High Diversity and Low Specificity of Chaetothyrialean Fungi in Carton Galleries in a Neotropical Ant–Plant Association
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{"title"=>"High diversity and low specificity of chaetothyrialean fungi in carton galleries in a neotropical ant-plant association", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Maximilian", "last_name"=>"Nepel", "scopus_author_id"=>"56423627000"}, {"first_name"=>"Hermann", "last_name"=>"Voglmayr", "scopus_author_id"=>"6601990944"}, {"first_name"=>"Jürg", "last_name"=>"Schönenberger", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602814752"}, {"first_name"=>"Veronika E.", "last_name"=>"Mayer", "scopus_author_id"=>"55629905600"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0112756", "sgr"=>"84911497293", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84911497293", "issn"=>"19326203", "pui"=>"600506626"}, "id"=>"2eea0231-d416-30f1-b05d-9a07c4c18e40", "abstract"=>"New associations have recently been discovered between arboreal ants that live on myrmecophytic plants, and different groups of fungi. Most of the – usually undescribed – fungi cultured by the ants belong to the order Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes). Chaetothyriales occur in the nesting spaces provided by the host plant, and form a major part of the cardboard-like material produced by the ants for constructing nests and runway galleries. Until now, the fungi have been considered specific to each ant species. We focus on the three-way association between the plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum (Salicaceae), the ant Azteca brevis (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) and various chaetothyrialean fungi. Azteca brevis builds extensive runway galleries along branches of T. macrophyllum. The carton of the gallery walls consists of masticated plant material densely pervaded by chaetothyrialean hyphae. In order to characterise the specificity of the ant–fungus association, fungi from the runway galleries of 19 ant colonies were grown as pure cultures and analyzed using partial SSU, complete ITS, 5.8S and partial LSU rDNA sequences. This gave 128 different fungal genotypes, 78% of which were clustered into three monophyletic groups. The most common fungus (either genotype or approximate species-level OTU) was found in the runway galleries of 63% of the investigated ant colonies. This indicates that there can be a dominant fungus but, in general, a wider guild of chaetothyrialean fungi share the same ant mutualist in Azteca brevis.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/high-diversity-low-specificity-chaetothyrialean-fungi-carton-galleries-neotropical-antplant-associat", "reader_count"=>17, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Researcher"=>4, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>1, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>4, "Other"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>3, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>13}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>1}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1795775"], "description"=>"<p>The maximum-likelihood tree is shown, based on partial SSU, complete ITS and 5.8S, and partial LSU rDNA regions. Bold branches are supported in all three analyses: BA probabilities higher than 0.9, ML and MP bootstrap support above 70%. Red labels denote fungal genotypes isolated in this study from ant-built carton structures on <i>Tetrathylacium macrophyllum</i> and <i>Lonchocarpus</i> sp. trees; orange and blue mark domatia fungi and carton fungi, respectively, from Voglmayr <i>et al.</i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756#pone.0112756-Voglmayr1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a>; GenBank accession numbers follow taxon names; solid red, violet and orange vertical lines indicate clade definitions and captions from Voglmayr <i>et al.</i><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756#pone.0112756-Voglmayr1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a>; dotted lines mark clade extensions from this study. Blue dots point out three sequences from other continents (2× Cameroon; 1× Thailand) differing by only three mutations from our Costa Rican genotypes. Note the high diversity of isolated genotypes (the large clade extensions compared to Voglmayr <i>et al</i>. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756#pone.0112756-Voglmayr1\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a> are due to a greater number of samples and the new monophyletic carton-fungi cluster (new carton clade 3).The tree is continued in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756#pone-0112756-g003\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 3</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ant Azteca brevis", "LSU rDNA sequences", "19 ant colonies", "ssu", "runway galleries", "masticated plant material", "gallery", "Azteca brevis", "chaetothyrialean fungi share", "plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum", "otu"], "article_id"=>1242657, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maximilian Nepel", "Hermann Voglmayr", "Jürg Schönenberger", "Veronika E. Mayer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>46, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogram_of_Chaetothyriales_top_part_/1242657", "title"=>"Phylogram of Chaetothyriales, top part.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-14 03:21:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1795768"], "description"=>"<p>(A, B) Galleries on the lower side of branches of <i>Tetrathylacium macrophyllum</i>: note the scattered circular openings in the gallery walls. (B) Alarmed workers wait with open mandibles below the holes for prey or intruders. (C, D) Scanning electron microscope images of the gallery walls infused with different types of hyphae. (E, F) Light-microscope images of both hyphal types: (E) thin-walled hyaline hyphae typical for carton clades 2 and 3; (F) pigmented thick-walled hyphae typical for carton clade 1 (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756#pone-0112756-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756#pone-0112756-g003\" target=\"_blank\">3</a>). Bars: (A, B) 1 cm; (C, D) 100 µm; (E, F) 20 µm.