The User-Centered Design as Novel Perspective for Evaluating the Usability of BCI-Controlled Applications
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{"title"=>"The user-centered design as novel perspective for evaluating the usability of BCI-controlled applications", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Andrea", "last_name"=>"Kübler", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005589429"}, {"first_name"=>"Elisa M.", "last_name"=>"Holz", "scopus_author_id"=>"54681816900"}, {"first_name"=>"Angela", "last_name"=>"Riccio", "scopus_author_id"=>"36606731400"}, {"first_name"=>"Claudia", "last_name"=>"Zickler", "scopus_author_id"=>"35301332700"}, {"first_name"=>"Tobias", "last_name"=>"Kaufmann", "scopus_author_id"=>"50061428100"}, {"first_name"=>"Sonja C.", "last_name"=>"Kleih", "scopus_author_id"=>"35307400700"}, {"first_name"=>"Pit", "last_name"=>"Staiger-Sälzer", "scopus_author_id"=>"6504032774"}, {"first_name"=>"Lorenzo", "last_name"=>"Desideri", "scopus_author_id"=>"54681773800"}, {"first_name"=>"Evert Jan", "last_name"=>"Hoogerwerf", "scopus_author_id"=>"49061163100"}, {"first_name"=>"Donatella", "last_name"=>"Mattia", "scopus_author_id"=>"7003828922"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25469774", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84916231184", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0112392", "issn"=>"19326203", "sgr"=>"84916231184", "pui"=>"600684403", "isbn"=>"1932-6203"}, "id"=>"e9f0d044-1663-3403-8a99-4d59a925eca6", "abstract"=>"Albeit research on brain-computer interfaces (BCI) for controlling applications has expanded tremendously, we still face a translational gap when bringing BCI to end-users. To bridge this gap, we adapted the user-centered design (UCD) to BCI research and development which implies a shift from focusing on single aspects, such as accuracy and information transfer rate (ITR), to a more holistic user experience. The UCD implements an iterative process between end-users and developers based on a valid evaluation procedure. Within the UCD framework usability of a device can be defined with regard to its effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction. We operationalized these aspects to evaluate BCI-controlled applications. Effectiveness was regarded equivalent to accuracy of selections and efficiency to the amount of information transferred per time unit and the effort invested (workload). Satisfaction was assessed with questionnaires and visual-analogue scales. These metrics have been successfully applied to several BCI-controlled applications for communication and entertainment, which were evaluated by end-users with severe motor impairment. Results of four studies, involving a total of N = 19 end-users revealed: effectiveness was moderate to high; efficiency in terms of ITR was low to high and workload low to medium; depending on the match between user and technology, and type of application satisfaction was moderate to high. The here suggested evaluation metrics within the framework of the UCD proved to be an applicable and informative approach to evaluate BCI controlled applications, and end-users with severe impairment and in the locked-in state were able to participate in this process.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/usercentered-design-novel-perspective-evaluating-usability-bcicontrolled-applications", "reader_count"=>83, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>17, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>21, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>7, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Chemistry"=>1, "Computer Science"=>21, "Decision Sciences"=>1, "Engineering"=>16, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>6, "Neuroscience"=>9, "Design"=>4, "Psychology"=>5, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Linguistics"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>6}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Decision Sciences"=>{"Decision Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>5}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>7}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}, "Design"=>{"Design"=>4}, "Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>16}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>9}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>3}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>21}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Linguistics"=>{"Linguistics"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Netherlands"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "Algeria"=>1, "Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>4}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817041"], "description"=>"<p>The possible range of each subscale and the total score is 0 to 100.</p><p>Mean and range for all dimensions of workload and total score for each application averaged across tasks and end-users.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspect", "evaluation metrics", "motor impairment", "workload", "UCD framework usability", "evaluation procedure", "novel perspective", "application satisfaction", "efficiency", "time unit", "UCD implements", "translational gap", "itr", "information transfer rate", "BCI research", "user experience", "effectiveness", "accuracy", "iterative process"], "article_id"=>1258299, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Kübler", "Elisa M. Holz", "Angela Riccio", "Claudia Zickler", "Tobias Kaufmann", "Sonja C. Kleih", "Pit Staiger-Sälzer", "Lorenzo Desideri", "Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf", "Donatella Mattia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112392.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_and_range_for_all_dimensions_of_workload_and_total_score_for_each_application_averaged_across_tasks_and_end_users_/1258299", "title"=>"Mean and range for all dimensions of workload and total score for each application averaged across tasks and end-users.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 02:55:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817026"], "description"=>"<p>Ratings for the BCI specific items (explanation see text).