The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake
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{"title"=>"The relationship between the distribution of common carp and their environmental DNA in a small lake", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Jessica J.", "last_name"=>"Eichmiller", "scopus_author_id"=>"18436532800"}, {"first_name"=>"Przemyslaw G.", "last_name"=>"Bajer", "scopus_author_id"=>"8403924000"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter W.", "last_name"=>"Sorensen", "scopus_author_id"=>"7202485585"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84911918967", "sgr"=>"84911918967", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0112611", "pmid"=>"25383965", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"600460947"}, "id"=>"7c6562a7-ac6f-3776-8f31-bf2323028e8a", "abstract"=>"Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome b gene of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/relationship-between-distribution-common-carp-environmental-dna-small-lake-1", "reader_count"=>101, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>26, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>24, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>11, "Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>5, "Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>24, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>14, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>54}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>14}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>5}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>24}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "Hungary"=>1, "United States"=>3, "Brazil"=>3, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>11}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786475"], "description"=>"<p>Panel A shows locations of radiotagged carp and high- and low-use areas. Density categories represent the average number of locations of radiotagged carp/km<sup>2</sup>. The high- and low-use area cut-off value of 800 radiotagged carp/km<sup>2</sup> corresponded to approximately 1,248 carp/ha. Panels B–D show the pattern of eDNA detection and concentration in surface water (B), sub-surface water (C), and sediment (D). All figures have the same scale. The symbol legend in the upper right refers to panel A, whereas lower right refers to panels B–D.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytochrome b gene", "pcr", "eDNA sampling methods", "fish distribution", "mn", "usa", "concentration", "detection rate"], "article_id"=>1234860, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jessica J. Eichmiller", "Przemyslaw G. Bajer", "Peter W. Sorensen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112611.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>22, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carp_use_and_distribution_of_eDNA_in_Lake_Staring_/1234860", "title"=>"Carp use and distribution of eDNA in Lake Staring.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:37:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786479"], "description"=>"<p>Results of a 3-way ANOVA for CarpCyt<i>b</i> marker in water samples.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytochrome b gene", "pcr", "eDNA sampling methods", "fish distribution", "mn", "usa", "concentration", "detection rate"], "article_id"=>1234865, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jessica J. Eichmiller", "Przemyslaw G. Bajer", "Peter W. Sorensen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112611.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Results_of_a_3_way_ANOVA_for_CarpCyt_b_marker_in_water_samples_/1234865", "title"=>"Results of a 3-way ANOVA for CarpCyt<i>b</i> marker in water samples.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:37:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786478"], "description"=>"<p>Concentration and detection rates of CarpCyt<i>b</i> in sediment.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytochrome b gene", "pcr", "eDNA sampling methods", "fish distribution", "mn", "usa", "concentration", "detection rate"], "article_id"=>1234863, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jessica J. Eichmiller", "Przemyslaw G. Bajer", "Peter W. Sorensen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112611.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentration_and_detection_rates_of_CarpCyt_b_in_sediment_/1234863", "title"=>"Concentration and detection rates of CarpCyt<i>b</i> in sediment.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:37:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786477"], "description"=>"<p>Concentration and detection rates of CarpCyt<i>b</i> in water.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytochrome b gene", "pcr", "eDNA sampling methods", "fish distribution", "mn", "usa", "concentration", "detection rate"], "article_id"=>1234862, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jessica J. Eichmiller", "Przemyslaw G. Bajer", "Peter W. Sorensen"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112611.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Concentration_and_detection_rates_of_CarpCyt_b_in_water_/1234862", "title"=>"Concentration and detection rates of CarpCyt<i>b</i> in water.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:37:40"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786481", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786482", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786483"], "description"=>"<div><p>Although environmental DNA (eDNA) has been used to infer the presence of rare aquatic species, many facets of this technique remain unresolved. In particular, the relationship between eDNA and fish distribution is not known. We examined the relationship between the distribution of fish and their eDNA (detection rate and concentration) in a lake. A quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay for a region within the cytochrome <i>b</i> gene of the common carp (<i>Cyprinus carpio</i> or ‘carp’), an ubiquitous invasive fish, was developed and used to measure eDNA in Lake Staring (MN, USA), in which both the density of carp and their distribution have been closely monitored for several years. Surface water, sub-surface water, and sediment were sampled from 22 locations in the lake, including areas frequently used by carp. In water, areas of high carp use had a higher rate of detection and concentration of eDNA, but there was no effect of fish use on sediment eDNA. The detection rate and concentration of eDNA in surface and sub-surface water were not significantly different (p≥0.5), indicating that eDNA did not accumulate in surface water. The detection rate followed the trend: high-use water > low-use water > sediment. The concentration of eDNA in sediment samples that were above the limit of detection were several orders of magnitude greater than water on a per mass basis, but a poor limit of detection led to low detection rates. The patchy distribution of eDNA in the water of our study lake suggests that the mechanisms that remove eDNA from the water column, such as decay and sedimentation, are rapid. Taken together, these results indicate that effective eDNA sampling methods should be informed by fish distribution, as eDNA concentration was shown to vary dramatically between samples taken less than 100 m apart.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["cytochrome b gene", "pcr", "eDNA sampling methods", "fish distribution", "mn", "usa", "concentration", "detection rate"], "article_id"=>1234866, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Jessica J. Eichmiller", "Przemyslaw G. Bajer", "Peter W. Sorensen"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112611.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112611.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112611.s003"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>13, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_Relationship_between_the_Distribution_of_Common_Carp_and_Their_Environmental_DNA_in_a_Small_Lake_/1234866", "title"=>"The Relationship between the Distribution of Common Carp and Their Environmental DNA in a Small Lake", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:37:40"}

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