Functional Vascular Changes of the Kidney during Pregnancy in Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
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{"title"=>"Functional vascular changes of the kidney during pregnancy in animals: A systematic review and meta-analysis", "type"=>"generic", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Joris", "last_name"=>"Van Drongelen", "scopus_author_id"=>"17535456100"}, {"first_name"=>"Rob", "last_name"=>"De Vries", "scopus_author_id"=>"8240396700"}, {"first_name"=>"Frederik K.", "last_name"=>"Lotgering", "scopus_author_id"=>"35461974200"}, {"first_name"=>"Paul", "last_name"=>"Smits", "scopus_author_id"=>"24454938200"}, {"first_name"=>"Marc E A", "last_name"=>"Spaerman", "scopus_author_id"=>"56422277700"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"600483527", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0112084", "sgr"=>"84911395880", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84911395880", "pmid"=>"25386682"}, "id"=>"8284ecc0-ec87-365c-887a-8a261050f9c6", "abstract"=>"Renal vascular responses to pregnancy have frequently been studied, by investigating renal vascular resistance (RVR), renal flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal artery responses to stimuli. Nonetheless, several questions remain: 1. Which vasodilator pathways are activated and to what extent do they affect RVR, renal flow and GFR across species, strains and gestational ages, 2. Are these changes dependent on renal artery adaptation, 3. At which cellular level does pregnancy affect the involved pathways? In an attempt to answer the questions raised, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on animal data. We included 37 studies (116 responses). At mid-gestation, RVR and GFR change to a similar degree across species and strains, accompanied by variable change in renal flow. At least in rats, changes depend on NO activation. At late gestation, changes in RVR, renal flow and GFR vary between species and strains. In rats, these changes are effectuated by sympathetic stimulation. Overall, renal artery responsiveness to stimuli is unaffected by pregnancy, except for Sprague Dawley rats in which pregnancy enhances renal artery vascular compliance and reduces renal artery myogenic reactivity. Our meta-analysis shows that: 1. Pregnancy changes RVR, renal flow and GFR dependent on NO-activation and sympathetic de-activation, but adjustments are different among species, strains and gestational ages; 2. These changes do not depend on adaptation of renal artery responsiveness; 3. It remains unknown at which cellular level pregnancy affects the pathways. Our meta-analysis suggests that renal changes during pregnancy in animals are qualitatively similar, even in comparison to humans, but quantitatively different.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/functional-vascular-changes-kidney-during-pregnancy-animals-systematic-review-metaanalysis", "reader_count"=>8, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Unspecified"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787992"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of pregnancy on the response to stimuli, depicted as the difference in direction.?  =  unknown or non-conclusive data. Studies and totals based on Sprague Dawley rats (SDR) and sheep. 1, 2, 3 represents first, second and third part of late gestation. n =  number of subjects.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236130, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.g008", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_pregnancy_at_late_gestation_on_renal_artery_responses_to_myogenic_response_and_vascular_compliance_/1236130", "title"=>"Effect of pregnancy at late gestation on renal artery responses to myogenic response and vascular compliance.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787993"], "description"=>"<p>Graph design based on data at mid- and late gestation. No data were available on early pregnancy.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236131, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.g009", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>273, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_renal_vascular_resistance_RVR_renal_flow_and_glomerular_filtration_rate_GFR_during_pregnancy_in_Long_Evens_rats_LER_Munich_Wistar_rats_MWR_and_Sprague_Dawley_rats_SDR_/1236131", "title"=>"Summary of renal vascular resistance (RVR), renal flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) during pregnancy in Long Evens rats (LER), Munich Wistar rats (MWR) and Sprague Dawley rats (SDR).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787994"], "description"=>"<p>Literature search-strategy for Pubmed.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236132, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Literature_search_strategy_for_Pubmed_/1236132", "title"=>"Literature search-strategy for Pubmed.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787995"], "description"=>"<p>Literature search-strategy for Embase.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236133, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Literature_search_strategy_for_Embase_/1236133", "title"=>"Literature search-strategy for Embase.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787996"], "description"=>"<p>WM  =  wire myograph, PM  =  pressure myograph, PPM  =  pressure-perfusion myograph, WOP  =  whole organ perfusion, IV  =  <i>in vivo</i>. n.a.  =  not applicable.</p>#<p>data received by email.</p><p>Characteristics of included studies, arranged by author and year.