Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea
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{"title"=>"Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Marcus", "last_name"=>"Eriksen", "scopus_author_id"=>"55550309500"}, {"first_name"=>"Laurent C.M.", "last_name"=>"Lebreton", "scopus_author_id"=>"54893628900"}, {"first_name"=>"Henry S.", "last_name"=>"Carson", "scopus_author_id"=>"14053484200"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Thiel", "scopus_author_id"=>"35231340100"}, {"first_name"=>"Charles J.", "last_name"=>"Moore", "scopus_author_id"=>"56312097900"}, {"first_name"=>"Jose C.", "last_name"=>"Borerro", "scopus_author_id"=>"56444326000"}, {"first_name"=>"Francois", "last_name"=>"Galgani", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004182890"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter G.", "last_name"=>"Ryan", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402920679"}, {"first_name"=>"Julia", "last_name"=>"Reisser", "scopus_author_id"=>"25636342100"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84914176492", "pmid"=>"25494041", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0111913", "pui"=>"600717286", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84914176492"}, "id"=>"3c151761-5f7e-3b68-859d-ebaefb101c51", "abstract"=>"Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. 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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832462"], "description"=>"<p>Count density (pieces km<sup>−2</sup>; see colorbar) of marine plastic debris measured at 1571 stations from 680 net tows and 891 visual survey transects for each of four plastic size classes (0.33–1.00 mm, 1.01–4.75 mm, 4.76–200 mm, and >200 mm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["debris dispersal", "lt", "marine environment", "Plastic debris", "5 Trillion", "sea surface", "Southern Hemisphere", "ocean surface", "plastic particles", "mm", "Mediterranean Sea", "Plastic Pollution", "survey transects", "size classes", "microplastic", "costal Australia", "data"], "article_id"=>1266632, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marcus Eriksen", "Laurent C. M. Lebreton", "Henry S. Carson", "Martin Thiel", "Charles J. Moore", "Jose C. Borerro", "François Galgani", "Peter G. Ryan", "Julia Reisser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>49, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Field_locations_where_count_density_was_measured_/1266632", "title"=>"Field locations where count density was measured.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:45:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832494", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832495", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832496", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832497", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832498", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832499", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832500", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832501", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832502"], "description"=>"<div><p>Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world's oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N = 680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N = 891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic <4.75 mm and meso- and macroplastic >4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove <4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["debris dispersal", "lt", "marine environment", "Plastic debris", "5 Trillion", "sea surface", "Southern Hemisphere", "ocean surface", "plastic particles", "mm", "Mediterranean Sea", "Plastic Pollution", "survey transects", "size classes", "microplastic", "costal Australia", "data"], "article_id"=>1266651, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marcus Eriksen", "Laurent C. M. Lebreton", "Henry S. Carson", "Martin Thiel", "Charles J. Moore", "Jose C. Borerro", "François Galgani", "Peter G. Ryan", "Julia Reisser"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>44, "page_views"=>125, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Plastic_Pollution_in_the_World_s_Oceans_More_than_5_Trillion_Plastic_Pieces_Weighing_over_250_000_Tons_Afloat_at_Sea_/1266651", "title"=>"Plastic Pollution in the World's Oceans: More than 5 Trillion Plastic Pieces Weighing over 250,000 Tons Afloat at Sea", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:45:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832465"], "description"=>"<p>Model prediction of global weight density (g km<sup>−2</sup>; see colorbar) for each of four size classes (0.33–1.00 mm, 1.01–4.75 mm, 4.76–200 mm, and >200 mm). The majority of global weight is from the largest size class.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["debris dispersal", "lt", "marine environment", "Plastic debris", "5 Trillion", "sea surface", "Southern Hemisphere", "ocean surface", "plastic particles", "mm", "Mediterranean Sea", "Plastic Pollution", "survey transects", "size classes", "microplastic", "costal Australia", "data"], "article_id"=>1266635, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marcus Eriksen", "Laurent C. M. Lebreton", "Henry S. Carson", "Martin Thiel", "Charles J. Moore", "Jose C. Borerro", "François Galgani", "Peter G. Ryan", "Julia Reisser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>70, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_results_for_global_weight_density_in_four_size_classes_/1266635", "title"=>"Model results for global weight density in four size classes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:45:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832466"], "description"=>"<p>Estimated total count (n×10<sup>10</sup> pieces) and weight (g×10<sup>8</sup> g; or g×10<sup>2</sup> tons) of plastic in the North Pacific (NP), North Atlantic (NA), South Pacific (SP), South Atlantic (SA), Indian Ocean (IO), Mediterranean Sea (MED), and the global ocean (Total). Estimates were calculated after correcting for vertical distribution of microplastics <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913#pone.0111913-Kukulka1\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>.</p><p>Model results for the total particle count and weight of plastic floating in the world's oceans.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["debris dispersal", "lt", "marine environment", "Plastic debris", "5 Trillion", "sea surface", "Southern Hemisphere", "ocean surface", "plastic particles", "mm", "Mediterranean Sea", "Plastic Pollution", "survey transects", "size classes", "microplastic", "costal Australia", "data"], "article_id"=>1266636, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marcus Eriksen", "Laurent C. M. Lebreton", "Henry S. Carson", "Martin Thiel", "Charles J. Moore", "Jose C. Borerro", "François Galgani", "Peter G. Ryan", "Julia Reisser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>72, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_results_for_the_total_particle_count_and_weight_of_plastic_floating_in_the_world_s_oceans_/1266636", "title"=>"Model results for the total particle count and weight of plastic floating in the world's oceans.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:45:58"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832463"], "description"=>"<p>Model prediction of global count density (pieces km<sup>−2</sup>; see colorbar) for each of four size classes (0.33–1.00 mm, 1.01–4.75 mm, 4.76–200 mm, and >200 mm).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["debris dispersal", "lt", "marine environment", "Plastic debris", "5 Trillion", "sea surface", "Southern Hemisphere", "ocean surface", "plastic particles", "mm", "Mediterranean Sea", "Plastic Pollution", "survey transects", "size classes", "microplastic", "costal Australia", "data"], "article_id"=>1266633, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Marcus Eriksen", "Laurent C. M. Lebreton", "Henry S. Carson", "Martin Thiel", "Charles J. Moore", "Jose C. Borerro", "François Galgani", "Peter G. Ryan", "Julia Reisser"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111913.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>10, "page_views"=>56, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Model_results_for_global_count_density_in_four_size_classes_/1266633", "title"=>"Model results for global count density in four size classes.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:45:58"}

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{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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