A Challenge for the Seed Mixture Refuge Strategy in Bt Maize: Impact of Cross-Pollination on an Ear-Feeding Pest, Corn Earworm
Events
Loading … Spinner

Mendeley | Further Information

{"title"=>"A Challenge for the Seed Mixture Refuge Strategy in Bt Maize: Impact of Cross-Pollination on an Ear-Feeding Pest, Corn Earworm", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Fei", "last_name"=>"Yang"}, {"first_name"=>"David L.", "last_name"=>"Kerns"}, {"first_name"=>"Graham P.", "last_name"=>"Head"}, {"first_name"=>"B. Rogers", "last_name"=>"Leonard"}, {"first_name"=>"Ronnie", "last_name"=>"Levy"}, {"first_name"=>"Ying", "last_name"=>"Niu"}, {"first_name"=>"Fangneng", "last_name"=>"Huang"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84914680434", "sgr"=>"84914680434", "issn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0112962", "pmid"=>"25409442", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "pui"=>"600653247"}, "id"=>"edbc79b0-4f65-38ef-b38a-13b7e3dbb8ce", "abstract"=>"To counter the threat of insect resistance, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize growers in the U.S. are required to plant structured non-Bt maize refuges. Concerns with refuge compliance led to the introduction of seed mixtures, also called RIB (refuge-in-the-bag), as an alternative approach for implementing refuge for Bt maize products in the U.S. Maize Belt. A major concern in RIB is cross-pollination of maize hybrids that can cause Bt proteins to be present in refuge maize kernels and negatively affect refuge insects. Here we show that a mixed planting of 5% nonBt and 95% Bt maize containing the SmartStax traits expressing Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2 and Cry1F did not provide an effective refuge for an important above-ground ear-feeding pest, the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie). Cross-pollination in RIB caused a majority (>90%) of refuge kernels to express >/= one Bt protein. The contamination of Bt proteins in the refuge ears reduced neonate-to-adult survivorship of H. zea to only 4.6%, a reduction of 88.1% relative to larvae feeding on ears of pure non-Bt maize plantings. In addition, the limited survivors on refuge ears had lower pupal mass and took longer to develop to adults.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/challenge-seed-mixture-refuge-strategy-bt-maize-impact-crosspollination-earfeeding-pest-corn-earworm", "reader_count"=>24, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>3, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>7, "Other"=>1, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>5}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>3, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>17}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>2, "India"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

{"@_fa"=>"true", "link"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"self", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84914680434"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"author-affiliation", "@href"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84914680434?field=author,affiliation"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/record.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84914680434&origin=inward"}, {"@_fa"=>"true", "@ref"=>"scopus-citedby", "@href"=>"https://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.uri?partnerID=HzOxMe3b&scp=84914680434&origin=inward"}], "prism:url"=>"https://api.elsevier.com/content/abstract/scopus_id/84914680434", "dc:identifier"=>"SCOPUS_ID:84914680434", "eid"=>"2-s2.0-84914680434", "dc:title"=>"A challenge for the seed mixture refuge strategy in Bt maize: Impact of cross-pollination on an ear-feeding pest, corn earworm", "dc:creator"=>"Yang F.", "prism:publicationName"=>"PLoS ONE", "prism:eIssn"=>"19326203", "prism:volume"=>"9", "prism:issueIdentifier"=>"11", "prism:pageRange"=>nil, "prism:coverDate"=>"2014-11-19", "prism:coverDisplayDate"=>"19 November 2014", "prism:doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0112962", "citedby-count"=>"36", "affiliation"=>[{"@_fa"=>"true", "affilname"=>"LSU Agricultural Center", "affiliation-city"=>"Baton Rouge", "affiliation-country"=>"United States"}], "pubmed-id"=>"25409442", "prism:aggregationType"=>"Journal", "subtype"=>"ar", "subtypeDescription"=>"Article", "article-number"=>"e112962", "source-id"=>"10600153309", "openaccess"=>"1", "openaccessFlag"=>true}

Facebook

  • {"url"=>"http%3A%2F%2Fjournals.plos.org%2Fplosone%2Farticle%3Fid%3D10.1371%252Fjournal.pone.0112962", "share_count"=>1, "like_count"=>0, "comment_count"=>0, "click_count"=>0, "total_count"=>1}

Counter

  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"40", "xml_views"=>"6", "html_views"=>"127"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2014", "pdf_views"=>"31", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"135"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"71"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"87"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"48"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"47"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"10", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"29"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"30"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"53"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2015", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"22"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"38"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"28"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"19"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"34"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2016", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"25"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"52"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"31"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"39"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"20"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"27"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"33"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"59"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2017", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"2", "html_views"=>"24"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"14"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"7", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"3", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"3", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"1", "html_views"=>"16"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2018", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"9"}
  • {"month"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"12"}
  • {"month"=>"2", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"6", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"13"}
  • {"month"=>"3", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"9", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"7"}
  • {"month"=>"4", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"8", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"5", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"5", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"6", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"1", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"6"}
  • {"month"=>"7", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"11", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"18"}
  • {"month"=>"8", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"16", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"11"}
  • {"month"=>"9", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"2", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"10"}
  • {"month"=>"10", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"14", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"21"}
  • {"month"=>"11", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"13", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"23"}
  • {"month"=>"12", "year"=>"2019", "pdf_views"=>"4", "xml_views"=>"0", "html_views"=>"5"}

Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933523"], "description"=>"<p>Detailed data are reported in Table S2. Pure Bt: pure Bt maize planting; Pure non-Bt: pure non-Bt maize planting; RIB refuge: the refuge plants in the RIB planting; A1-Bt: the Bt plants immediately adjacent and within the same row as the refuge plant in RIB planting; A3-Bt: the 3<sup>rd</sup> Bt plants on both sides of the refuge plant in the same row in RIB planting, and B-Bt: the closest Bt plants on both sides of the refuge plant in the two adjacent rows in RIB planting. Insect development was converted to development index: 1 = 1<sup>st</sup> instar, 2 = 2<sup>nd</sup> instar, …, 6 = 6<sup>th</sup> instar, 7 = pupal stage. Sample size for measuring survivorship was 240 larvae for RIB and 120 larvae for pure Bt and pure non-Bt. Sample size for determining larval development on pure non-Bt and RIB refuge was 55–150 larvae and on Bt plants was 1–13 larvae. Mean values within an observation time followed by a different letter were significantly different (Tukey’s HSD test, α = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["refuge maize kernels", "rib", "Bt proteins", "refuge ears", "Seed Mixture Refuge Strategy", "Bt maize products", "1f", "Cry 1A Cry 2Ab", "U.S"], "article_id"=>1324320, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fei Yang", "David L. Kerns", "Graham P. Head", "B. Rogers Leonard", "Ronnie Levy", "Ying Niu", "Fangneng Huang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_In_field_observation_on_survivorship_A_and_development_B_of_H_zea_on_ears_of_SmartStax_Bt_and_non_Bt_maize_plants_in_three_planting_patterns_/1324320", "title"=>"In-field observation on survivorship (A), and development (B) of <i>H. zea</i> on ears of SmartStax Bt and non-Bt maize plants in three planting patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 21:28:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933532", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933533", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933534", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933535", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933536", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933537", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933538"], "description"=>"<div><p>To counter the threat of insect resistance, <i>Bacillus thuringiensis</i> (Bt) maize growers in the U.S. are required to plant structured non-Bt maize refuges. Concerns with refuge compliance led to the introduction of seed mixtures, also called RIB (refuge-in-the-bag), as an alternative approach for implementing refuge for Bt maize products in the U.S. Maize Belt. A major concern in RIB is cross-pollination of maize hybrids that can cause Bt proteins to be present in refuge maize kernels and negatively affect refuge insects. Here we show that a mixed planting of 5% nonBt and 95% Bt maize containing the SmartStax traits expressing Cry1A.105, Cry2Ab2 and Cry1F did not provide an effective refuge for an important above-ground ear-feeding pest, the corn earworm, <i>Helicoverpa zea</i> (Boddie). Cross-pollination in RIB caused a majority (>90%) of refuge kernels to express ≥ one Bt protein. The contamination of Bt proteins in the refuge ears reduced neonate-to-adult survivorship of <i>H. zea</i> to only 4.6%, a reduction of 88.1% relative to larvae feeding on ears of pure non-Bt maize plantings. In addition, the limited survivors on refuge ears had lower pupal mass and took longer to develop to adults.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["refuge maize kernels", "rib", "Bt proteins", "refuge ears", "Seed Mixture Refuge Strategy", "Bt maize products", "1f", "Cry 1A Cry 2Ab", "U.S"], "article_id"=>1324329, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fei Yang", "David L. Kerns", "Graham P. Head", "B. Rogers Leonard", "Ronnie Levy", "Ying Niu", "Fangneng Huang"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.s007"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>33, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_A_Challenge_for_the_Seed_Mixture_Refuge_Strategy_in_Bt_Maize_Impact_of_Cross_Pollination_on_an_Ear_Feeding_Pest_Corn_Earworm_/1324329", "title"=>"A Challenge for the Seed Mixture Refuge Strategy in Bt Maize: Impact of Cross-Pollination on an Ear-Feeding Pest, Corn Earworm", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 21:28:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933526"], "description"=>"<p>Detailed data are reported in (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962#pone.0112962.s005\" target=\"_blank\">Table S3</a>–<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962#pone.0112962.s006\" target=\"_blank\">S4</a>). Pure Bt: pure Bt maize planting; Pure non-Bt: pure non-Bt maize planting; RIB refuge: the refuge plants in the RIB planting; A1-Bt: the Bt plants immediately adjacent and within the same row as the refuge plant in RIB planting; A3-Bt: the 3<sup>rd</sup> Bt plants on both sides of the refuge plant in the same row in RIB planting, and B-Bt: the closest Bt plants on both sides of the refuge plant in the two adjacent rows in RIB planting. Insect development was converted to development index: 1 = 1<sup>st</sup> instar, 2 = 2<sup>nd</sup> instar, …, 6 = 6<sup>th</sup> instar, 7 = pupal stage. NTP: neonate-to-pupa; NTA: neonate-to-adult. Means were calculated based on four independent assays (treated as a random factor). Sample size for each treatment mean was based on 300 larvae for measuring survivorship. Sample size for