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236134, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>15, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Characteristics_of_included_studies_arranged_by_author_and_year_/1236134", "title"=>"Characteristics of included studies, arranged by author and year.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787997"], "description"=>"<p>(1) randomization, (2) blinding of outcome assessor, (3) virgin/nulliparous at entry study, (4) age or weight of animals described, (5) number of used animals clear from methods, (6) fraction of responses with clear number of animals used for statistical analyses (as a percentage of the number of described responses), (7) fraction of responses with dose-response curve containing ≥5 measurements, (8) fraction of responses with accomplished E<sub>max</sub>. n.a.  =  not applicable.</p>#<p>data received by email.</p><p>Quality assessment of the included studies and subsequent responses.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236135, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Quality_assessment_of_the_included_studies_and_subsequent_responses_/1236135", "title"=>"Quality assessment of the included studies and subsequent responses.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787998", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787999"], "description"=>"<div><p>Renal vascular responses to pregnancy have frequently been studied, by investigating renal vascular resistance (RVR), renal flow, glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and renal artery responses to stimuli. Nonetheless, several questions remain: 1. Which vasodilator pathways are activated and to what extent do they affect RVR, renal flow and GFR across species, strains and gestational ages, 2. Are these changes dependent on renal artery adaptation, 3. At which cellular level does pregnancy affect the involved pathways? In an attempt to answer the questions raised, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on animal data. We included 37 studies (116 responses). At mid-gestation, RVR and GFR change to a similar degree across species and strains, accompanied by variable change in renal flow. At least in rats, changes depend on NO activation. At late gestation, changes in RVR, renal flow and GFR vary between species and strains. In rats, these changes are effectuated by sympathetic stimulation. Overall, renal artery responsiveness to stimuli is unaffected by pregnancy, except for Sprague Dawley rats in which pregnancy enhances renal artery vascular compliance and reduces renal artery myogenic reactivity. Our meta-analysis shows that: 1. Pregnancy changes RVR, renal flow and GFR dependent on NO-activation and sympathetic de-activation, but adjustments are different among species, strains and gestational ages; 2. These changes do not depend on adaptation of renal artery responsiveness; 3. It remains unknown at which cellular level pregnancy affects the pathways. Our meta-analysis suggests that renal changes during pregnancy in animals are qualitatively similar, even in comparison to humans, but quantitatively different.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236136, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Functional_Vascular_Changes_of_the_Kidney_during_Pregnancy_in_Animals_A_Systematic_Review_and_Meta_Analysis_/1236136", "title"=>"Functional Vascular Changes of the Kidney during Pregnancy in Animals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787978"], "description"=>"<p>n =  number of studies; r =  number of responses (gray filling for in vivo and whole organ perfusion experiments, dotted filling for renal artery responses).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236116, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Flow_chart_for_selection_inclusion_and_exclusion_of_studies_and_responses_on_renal_vascular_adaptation_to_pregnancy_/1236116", "title"=>"Flow chart for selection, inclusion and exclusion of studies and responses on renal vascular adaptation to pregnancy.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787980"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of pregnancy on RVR, renal flow (effects of renal plasma/blood/perfusion flow (RPF/RBF/RPPF) combined) and GFR is presented as percentage mean difference (MD) and its 95% CI. Studies and totals based on Long Evans rats (LER), Munich Wistar rats (MWR), Sprague Dawley rats (SDR) and Wistar Hannover rats (WHR). 1, 2, 3 represents first, second and third part of mid gestation. # Whole organ perfusion experiments, excluded in the “Overall in vivo“ analysis. * Experiments performed under anesthesia. I<sup>2</sup> represents the amount of heterogeneity. n.a.  =  not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236118, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>4, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_pregnancy_at_mid_gestation_on_in_vivo_and_whole_organ_perfusion_renal_vascular_resistance_RVR_renal_flow_and_glomerular_filtration_rate_GFR_in_absence_and_presence_of_NO_and_sympathetic_blockade_/1236118", "title"=>"Effect of pregnancy at mid gestation on in vivo and whole organ perfusion# renal vascular resistance (RVR), renal flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in absence and presence of NO and sympathetic blockade.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787981"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of pregnancy on RVR, renal flow (effects of renal plasma/blood/perfusion flow (RPF/RBF/RPPF) combined) and GFR is presented as percentage mean difference (MD) and its 95% CI. Studies and totals based on Long Evans rats (LER), Munich Wistar rats (MWR), Sprague Dawley rats (SDR), rabbits and sheep. 