Examining the 10-Year Rebuilding Dilemma for U.S. Fish Stocks
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{"title"=>"Examining the 10-year rebuilding dilemma for U.S. Fish stocks", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Wesley S.", "last_name"=>"Patrick", "scopus_author_id"=>"24778635100"}, {"first_name"=>"Jason", "last_name"=>"Cope", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004597196"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25375788", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84910657564", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0112232", "sgr"=>"84910657564", "pui"=>"600434802"}, "id"=>"6d39938d-2fbb-316b-9434-6bb77b5fffe2", "abstract"=>"Worldwide, fishery managers strive to maintain fish stocks at or above levels that produce maximum sustainable yields, and to rebuild overexploited stocks that can no longer support such yields. In the United States, rebuilding overexploited stocks is a contentious issue, where most stocks are mandated to rebuild in as short a time as possible, and in a time period not to exceed 10 years. Opponents of such mandates and related guidance argue that rebuilding requirements are arbitrary, and create discontinuities in the time and fishing effort allowed for stocks to rebuild due to differences in productivity. Proponents, however, highlight how these mandates and guidance were needed to curtail the continued overexploitation of these stocks by setting firm deadlines on rebuilding. Here we evaluate the statements made by opponents and proponents of the 10-year rebuilding mandate and related guidance to determine whether such points are technically accurate using a simple population dynamics model and a database of U.S. fish stocks to parameterize the model. We also offer solutions to many of the issues surrounding this mandate and its implementation by recommending some fishing mortality based frameworks, which meet the intent of the 10-year rebuilding requirement while also providing more flexibility. C", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/examining-10year-rebuilding-dilemma-fish-stocks", "reader_count"=>21, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>10}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>2, "United States"=>2, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1781431"], "description"=>"<p>The theoretical relationship between <i>r</i> and generation time (<i>G</i>) is provided by the equation <i>G</i> =  ln<i>R<sub>0</sub></i>/<i>r</i>, where <i>R<sub>0</sub></i> (the net reproductive rate per generation) is assumed to be 5, which is roughly the median value of <i>R<sub>0</sub></i> for the <i>r</i> and either FishBase or reported generation times.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish stocks", "guidance", "U.S", "fish Stocks Worldwide", "mandate", "population dynamics model"], "article_id"=>1230721, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wesley S. Patrick", "Jason Cope"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112232.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_empirical_relationship_between_intrinsic_rate_of_growth_coefficient_r_and_generation_time_for_which_r_values_based_on_F_msy_and_U_msy_and_generation_time_based_on_FishBase_and_reported_values_from_rebuilding_plans_are_available_/1230721", "title"=>"The empirical relationship between intrinsic rate of growth coefficient (<i>r</i>) and generation time, for which <i>r</i> values (based on <i>F<sub>msy</sub></i> and <i>U<sub>msy</sub></i>) and generation time (based on FishBase and reported values from rebuilding plans) are available.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-06 03:33:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1781434"], "description"=>"<p>The Scientific and Statistical Committee of a Regional Fishery Management Council sets an OFL and ABC, while the Regional Fishery Management Council sets the ACL and ACT; each decision is based on a science-management feedback loop.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish stocks", "guidance", "U.S", "fish Stocks Worldwide", "mandate", "population dynamics model"], "article_id"=>1230724, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wesley S. Patrick", "Jason Cope"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112232.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_annual_catch_limit_ACL_framework_describing_how_the_acceptable_biological_catch_level_ABC_is_reduced_from_the_overfishing_limit_OFL_based_on_scientific_uncertainty_in_the_estimate_of_OFL_how_the_ACL_can_be_set_at_or_below_ABC_and_how_an_annual_catch_/1230724", "title"=>"The annual catch limit (ACL) framework, describing how the acceptable biological catch level (ABC) is reduced from the overfishing limit (OFL) based on scientific uncertainty in the estimate of OFL, how the ACL can be set at or below ABC, and how an annual catch target (ACT) can be set below the ACL to account for management uncertainty.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-06 03:33:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1781438"], "description"=>"<p>Between 2000 and 2013, overfishing determinations declined from 48 to 28 (a 41% reduction) while overfished determinations declined from 52 to 40 (a 23% reduction).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish stocks", "guidance", "U.S", "fish Stocks Worldwide", "mandate", "population dynamics model"], "article_id"=>1230728, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wesley S. Patrick", "Jason Cope"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112232.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Between_2000_and_2013_overfishing_determinations_declined_from_48_to_28_a_41_reduction_while_overfished_determinations_declined_from_52_to_40_a_23_reduction_/1230728", "title"=>"Between 2000 and 2013, overfishing determinations declined from 48 to 28 (a 41% reduction) while overfished determinations declined from 52 to 40 (a 23% reduction).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-06 03:33:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1781439"], "description"=>"<p>Rebuilding time depends only on the intrinsic rate of increase (<i>r</i>), fishing mortality relative to <i>F<sub>msy</sub></i> (<i>F<sub>ratio</sub></i>), and the biomass at the onset of rebuilding relative to <i>B<sub>msy</sub></i> (<i>B<sub>ratio</sub></i>). The average overfished stock (<i>r</i> = 0.40 and <i>B<sub>ratio</sub></i> = 0.32) can rebuild in 4.1 years with <i>F<sub>ratio</sub></i> = 0.0, or 10.0 years when <i>F<sub>ratio</sub></i> = 0.76.