Visualization of Oxytocin Release that Mediates Paired Pulse Facilitation in Hypothalamic Pathways to Brainstem Autonomic Neurons
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{"title"=>"Effects of systemic administration of oxytocin on contextual fear extinction in a rat model of post-traumatic stress disorder", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Sharaf", "last_name"=>"Eskandarian", "scopus_author_id"=>"55961106000"}, {"first_name"=>"Abbas Ali", "last_name"=>"Vafaei", "scopus_author_id"=>"6505849643"}, {"first_name"=>"Gholam Hassan", "last_name"=>"Vaezi", "scopus_author_id"=>"36115548400"}, {"first_name"=>"Fatemeh", "last_name"=>"Taherian", "scopus_author_id"=>"40462503400"}, {"first_name"=>"Adel", "last_name"=>"Kashefi", "scopus_author_id"=>"55961492200"}, {"first_name"=>"Ali", "last_name"=>"Rashidy-Pour", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602095981"}], "year"=>2013, "source"=>"Basic and Clinical Neuroscience", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84890069525", "sgr"=>"84890069525", "issn"=>"2008126X", "isbn"=>"1513138111", "pmid"=>"25337363", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0112138", "pui"=>"370455318"}, "keywords"=>["Fear conditioning", "Fear extinction", "Oxytocin", "Ptsd"], "id"=>"f0a15ca2-ee9e-321b-9bd3-d8a5df5a1dcb", "abstract"=>"INTRODUCTION: One of the hallmark symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is the impaired extinction of traumatic memory. Single prolonged stress (SPS) has been suggested as an animal model of PTSD, since SPS rats exhibited the impaired fear extinction. Oxytocin (OXT) has been recently suggested as a potential pharmacotherapy for treatment of PTSD. In this study, using SPS rats we investigated the effects of multiple systemic administration of OXT on contextual fear extinction.\\n\\nMETHODS: SPS WAS CONDUCTED IN THREE STAGES: restraint for 2 h, forced swim for 20 min, and diethyl ether anesthesia, and then left undisturbed in their home cage for 7 days. In the SPS group, 7 days after SPS treatment, contextual fear conditioning was performed (on day 0), and then extinction training was performed on each of four consecutive days following fear conditioning. In the sham group, the procedures were similar except that SPS treatment was not performed.\\n\\nRESULTS: During extinction trial (10 min) freezing behavior was recorded. OXT (1, 10, 100 and 1000µg/kg) was administrated (I.P) immediately after each extinction trial. SPS rats exhibited significant impairment of contextual fear extinction as compared with sham rats. While there was no significant difference in the freezing levels between SPS and Sham rats 24 h after the fear conditioning, the freezing levels in SPS rats were significantly higher than those in sham rats after the second extinction training. Systemic OXT delayed fear extinction in sham rats as compared with sham-saline treated animals. No effect of OXT was found in SPS rats.\\n\\nDISCUSSION: These findings indicate that increasing OXT transmission during fear memory reactivation delays fear extinction, and thus, the recommendation of OXT for PTSD treatment should be considered with caution.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-systemic-administration-oxytocin-contextual-fear-extinction-rat-model-posttraumatic-stress-d-5", "reader_count"=>27, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>7, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>6, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2, "Neuroscience"=>7, "Psychology"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Computer Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>7}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>2}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Japan"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>2}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1783869"], "description"=>"<p>(<b>A</b>) Co-localization of ChR2-EYFP and oxytocin in brainstem fibers within the DMNV is shown (scale bar represents 28 microns). 