1, 2, 3 represents first, second and third part of late gestation. * Experiments performed under anesthesia. I<sup>2</sup> represents the amount of heterogeneity. n.a.  =  not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236119, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>2, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_pregnancy_at_late_gestation_on_in_vivo_renal_vascular_resistance_RVR_renal_flow_and_glomerular_filtration_rate_GFR_in_absence_of_blockade_/1236119", "title"=>"Effect of pregnancy at late gestation on in vivo renal vascular resistance (RVR), renal flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in absence of blockade.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787984"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of pregnancy on RVR, renal flow (effects of renal plasma/blood/perfusion flow (RPF/RBF/RPPF) combined) and GFR is presented as percentage mean difference (MD) and its 95% CI. Studies and totals based on Long Evans rats (LER), Munich Wistar rats (MWR), Sprague Dawley rats (SDR) and rabbits. 1, 2, 3 represents first, second and third part of late gestation. * Experiments performed under anesthesia. I<sup>2</sup> represents the amount of heterogeneity. n.a.  =  not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236122, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_pregnancy_at_late_gestation_on_in_vivo_renal_vascular_resistance_RVR_renal_flow_and_glomerular_filtration_rate_GFR_in_presence_of_NO_sympathetic_and_RAAS_blockade_/1236122", "title"=>"Effect of pregnancy at late gestation on in vivo renal vascular resistance (RVR), renal flow and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in presence of NO, sympathetic and RAAS blockade.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787985"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of pregnancy on EC<sub>50</sub> (the dose of stimulus inducing 50% response) is depicted as mean difference (MD) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). E<sub>max</sub> (maximum response) is presented as standardized mean difference (SMD) and its 95% CI. Studies and totals based on Sprague Dawley rats (SDR) and guinea pigs (GP). 1, 2, 3 represents first, second and third part of late gestation. I<sup>2</sup> represents the amount of heterogeneity. n.a.  =  not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236123, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_pregnancy_at_late_gestation_on_renal_artery_responses_to_stimuli_involved_in_vasodilation_through_the_GqEC_coupled_pathway_in_the_presence_and_absence_of_blockade_/1236123", "title"=>"Effect of pregnancy at late gestation on renal artery responses to stimuli involved in vasodilation through the GqEC-coupled pathway in the presence and absence of blockade.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787986"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of pregnancy on EC<sub>50</sub> (the dose of stimulus inducing 50% response) is depicted as mean difference (MD) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). E<sub>max</sub> (maximum response) is presented as standardized mean difference (SMD) and its 95% CI. Studies and totals based on Long Evans rats (LER), Sprague Dawley rats (SDR), sheep and guinea pigs (GP). 1, 2, 3 represents first, second and third part of mid and late gestation. I<sup>2</sup> represents the amount of heterogeneity. n.a.  =  not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236124, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_pregnancy_at_mid_and_late_gestation_on_renal_artery_responses_to_stimuli_involved_in_vasoconstriction_through_the_GqSMC_coupled_pathway_in_presence_and_absence_of_blockade_/1236124", "title"=>"Effect of pregnancy at mid and late gestation on renal artery responses to stimuli involved in vasoconstriction through the GqSMC-coupled pathway in presence and absence of blockade.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1787989"], "description"=>"<p>The effect of pregnancy on EC<sub>50</sub> (the dose of stimulus inducing 50% response) is depicted as mean difference (MD) and its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). E<sub>max</sub> (maximum response) is presented as standardized mean difference (SMD) and its 95% CI. Studies and totals based on Long Evans rats (LER), Sprague Dawley rats (SDR) and sheep. 1, 2, 3 represents first, second and third part of mid and late gestation. I<sup>2</sup> represents the amount of heterogeneity. n.a.  =  not applicable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["strain", "pregnancy", "species", "artery responsiveness", "Functional Vascular Changes", "artery myogenic reactivity", "Sprague Dawley rats", "gfr", "flow", "1. Pregnancy changes RVR"], "article_id"=>1236127, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Joris van Drongelen", "Rob de Vries", "Frederik K. Lotgering", "Paul Smits", "Marc E. A. Spaanderman"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112084.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effect_of_mid_and_late_pregnancy_on_renal_artery_responses_to_nitric_oxide_NO_and_potassium_/1236127", "title"=>"Effect of mid and late pregnancy on renal artery responses to nitric oxide (NO) and potassium.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-11 03:24:33"}

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Relative Metric

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