the origin and timing of a cryptic insular introduction of muskrats in North America", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Alexis M.", "last_name"=>"Mychajliw", "scopus_author_id"=>"56412948800"}, {"first_name"=>"Richard G.", "last_name"=>"Harrison", "scopus_author_id"=>"7403906799"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84910020641", "pui"=>"600407168", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111856", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84910020641", "pmid"=>"25360617"}, "id"=>"a08700d1-016c-396a-9769-72e228c372c4", "abstract"=>"The muskrat, Ondatra zibethicus, is a semiaquatic rodent native to North America that has become a highly successful invader across Europe, Asia, and South America. It can inflict ecological and economic damage on wetland systems outside of its native range. Anecdotal evidence suggests that, in the early 1900s, a population of muskrats was introduced to the Isles of Shoals archipelago, located within the Gulf of Maine, for the purposes of fur harvest. However, because muskrats are native to the northeastern coast of North America, their presence on the Isles of Shoals could be interpreted as part of the native range of the species, potentially obscuring management planning and biogeographic inferences. To investigate their introduced status and identify a historic source population, muskrats from Appledore Island of the Isles of Shoals, and from the adjacent mainland of Maine and New Hampshire, were compared for mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and allele frequencies at eight microsatellite loci. Appledore Island muskrats consistently exhibited reduced genetic diversity compared with mainland populations, and displayed signatures of a historic bottleneck. The distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes is suggestive of a New Hampshire source population. The data presented here are consistent with a human-mediated introduction that took place in the early 1900s. This scenario is further supported by the zooarchaeological record and island biogeographic patterns. This is the first genetic study of an introduced muskrat population within US borders and of any island muskrat population, and provides an important contrast with other studies of introduced muskrat populations worldwide.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/genetics-reveal-origin-timing-cryptic-insular-introduction-muskrats-north-america", "reader_count"=>10, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Researcher"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774175", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774176", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774177", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774178", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774179", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774180"], "description"=>"<div><p>The muskrat, <i>Ondatra zibethicus</i>, is a semiaquatic rodent native to North America that has become a highly successful invader across Europe, Asia, and South America. It can inflict ecological and economic damage on wetland systems outside of its native range. Anecdotal evidence suggests that, in the early 1900s, a population of muskrats was introduced to the Isles of Shoals archipelago, located within the Gulf of Maine, for the purposes of fur harvest. However, because muskrats are native to the northeastern coast of North America, their presence on the Isles of Shoals could be interpreted as part of the native range of the species, potentially obscuring management planning and biogeographic inferences. To investigate their introduced status and identify a historic source population, muskrats from Appledore Island of the Isles of Shoals, and from the adjacent mainland of Maine and New Hampshire, were compared for mitochondrial cytochrome <i>b</i> sequences and allele frequencies at eight microsatellite loci. Appledore Island muskrats consistently exhibited reduced genetic diversity compared with mainland populations, and displayed signatures of a historic bottleneck. The distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes is suggestive of a New Hampshire source population. The data presented here are consistent with a human-mediated introduction that took place in the early 1900s. This scenario is further supported by the zooarchaeological record and island biogeographic patterns. This is the first genetic study of an introduced muskrat population within US borders and of any island muskrat population, and provides an important contrast with other studies of introduced muskrat populations worldwide.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["New Hampshire source population", "island biogeographic patterns", "island muskrat population", "mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Appledore Island muskrats", "Cryptic Insular Introduction", "shoals", "isles"], "article_id"=>1224717, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexis M. Mychajliw", "Richard G. Harrison"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>17, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Genetics_Reveal_the_Origin_and_Timing_of_a_Cryptic_Insular_Introduction_of_Muskrats_in_North_America_/1224717", "title"=>"Genetics Reveal the Origin and Timing of a Cryptic Insular Introduction of Muskrats in North America", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 03:04:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774171"], "description"=>"<p>H<sub>o</sub> and H<sub>e</sub> are observed and expected heterozygosity. A = number of alleles per locus. Bottom row represents values averaged across all loci.