55.7+3.7% of ChR2-EYFP PVN fibers in the DMNV are positive for oxytocin. (<b>B</b>) Both the oxytocin and vasopressin dose-response relationships of sniffer CHO cells expressing an oxytocin receptor and a R-GECO Ca<sup>2+</sup> indicator were characterized. These oxytocin receptor expressing CHO cells are considerably more sensitive and responsive to oxytocin than vasopressin with a half maximal response (EC-50) for oxytocin of 1.5 nM, and an EC-50 for vasopressin of 12.1 nM. Responses to oxytocin were considerably more robust than that for vasopressin; at the concentration (1 µM) at which oxytocin maximally activates these cells, vasopressin evoked a blunted response of only 24+5% of the oxytocin response. Sniffer CHO cells deposited on slices with ChR2 PVN fibers (green) in dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMNV) (<b>C</b>) detect optogenetic oxytocin receptor activation in brainstem DMNV tissue in close apposition to PVN fibers, (3-D reconstruction top down view (left) and side view (right)). <b>D</b>, Repeated stimulations (5 min apart) of ChR2 axons in DMNV increased Ca<sup>2+</sup>. Representative traces of one sniffer CHO cell, top, and averages of repeated stimulations in 9 CHO cells, * p<0.0001, bottom. <b>E</b>, Oxytocin antagonist OTA blocks Ca<sup>2+</sup> response, representative trace of one cell, top, and average control increase in 7 cells (; * p<0.0001), bottom.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["release", "Mediates Paired Pulse Facilitation", "oxytocin receptors", "dmnv", "brainstem activates oxytocin receptors", "activates glutamatergic receptors", "pvn", "ligand gated receptors", "sniffer CHO cells", "neuron", "cvn", "heart rate", "Brainstem Autonomic Neurons", "cns"], "article_id"=>1232552, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramón A. Piñol", "Heather Jameson", "Anastas Popratiloff", "Norman H. Lee", "David Mendelowitz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112138.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Imaging_oxytocin_and_oxytocin_receptor_activation_/1232552", "title"=>"Imaging oxytocin and oxytocin receptor activation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-07 03:10:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1783870"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Schematic of approach, left. Right, postsynaptic responses were completely blocked by antagonists for NMDA (AP-5; 50 µM) and AMPA/kainate receptors (CNQX; 50 µM). <b>B</b>, Paired-pulse facilitation (10 Hz) of glutamatergic neurotransmission from PVN to CVNs (first trace) abolished by oxytocin antagonist OTA (10 µM; middle trace) and partly restored upon wash out (right trace) <b>C</b>, Average data of OTA abolished paired-pulse facilitation (n = 7). * <i>p</i> = 0.021. <b>D</b>, Five consecutive stimulations (10 Hz;) with increasing amplitudes (black trace). OTA reduced the amplitude (red trace). Traces are normalized to amplitude of first response. <b>E</b>, Average data of the five stimulation paradigm (* <i>p</i> = 0.014)).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["release", "Mediates Paired Pulse Facilitation", "oxytocin receptors", "dmnv", "brainstem activates oxytocin receptors", "activates glutamatergic receptors", "pvn", "ligand gated receptors", "sniffer CHO cells", "neuron", "cvn", "heart rate", "Brainstem Autonomic Neurons", "cns"], "article_id"=>1232553, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramón A. Piñol", "Heather Jameson", "Anastas Popratiloff", "Norman H. Lee", "David Mendelowitz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112138.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_PVN_monosynaptic_glutamatergic_projections_to_CVNs_/1232553", "title"=>"PVN monosynaptic glutamatergic projections to CVNs.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-07 03:10:21"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1783871"], "description"=>"<p><b>A</b>, Upper trace: original recording with a 5 s train of stimuli (10 Hz,). Lower traces are details of Pre, 10 Hz Stimulation, Post and Recovery conditions of same recording. <b>B</b>, Group data of EPSCs. EPSC are increased during stimulation until at least 5 s post stimulation (* <i>p</i><0.05 compared to Control 5 s prior). Oxytocin antagonist OTA reduces the EPSC frequency during and 5 s post stimulation (#, 5 s 10 Hz stim Control vs. OTA, <i>p</i> = 0.015; 5 s post Control vs OTA, <i>p</i> = 0.012).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["release", "Mediates Paired Pulse Facilitation", "oxytocin receptors", "dmnv", "brainstem activates oxytocin receptors", "activates glutamatergic receptors", "pvn", "ligand gated receptors", "sniffer CHO cells", "neuron", "cvn", "heart rate", "Brainstem Autonomic Neurons", "cns"], "article_id"=>1232554, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Ramón A. Piñol", "Heather Jameson", "Anastas Popratiloff", "Norman H. Lee", "David Mendelowitz"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112138.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_EPSCs_during_and_after_train_stimulation_/1232554", "title"=>"EPSCs during and after train stimulation.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-07 03:10:21"}

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Relative Metric

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