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspect", "evaluation metrics", "motor impairment", "workload", "UCD framework usability", "evaluation procedure", "novel perspective", "application satisfaction", "efficiency", "time unit", "UCD implements", "translational gap", "itr", "information transfer rate", "BCI research", "user experience", "effectiveness", "accuracy", "iterative process"], "article_id"=>1258284, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Kübler", "Elisa M. Holz", "Angela Riccio", "Claudia Zickler", "Tobias Kaufmann", "Sonja C. Kleih", "Pit Staiger-Sälzer", "Lorenzo Desideri", "Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf", "Donatella Mattia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112392.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Ratings_for_the_BCI_specific_items_explanation_see_text_/1258284", "title"=>"Ratings for the BCI specific items (explanation see text).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 02:55:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817023"], "description"=>"<p>“Grau-Gelb” (engl. “grey-yellow”) - a painting created with the Brain Painting application by a locked-in end user with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (© J Thiele, with permission).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspect", "evaluation metrics", "motor impairment", "workload", "UCD framework usability", "evaluation procedure", "novel perspective", "application satisfaction", "efficiency", "time unit", "UCD implements", "translational gap", "itr", "information transfer rate", "BCI research", "user experience", "effectiveness", "accuracy", "iterative process"], "article_id"=>1258281, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Kübler", "Elisa M. Holz", "Angela Riccio", "Claudia Zickler", "Tobias Kaufmann", "Sonja C. Kleih", "Pit Staiger-Sälzer", "Lorenzo Desideri", "Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf", "Donatella Mattia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112392.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_8220_Grau_Gelb_8221_engl_8220_grey_yellow_8221_a_painting_created_with_the_Brain_Painting_application_by_a_locked_in_end_user_with_amyotrophic_lateral_sclerosis_169_J_Thiele_with_permission_/1258281", "title"=>"“Grau-Gelb” (engl. “grey-yellow”) - a painting created with the Brain Painting application by a locked-in end user with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (© J Thiele, with permission).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 02:55:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817035"], "description"=>"<p>NASA-TLX  =  NASA Task Load Index.</p><p>QUEST  =  Quebec User Evaluation of Satisfaction with Assistive Technology.</p><p>ATD-PA  =  Assistive Technology Device Predisposition Assessment.</p><p>VAS  =  visual analogue scale.</p><p>Evaluation metrics for each aspect of usability.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspect", "evaluation metrics", "motor impairment", "workload", "UCD framework usability", "evaluation procedure", "novel perspective", "application satisfaction", "efficiency", "time unit", "UCD implements", "translational gap", "itr", "information transfer rate", "BCI research", "user experience", "effectiveness", "accuracy", "iterative process"], "article_id"=>1258293, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Kübler", "Elisa M. Holz", "Angela Riccio", "Claudia Zickler", "Tobias Kaufmann", "Sonja C. Kleih", "Pit Staiger-Sälzer", "Lorenzo Desideri", "Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf", "Donatella Mattia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112392.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Evaluation_metrics_for_each_aspect_of_usability_/1258293", "title"=>"Evaluation metrics for each aspect of usability.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 02:55:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817034"], "description"=>"<p>This iterative approach has been realized with the BCI controlled Brain Painting. Numbers in parentheses refer to the publication in which the corresponding steps were realized.</p><p>Principles and stages of the user-centered design (left column) and their transfer to BCI-controlled applications (right column).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspect", "evaluation metrics", "motor impairment", "workload", "UCD framework usability", "evaluation procedure", "novel perspective", "application satisfaction", "efficiency", "time unit", "UCD implements", "translational gap", "itr", "information transfer rate", "BCI research", "user experience", "effectiveness", "accuracy", "iterative process"], "article_id"=>1258292, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Kübler", "Elisa M. Holz", "Angela Riccio", "Claudia Zickler", "Tobias Kaufmann", "Sonja C. Kleih", "Pit Staiger-Sälzer", "Lorenzo Desideri", "Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf", "Donatella Mattia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112392.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Principles_and_stages_of_the_user_centered_design_left_column_and_their_transfer_to_BCI_controlled_applications_right_column_/1258292", "title"=>"Principles and stages of the user-centered design (left column) and their transfer to BCI-controlled applications (right column).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 02:55:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817032"], "description"=>"<p>If the application matches the individual end-user's needs, it will very likely be used in daily life.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspect", "evaluation metrics", "motor impairment", "workload", "UCD framework usability", "evaluation procedure", "novel perspective", "application satisfaction", "efficiency", "time unit", "UCD implements", "translational gap", "itr", "information transfer rate", "BCI research", "user experience", "effectiveness", "accuracy", "iterative process"], "article_id"=>1258289, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Kübler", "Elisa M. Holz", "Angela Riccio", "Claudia Zickler", "Tobias Kaufmann", "Sonja C. Kleih", "Pit Staiger-Sälzer", "Lorenzo Desideri", "Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf", "Donatella Mattia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112392.