</p><p>Summary of microsatellite variation for 85 muskrats (34 AP, 33 ME, 18 NH) at 7 loci.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["New Hampshire source population", "island biogeographic patterns", "island muskrat population", "mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Appledore Island muskrats", "Cryptic Insular Introduction", "shoals", "isles"], "article_id"=>1224713, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexis M. Mychajliw", "Richard G. Harrison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_microsatellite_variation_for_85_muskrats_34_AP_33_ME_18_NH_at_7_loci_/1224713", "title"=>"Summary of microsatellite variation for 85 muskrats (34 AP, 33 ME, 18 NH) at 7 loci.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 03:04:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774169"], "description"=>"<p>Haplotypes are referred to by alphabetical letter A–K; a representative sequence of each haplotype, denoted by sample ID in parentheses, has been deposited in GenBank. See <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856#pone.0111856.s004\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a> for additional specimen information.</p><p>Mitochondrial cytochrome <i>b</i> haplotype identities.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["New Hampshire source population", "island biogeographic patterns", "island muskrat population", "mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Appledore Island muskrats", "Cryptic Insular Introduction", "shoals", "isles"], "article_id"=>1224711, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexis M. Mychajliw", "Richard G. Harrison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mitochondrial_cytochrome_b_haplotype_identities_/1224711", "title"=>"Mitochondrial cytochrome <i>b</i> haplotype identities.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 03:04:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774170"], "description"=>"<p>The mainland represents ME and NH pooled. N = number of sequences. H = number of haplotypes. S = number of segregating sites. π = nucleotide diversity. H<sub>d</sub> = haplotype diversity.</p><p>*For neutrality statistics, Tajima's D and Fu's F<sub>s</sub>, <i>P</i>>0.10.</p><p>Measures of genetic diversity for 872 bp of cytochrome <i>b</i>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["New Hampshire source population", "island biogeographic patterns", "island muskrat population", "mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Appledore Island muskrats", "Cryptic Insular Introduction", "shoals", "isles"], "article_id"=>1224712, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexis M. Mychajliw", "Richard G. Harrison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Measures_of_genetic_diversity_for_872_bp_of_cytochrome_b_/1224712", "title"=>"Measures of genetic diversity for 872 bp of cytochrome <i>b</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 03:04:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774168"], "description"=>"<p>Individuals are grouped by region sampled, with K = 2 including ME and NH as a single “mainland” cluster. Y axis represents percentage of ancestry in each cluster.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["New Hampshire source population", "island biogeographic patterns", "island muskrat population", "mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Appledore Island muskrats", "Cryptic Insular Introduction", "shoals", "isles"], "article_id"=>1224710, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexis M. Mychajliw", "Richard G. Harrison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Assignment_of_individuals_to_clusters_using_STRUCTURE_and_displayed_with_DISTRUCT_with_A_K_2_and_B_K_3_K_2_is_the_true_value_of_K_Figure_S3_with_K_3_provided_for_comparison_/1224710", "title"=>"Assignment of individuals to clusters using STRUCTURE and displayed with DISTRUCT, with A. K = 2 and B. K = 3. K = 2 is the true value of K (Figure S3), with K = 3 provided for comparison.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 03:04:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774165"], "description"=>"<p>Frequency is represented on the vertical axis. Solid gray lines indicate expected values and blue circles represent observed values. The expected frequency is based on a constant population size and demographic equilibrium. Raggedness statistics, <i>r</i> = 0.0592 and 0.6729 for <b>A</b>. and <b>B</b>., respectively.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["New Hampshire source population", "island biogeographic patterns", "island muskrat population", "mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Appledore Island muskrats", "Cryptic Insular Introduction", "shoals", "isles"], "article_id"=>1224707, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexis M. Mychajliw", "Richard G. Harrison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mismatch_distribution_for_A_the_mainland_population_ME_and_NH_pooled_and_B_AP_only_/1224707", "title"=>"Mismatch distribution for A. the mainland population, ME and NH pooled, and B. AP only.