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish stocks", "guidance", "U.S", "fish Stocks Worldwide", "mandate", "population dynamics model"], "article_id"=>1230729, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wesley S. Patrick", "Jason Cope"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112232.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Rebuilding_times_t_with_various_F_ratios_0_25_50_and_75_using_the_Graham_Schaefer_model_/1230729", "title"=>"Rebuilding times (<i>t</i>) with various <i>F<sub>ratios</sub></i> (0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%), using the Graham-Schaefer model.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-06 03:33:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1781440"], "description"=>"<p>Stocks with an <i>r</i> value of 0.200 or less are exempt from the mandated 10 year rebuilding requirement, while other stocks are subject to <i>F<sub>ratios</sub></i> ranging from 0.23 to 0.99. Under normal circumstances, the harvest policy for healthy U.S. fish stocks (i.e., not overfished) often ranges between 75% and 95% of <i>F<sub>msy</sub></i> (Carmichael and Fenske 2010).</p><p>A comparison of <i>F<sub>ratios</sub></i> (maximum allowed <i>F<sub>rebuild</sub></i>/<i>F<sub>msy</sub></i>), given various intrinsic growth rate coefficients (<i>r</i>) values, an initial biomass ratio (<i>B<sub>ratio</sub></i>) of 0.32, and a rebuilding time (<i>t</i>) of 10 years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish stocks", "guidance", "U.S", "fish Stocks Worldwide", "mandate", "population dynamics model"], "article_id"=>1230730, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wesley S. Patrick", "Jason Cope"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112232.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_comparison_of_F_ratios_maximum_allowed_F_rebuild_F_msy_given_various_intrinsic_growth_rate_coefficients_r_values_an_initial_biomass_ratio_B_ratio_of_0_32_and_a_rebuilding_time_t_of_10_years_/1230730", "title"=>"A comparison of <i>F<sub>ratios</sub></i> (maximum allowed <i>F<sub>rebuild</sub></i>/<i>F<sub>msy</sub></i>), given various intrinsic growth rate coefficients (<i>r</i>) values, an initial biomass ratio (<i>B<sub>ratio</sub></i>) of 0.32, and a rebuilding time (<i>t</i>) of 10 years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-06 03:33:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1781441", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1781442"], "description"=>"<div><p>Worldwide, fishery managers strive to maintain fish stocks at or above levels that produce maximum sustainable yields, and to rebuild overexploited stocks that can no longer support such yields. In the United States, rebuilding overexploited stocks is a contentious issue, where most stocks are mandated to rebuild in as short a time as possible, and in a time period not to exceed 10 years. Opponents of such mandates and related guidance argue that rebuilding requirements are arbitrary, and create discontinuities in the time and fishing effort allowed for stocks to rebuild due to differences in productivity. Proponents, however, highlight how these mandates and guidance were needed to curtail the continued overexploitation of these stocks by setting firm deadlines on rebuilding. Here we evaluate the statements made by opponents and proponents of the 10-year rebuilding mandate and related guidance to determine whether such points are technically accurate using a simple population dynamics model and a database of U.S. fish stocks to parameterize the model. We also offer solutions to many of the issues surrounding this mandate and its implementation by recommending some fishing mortality based frameworks, which meet the intent of the 10-year rebuilding requirement while also providing more flexibility.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish stocks", "guidance", "U.S", "fish Stocks Worldwide", "mandate", "population dynamics model"], "article_id"=>1230731, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wesley S. Patrick", "Jason Cope"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112232.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112232.s002"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Examining_the_10_Year_Rebuilding_Dilemma_for_U_S_Fish_Stocks_/1230731", "title"=>"Examining the 10-Year Rebuilding Dilemma for U.S. Fish Stocks", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-11-06 03:33:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1781425"], "description"=>"<p>Note that <i>r</i> values labeled 0 on the <i>x</i>-axis actually represent 0.01 to 0.09 values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish stocks", "guidance", "U.S", "fish Stocks Worldwide", "mandate", "population dynamics model"], "article_id"=>1230715, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wesley S. Patrick", "Jason Cope"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112232.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_distribution_of_intrinsic_growth_rate_coefficients_r_for_U_S_fish_stocks_based_on_62_stocks_for_which_F_msy_or_U_msy_values_were_available_/1230715", "title"=>"The distribution of intrinsic growth rate coefficients (<i>r</i>) for U.S. fish stocks, based on 62 stocks for which F<sub>msy</sub> or U<sub>msy</sub> values were available.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-06 03:33:29"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1781429"], "description"=>"<p>Note that <i>B<sub>ratio</sub></i> values labeled 0 on the <i>x</i>-axis actually represent 0.01 to 0.09 values.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["fish stocks", "guidance", "U.S", "fish Stocks Worldwide", "mandate", "population dynamics model"], "article_id"=>1230719, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Wesley S. Patrick", "Jason Cope"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112232.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_ratio_distribution_of_biomass_at_the_onset_of_rebuilding_relative_to_the_biomass_associated_with_maximum_sustainable_yield_B_ratio_for_U_S_fish_stocks_based_on_34_stocks_that_were_determined_to_be_overfished_based_on_the_most_current_stock_assessment/1230719", "title"=>"The ratio distribution of biomass at the onset of rebuilding relative to the biomass associated with maximum sustainable yield (<i>B<sub>ratio</sub></i>) for U.S. fish stocks, based on 34 stocks that were determined to be overfished based on the most current stock assessment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-06 03:33:29"}

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Relative Metric

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