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>36, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Key_user_centered_design_activities_from_12_adapted_to_BCI_controlled_applications_/1258289", "title"=>"Key user-centered design activities (from [12]) adapted to BCI-controlled applications.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 02:55:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817039"], "description"=>"1<p>4 sessions (copy spelling, free spelling, emailing, internet surfing).</p>2<p>data refer to the last of 5 free painting sessions.</p>3<p>Utility metric.</p>4<p>3 sessions (copy spelling with and without EMG correction, free spelling (sentence) and emailing).</p>5<p>ITR for BCI only; EMG correction not included.</p>6<p>6 sessions (screening, copy task and free mode playing).</p>7<p>the end-user stated “maybe”.</p>8<p>only 4 of 9 end-users were asked this question.</p><p>Summary of evaluation results.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspect", "evaluation metrics", "motor impairment", "workload", "UCD framework usability", "evaluation procedure", "novel perspective", "application satisfaction", "efficiency", "time unit", "UCD implements", "translational gap", "itr", "information transfer rate", "BCI research", "user experience", "effectiveness", "accuracy", "iterative process"], "article_id"=>1258297, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Kübler", "Elisa M. Holz", "Angela Riccio", "Claudia Zickler", "Tobias Kaufmann", "Sonja C. Kleih", "Pit Staiger-Sälzer", "Lorenzo Desideri", "Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf", "Donatella Mattia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112392.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_evaluation_results_/1258297", "title"=>"Summary of evaluation results.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 02:55:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817037"], "description"=>"1<p>The numbers for level of impairment are according to Kübler and Birbaumer (2008): 1 =  minor impairment: slightly impaired limb movement, normal speech; 2 =  moderate impairment: restricted limb movement (wheelchair) and unaffected speech OR intact limb movement, but no speech; 3 =  major impairment: almost tetraplegic, restricted speech; 4 =  locked-in state: only few muscles for communication (e.g., eye movement), no speech.</p><p>Demographic, disease and AT/BCI related data of end-users; speaking not possible unless mentioned.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspect", "evaluation metrics", "motor impairment", "workload", "UCD framework usability", "evaluation procedure", "novel perspective", "application satisfaction", "efficiency", "time unit", "UCD implements", "translational gap", "itr", "information transfer rate", "BCI research", "user experience", "effectiveness", "accuracy", "iterative process"], "article_id"=>1258295, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Kübler", "Elisa M. Holz", "Angela Riccio", "Claudia Zickler", "Tobias Kaufmann", "Sonja C. Kleih", "Pit Staiger-Sälzer", "Lorenzo Desideri", "Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf", "Donatella Mattia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112392.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Demographic_disease_and_AT_BCI_related_data_of_end_users_speaking_not_possible_unless_mentioned_/1258295", "title"=>"Demographic, disease and AT/BCI related data of end-users; speaking not possible unless mentioned.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 02:55:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817038"], "description"=>"1<p>electromyogram;</p>2<p>sensorimotor rhythms.</p><p>Summary of applications and number of patients involved.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspect", "evaluation metrics", "motor impairment", "workload", "UCD framework usability", "evaluation procedure", "novel perspective", "application satisfaction", "efficiency", "time unit", "UCD implements", "translational gap", "itr", "information transfer rate", "BCI research", "user experience", "effectiveness", "accuracy", "iterative process"], "article_id"=>1258296, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Kübler", "Elisa M. Holz", "Angela Riccio", "Claudia Zickler", "Tobias Kaufmann", "Sonja C. Kleih", "Pit Staiger-Sälzer", "Lorenzo Desideri", "Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf", "Donatella Mattia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112392.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_applications_and_number_of_patients_involved_/1258296", "title"=>"Summary of applications and number of patients involved.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 02:55:20"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817018"], "description"=>"<p>Left: To adapt end-users to the flashing of dots, those were placed in each cell of the well familiar matrix. Instead of the letters those dots were flashed. Right: Screen shot of the Qualilife communication application. The now familiar red dots were assigned to each option of the Qualilife communication and control surface. Red dots appear randomly at each possible “button” to press. Attention needs to be focused on the specific button to be pressed by counting how often the red dot is appearing.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["aspect", "evaluation metrics", "motor impairment", "workload", "UCD framework usability", "evaluation procedure", "novel perspective", "application satisfaction", "efficiency", "time unit", "UCD implements", "translational gap", "itr", "information transfer rate", "BCI research", "user experience", "effectiveness", "accuracy", "iterative process"], "article_id"=>1258276, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy"], "users"=>["Andrea Kübler", "Elisa M. Holz", "Angela Riccio", "Claudia Zickler", "Tobias Kaufmann", "Sonja C. Kleih", "Pit Staiger-Sälzer", "Lorenzo Desideri", "Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf", "Donatella Mattia"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112392.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Transfer_of_the_matrix_based_speller_paradigm_to_the_Qualilife_software_/1258276", "title"=>"Transfer of the matrix based speller paradigm to the Qualilife software.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 02:55:20"}

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Relative Metric

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