Separating Macroecological Pattern and Process: Comparing Ecological, Economic, and Geological Systems
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{"title"=>"Separating macroecological pattern and process: Comparing ecological, economic, and geological systems", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Benjamin", "last_name"=>"Blonder", "scopus_author_id"=>"36835829900"}, {"first_name"=>"Lindsey", "last_name"=>"Sloat", "scopus_author_id"=>"35070372300"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian J.", "last_name"=>"Enquist", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004590620"}, {"first_name"=>"Brian", "last_name"=>"McGill", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603919643"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84911390859", "sgr"=>"84911390859", "pui"=>"600460918", "pmid"=>"25383874", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0112850"}, "id"=>"e81b29c3-3d65-3688-bcf7-07dafb549eea", "abstract"=>"Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form ('first-order effects'), these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns ('second-order effects'). These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/separating-macroecological-pattern-process-comparing-ecological-economic-geological-systems", "reader_count"=>63, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Researcher"=>22, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>4, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>16, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>5, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>6}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>3, "Environmental Science"=>16, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>2}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>40}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>3}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>16}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Argentina"=>1, "Puerto Rico"=>1, "United States"=>1, "Brazil"=>1, "United Kingdom"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786414"], "description"=>"<p>First-order effects describe all datasets, while second-order effects may provide scale-dependent approaches for distinguishing datasets.</p><p>First and second order effects.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macroecological theory", "Geological Systems Theories", "Macroecological Pattern", "biodiversity rest", "biodiversity theory", "United States", "species abundance", "macroecological patterns"], "article_id"=>1234811, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Benjamin Blonder", "Lindsey Sloat", "Brian J. Enquist", "Brian McGill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>25, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_First_and_second_order_effects_/1234811", "title"=>"First and second order effects.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:32:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786413"], "description"=>"<p>Among datasets, the clumping varies widely in magnitude with spatial scale. Line colors are described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850#pone-0112850-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macroecological theory", "Geological Systems Theories", "Macroecological Pattern", "biodiversity rest", "biodiversity theory", "United States", "species abundance", "macroecological patterns"], "article_id"=>1234810, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Benjamin Blonder", "Lindsey Sloat", "Brian J. Enquist", "Brian McGill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_fraction_of_species_for_which_intra_specific_clumping_is_consistently_high_at_very_small_and_very_large_scales_/1234810", "title"=>"The fraction of species for which intra-specific clumping is consistently high at very small and very large scales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:32:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786415"], "description"=>"<p>Maps display higher species richness at each site in brighter colors. In all subsequent graphs we have used the line-coloring scheme shown here.</p><p>Summary statistics for each economic, ecological, and geological dataset.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macroecological theory", "Geological Systems Theories", "Macroecological Pattern", "biodiversity rest", "biodiversity theory", "United States", "species abundance", "macroecological patterns"], "article_id"=>1234812, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Benjamin Blonder", "Lindsey Sloat", "Brian J. Enquist", "Brian McGill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>33, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_statistics_for_each_economic_ecological_and_geological_dataset_/1234812", "title"=>"Summary statistics for each economic, ecological, and geological dataset.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:32:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786412"], "description"=>"<p>The rapidity of decrease and the minimum similarity are functions of dataset type and assemblage size. Line colors are described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850#pone-0112850-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macroecological theory", "Geological Systems Theories", "Macroecological Pattern", "biodiversity rest", "biodiversity theory", "United States", "species abundance", "macroecological patterns"], "article_id"=>1234809, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Benjamin Blonder", "Lindsey Sloat", "Brian J. Enquist", "Brian McGill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>28, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_decay_in_assemblage_similarity_with_distance_depends_strongly_on_spatial_scale_/1234809", "title"=>"The decay in assemblage similarity with distance depends strongly on spatial scale.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:32:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786410"], "description"=>"<p>Line colors are described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850#pone-0112850-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macroecological theory", "Geological Systems Theories", "Macroecological Pattern", "biodiversity rest", "biodiversity theory", "United States", "species abundance", "macroecological patterns"], "article_id"=>1234807, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Benjamin Blonder", "Lindsey Sloat", "Brian J. Enquist", "Brian McGill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>20, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Central_moments_of_the_species_abundance_distribution_for_log_transformed_data_/1234807", "title"=>"Central moments of the species-abundance distribution for log-transformed data.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:32:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786411"], "description"=>"<p>Line colors are described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850#pone-0112850-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macroecological theory", "Geological Systems Theories", "Macroecological Pattern", "biodiversity rest", "biodiversity theory", "United States", "species abundance", "macroecological patterns"], "article_id"=>1234808, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Benjamin Blonder", "Lindsey Sloat", "Brian J. Enquist", "Brian McGill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_species_area_relationship_distinguishes_ecological_datasets_at_large_scales_/1234808", "title"=>"The species-area relationship distinguishes ecological datasets at large scales.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:32:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786424"], "description"=>"<div><p>Theories of biodiversity rest on several macroecological patterns describing the relationship between species abundance and diversity. A central problem is that all theories make similar predictions for these patterns despite disparate assumptions. A troubling implication is that these patterns may not reflect anything unique about organizational principles of biology or the functioning of ecological systems. To test this, we analyze five datasets from ecological, economic, and geological systems that describe the distribution of objects across categories in the United States. At the level of functional form (‘first-order effects’), these patterns are not unique to ecological systems, indicating they may reveal little about biological process. However, we show that mechanism can be better revealed in the scale-dependency of first-order patterns (‘second-order effects’). These results provide a roadmap for biodiversity theory to move beyond traditional patterns, and also suggest ways in which macroecological theory can constrain the dynamics of economic systems.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macroecological theory", "Geological Systems Theories", "Macroecological Pattern", "biodiversity rest", "biodiversity theory", "United States", "species abundance", "macroecological patterns"], "article_id"=>1234821, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Benjamin Blonder", "Lindsey Sloat", "Brian J. Enquist", "Brian McGill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>7, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Separating_Macroecological_Pattern_and_Process_Comparing_Ecological_Economic_and_Geological_Systems_/1234821", "title"=>"Separating Macroecological Pattern and Process: Comparing Ecological, Economic, and Geological Systems", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:32:27"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1786408"], "description"=>"<p>Left column, site locations for each dataset (colored as described in <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850#pone-0112850-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>). Site brightness is proportional to richness. Right column, relative abundance distribution for log-transformed abundance data at full scale (a first-order effect). All datasets are shown with the same axes.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["macroecological theory", "Geological Systems Theories", "Macroecological Pattern", "biodiversity rest", "biodiversity theory", "United States", "species abundance", "macroecological patterns"], "article_id"=>1234806, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Benjamin Blonder", "Lindsey Sloat", "Brian J. Enquist", "Brian McGill"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112850.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_objects_across_categories_and_space_/1234806", "title"=>"Distribution of objects across categories and space.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-10 03:32:27"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"2", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"0", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"4", "full-text"=>"5", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"8", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"2", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"3", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"7", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Ecology", "average_usage"=>[313]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places", "average_usage"=>[302]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Social sciences", "average_usage"=>[318]}]}
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