determining larval development was 122–239 larvae for pure non-Bt and RIB refuge, and 1–19 larvae for Bt plants. Mean values within an observation time followed by a different letter were significantly different (Tukey’s HSD test, α = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["refuge maize kernels", "rib", "Bt proteins", "refuge ears", "Seed Mixture Refuge Strategy", "Bt maize products", "1f", "Cry 1A Cry 2Ab", "U.S"], "article_id"=>1324323, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fei Yang", "David L. Kerns", "Graham P. Head", "B. Rogers Leonard", "Ronnie Levy", "Ying Niu", "Fangneng Huang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Lab_assay_on_survivorship_A_development_B_and_development_duration_C_of_H_zea_on_ears_of_SmartStax_Bt_and_non_Bt_maize_plants_in_three_planting_patterns_/1324323", "title"=>"Lab assay on survivorship (A), development (B), and development duration (C) of <i>H. zea</i> on ears of SmartStax Bt and non-Bt maize plants in three planting patterns.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 21:28:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933528"], "description"=>"<p>Pure non-Bt: pure non-Bt maize planting; and RIB refuge: the refuge plants in the RIB planting. Insect development was converted to development index: 1 = 1<sup>st</sup> instar, 2 = 2<sup>nd</sup> instar, …, 6 = 6<sup>th</sup> instar, 7 = pupal stage. PS: pupal stage; AS: adult stage. 0 d = the day that ears were sampled from fields. Means were calculated based on three independent assays (treated as a random factor). Sample size for each treatment mean was 160 ears for larval occurrence. Sample size for determining larval development was 104–479 larvae. Mean values within an observation time followed by a different letter were significantly different (Tukey’s HSD test, α = 0.05).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["refuge maize kernels", "rib", "Bt proteins", "refuge ears", "Seed Mixture Refuge Strategy", "Bt maize products", "1f", "Cry 1A Cry 2Ab", "U.S"], "article_id"=>1324325, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fei Yang", "David L. Kerns", "Graham P. Head", "B. Rogers Leonard", "Ronnie Levy", "Ying Niu", "Fangneng Huang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Field_plus_lab_assay_on_occurrence_A_and_development_B_of_H_zea_on_ears_of_RIB_refuge_and_pure_non_Bt_plants_/1324325", "title"=>"Field-plus-lab assay on occurrence (A), and development (B) of <i>H. zea</i> on ears of RIB refuge and pure non-Bt plants.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 21:28:43"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1933529"], "description"=>"<p>*Means in the table were overall means across three trials (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962#pone.0112962.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>). In each field trial, 5 individual kernels per ear with 10 ears were examined for ears of pure Bt maize plantings (Pure Bt); 25 kernels per ear with 10 ears were tested for ears of pure non-Bt maize plantings (pure non-Bt); and for refuge ears in RIB (RIB refuge), 5 individual kernels per ear with 13 ears were assayed.</p>s<p>Observed frequencies do not fit the assumption of independent segregation in χ<sup>2</sup>-tests (<i>P</i><0.05) (<a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962#pone.0112962.s003\" target=\"_blank\">Table S1</a>).</p><p>Percentage of individual kernels expressing Bt proteins in SmartStax maize in pure Bt, pure non-Bt, and RIB plantings<sup><a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962#nt101\" target=\"_blank\">*</a></sup>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["refuge maize kernels", "rib", "Bt proteins", "refuge ears", "Seed Mixture Refuge Strategy", "Bt maize products", "1f", "Cry 1A Cry 2Ab", "U.S"], "article_id"=>1324326, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Fei Yang", "David L. Kerns", "Graham P. Head", "B. Rogers Leonard", "Ronnie Levy", "Ying Niu", "Fangneng Huang"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112962.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Percentage_of_individual_kernels_expressing_Bt_proteins_in_SmartStax_maize_in_pure_Bt_pure_non_Bt_and_RIB_plantings_/1324326", "title"=>"Percentage of individual kernels expressing Bt proteins in SmartStax maize in pure Bt, pure non-Bt, and RIB plantings<sup>*</sup>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 21:28:43"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"8", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"28", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"5", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"5", "full-text"=>"3", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"27", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"13", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"22", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"4", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"5", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"21", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"1", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"6", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"14", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"10"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Agriculture", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Molecular biology", "average_usage"=>[292, 461]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Plant science", "average_usage"=>[278, 438]}]}
Loading … Spinner
There are currently no alerts