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 03:04:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774164"], "description"=>"<p>Dashed gray lines represent state boundaries. Circles represent generalized population sampling locations on the mainland, with larger circles indicative of 4+ samples, and smaller circles of one. Appledore Island is highlighted in green (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856#pone.0111856.s001\" target=\"_blank\">Figure S1</a> for fine-scale Appledore Island sampling).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["New Hampshire source population", "island biogeographic patterns", "island muskrat population", "mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Appledore Island muskrats", "Cryptic Insular Introduction", "shoals", "isles"], "article_id"=>1224706, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexis M. Mychajliw", "Richard G. Harrison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Map_of_study_region_depicting_Appledore_Island_within_the_Isles_of_Shoals_and_in_relation_to_the_northeastern_US_coastline_/1224706", "title"=>"Map of study region depicting Appledore Island within the Isles of Shoals and in relation to the northeastern US coastline.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 03:04:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774173"], "description"=>"<p>M<sub>avg</sub> is average simulated <i>M</i>-ratio value for a given set of parameters and empirical microsatellite data; M<sub>c</sub> is the critical value. M<sub>avg</sub> and M<sub>c</sub> were generated for Δ<sub>g</sub> values of 2.8 and 3.5.</p><p>* indicates N<sub>e</sub> values within the range calculated with long-term estimators.</p>a<p> = <b>Δ<sub>g</sub></b> value of 2.8;</p>b<p> = <b>Δ<sub>g</sub></b> value of 3.5.</p><p>Summary of parameters used in <i>M</i>-ratio analyses used to detect significant reductions in population size.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["New Hampshire source population", "island biogeographic patterns", "island muskrat population", "mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Appledore Island muskrats", "Cryptic Insular Introduction", "shoals", "isles"], "article_id"=>1224715, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexis M. Mychajliw", "Richard G. Harrison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_parameters_used_in_M_ratio_analyses_used_to_detect_significant_reductions_in_population_size_/1224715", "title"=>"Summary of parameters used in <i>M</i>-ratio analyses used to detect significant reductions in population size.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 03:04:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774172"], "description"=>"<p>Mainland is ME and NH combined as a single population.</p><p>F<sub>ST</sub> values calculated for microsatellite DNA at seven loci, <i>P</i><0.0001 for all pairwise comparisons.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["New Hampshire source population", "island biogeographic patterns", "island muskrat population", "mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Appledore Island muskrats", "Cryptic Insular Introduction", "shoals", "isles"], "article_id"=>1224714, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexis M. Mychajliw", "Richard G. Harrison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_F_ST_values_calculated_for_microsatellite_DNA_at_seven_loci_P_/1224714", "title"=>"F<sub>ST</sub> values calculated for microsatellite DNA at seven loci, <i>P</i><0.0001 for all pairwise comparisons.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 03:04:23"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1774166"], "description"=>"<p>Size of circles is proportional to the number of individuals with that haplotype, where the largest circle depicts 25+ individuals and the smallest depicts one individual. Letters correspond to haplotypes described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856#pone-0111856-t001\" target=\"_blank\">Table 1</a>. Each node represents a 1-bp change in nucleotide sequence, and hashes along a node represent probable missing haplotypes. Light blue shows AP, dark blue shows NH, and dark pink shows ME. Note that haplotype J is only found in AP and the coastal port of Portsmouth, NH.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["New Hampshire source population", "island biogeographic patterns", "island muskrat population", "mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences", "Appledore Island muskrats", "Cryptic Insular Introduction", "shoals", "isles"], "article_id"=>1224708, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Alexis M. Mychajliw", "Richard G. Harrison"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111856.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>101, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_TCS_haplotype_network_for_mitochondrial_cytochrome_b_haplotypes_/1224708", "title"=>"TCS haplotype network for mitochondrial cytochrome <i>b</i> haplotypes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-10-31 03:04:23"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Biogeography", "average_usage"=>[325, 524]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Evolutionary biology", "average_usage"=>[333]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Population biology", "average_usage"=>[312, 475]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[318]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Biogeography", "average_usage"=>[327, 527]}]}
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