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ant Azteca brevis", "LSU rDNA sequences", "19 ant colonies", "ssu", "runway galleries", "masticated plant material", "gallery", "Azteca brevis", "chaetothyrialean fungi share", "plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum", "otu"], "article_id"=>1242650, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maximilian Nepel", "Hermann Voglmayr", "Jürg Schönenberger", "Veronika E. Mayer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>37, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Carton_runway_galleries_built_by_Azteca_brevis_ants_consisting_of_mycelia_and_various_organic_particles_/1242650", "title"=>"Carton runway galleries built by <i>Azteca brevis</i> ants, consisting of mycelia and various organic particles.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-14 03:21:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1795788"], "description"=>"<div><p>New associations have recently been discovered between arboreal ants that live on myrmecophytic plants, and different groups of fungi. Most of the – usually undescribed – fungi cultured by the ants belong to the order Chaetothyriales (Ascomycetes). Chaetothyriales occur in the nesting spaces provided by the host plant, and form a major part of the cardboard-like material produced by the ants for constructing nests and runway galleries. Until now, the fungi have been considered specific to each ant species. We focus on the three-way association between the plant <i>Tetrathylacium macrophyllum</i> (Salicaceae), the ant <i>Azteca brevis</i> (Formicidae: Dolichoderinae) and various chaetothyrialean fungi. <i>Azteca brevis</i> builds extensive runway galleries along branches of <i>T. macrophyllum</i>. The carton of the gallery walls consists of masticated plant material densely pervaded by chaetothyrialean hyphae. In order to characterise the specificity of the ant–fungus association, fungi from the runway galleries of 19 ant colonies were grown as pure cultures and analyzed using partial SSU, complete ITS, 5.8S and partial LSU rDNA sequences. This gave 128 different fungal genotypes, 78% of which were clustered into three monophyletic groups. The most common fungus (either genotype or approximate species-level OTU) was found in the runway galleries of 63% of the investigated ant colonies. This indicates that there can be a dominant fungus but, in general, a wider guild of chaetothyrialean fungi share the same ant mutualist in <i>Azteca brevis</i>.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ant Azteca brevis", "LSU rDNA sequences", "19 ant colonies", "ssu", "runway galleries", "masticated plant material", "gallery", "Azteca brevis", "chaetothyrialean fungi share", "plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum", "otu"], "article_id"=>1242667, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maximilian Nepel", "Hermann Voglmayr", "Jürg Schönenberger", "Veronika E. Mayer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_High_Diversity_and_Low_Specificity_of_Chaetothyrialean_Fungi_in_Carton_Galleries_in_a_Neotropical_Ant_8211_Plant_Association_/1242667", "title"=>"High Diversity and Low Specificity of Chaetothyrialean Fungi in Carton Galleries in a Neotropical Ant–Plant Association", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-14 03:21:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1795778"], "description"=>"<p>Continuation of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756#pone-0112756-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a> with arrowheads indicating the connection. For label and colour descriptions see legend to <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756#pone-0112756-g002\" target=\"_blank\">Figure 2</a>. The clade labelled with an asterisk (*) is placed more basally (arrow) in the MP analysis than in ML and BA analyses. Note the domatia-symbiont clade, which remains distinct from carton fungi.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ant Azteca brevis", "LSU rDNA sequences", "19 ant colonies", "ssu", "runway galleries", "masticated plant material", "gallery", "Azteca brevis", "chaetothyrialean fungi share", "plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum", "otu"], "article_id"=>1242660, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maximilian Nepel", "Hermann Voglmayr", "Jürg Schönenberger", "Veronika E. Mayer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogram_of_Chaetothyriales_bottom_part_/1242660", "title"=>"Phylogram of Chaetothyriales, bottom part.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-14 03:21:39"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1795780"], "description"=>"<p>Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) plot based on Bray–Curtis similarities between fungal genotype sets occurring on carton material of 18 sampled <i>Tetrathylacium macrophyllum</i> trees, and one <i>Lonchocarpus</i> sp., colonised by <i>Azteca brevis</i>. Different symbols represent trees from different collection sites (squares: Waterfall Trail; triangles: Bird Trail; circle: Río Gamba; diamonds: Río Bolsa; inverted triangle: Río Sardinal).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["ant Azteca brevis", "LSU rDNA sequences", "19 ant colonies", "ssu", "runway galleries", "masticated plant material", "gallery", "Azteca brevis", "chaetothyrialean fungi share", "plant Tetrathylacium macrophyllum", "otu"], "article_id"=>1242662, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Maximilian Nepel", "Hermann Voglmayr", "Jürg Schönenberger", "Veronika E. Mayer"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112756.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Correlation_analysis_of_genotype_sets_and_collection_sites_/1242662", "title"=>"Correlation analysis of genotype sets and collection sites.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-14 03:21:39"}

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Relative Metric

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