Inhibition of Personally-Relevant Angry Faces Moderates the Effect of Empathy on Interpersonal Functioning
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{"title"=>"Inhibition of personally-relevant angry faces moderates the effect of empathy on interpersonal functioning", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Vanessa", "last_name"=>"Iacono", "scopus_author_id"=>"56524271100"}, {"first_name"=>"Mark A.", "last_name"=>"Ellenbogen", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602192966"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexa L.", "last_name"=>"Wilson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56523749600"}, {"first_name"=>"Philip", "last_name"=>"Desormeau", "scopus_author_id"=>"56524538200"}, {"first_name"=>"Rami", "last_name"=>"Nijjar", "scopus_author_id"=>"56081156100"}], "year"=>2015, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84923250513", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0112990", "pui"=>"602421529", "pmid"=>"25695426", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84923250513", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"d234b41a-730b-31d8-bc99-cf632e14055c", "abstract"=>"While empathy is typically assumed to promote effective social interactions, it can sometimes be detrimental when it is unrestrained and overgeneralized. The present study explored whether cognitive inhibition would moderate the effect of empathy on social functioning. Eighty healthy young adults underwent two assessments six months apart. Participants' ability to suppress interference from distracting emotional stimuli was assessed using a Negative Affective Priming Task that included both generic and personally-relevant (i.e., participants' intimate partners) facial expressions of emotion. The UCLA Life Stress Interview and Empathy Quotient were administered to measure interpersonal functioning and empathy respectively. Multilevel modeling demonstrated that higher empathy was associated with worse concurrent interpersonal outcomes for individuals who showed weak inhibition of the personally-relevant depictions of anger. The effect of empathy on social functioning might be dependent on individuals' ability to suppress interference from meaningful emotional distractors in their environment.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/inhibition-personallyrelevant-angry-faces-moderates-effect-empathy-interpersonal-functioning", "reader_count"=>9, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>1, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>2, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>1, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Psychology"=>6, "Social Sciences"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>6}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Switzerland"=>1}, "group_count"=>0}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1912070"], "description"=>"<p>Target (white frame) and distractor (black frame) stimuli were presented simultaneously at either the top or the bottom of the screen and were preceded by the presentation of a centered fixation cross (1000 ms). Each paired trial consisted of a “test” presentation (columns 2 and 4) preceded by a “prime” presentation (columns 1 and 3). If the emotional expression of the distractor stimulus presented during the prime presentation (sad; top column 1) became the target emotional stimulus on the following test presentation (sad; top column 2), the trial was considered to be negatively primed. If both the target and distractor stimuli in the preceding prime presentation (happy; column 3) differed in emotional content from the target stimulus on the test presentation (sad; top column 4), the trial was regarded as a control. The design of the NAP task was identical for both the personally-relevant and generic stimuli. Note that publication restrictions prevent us from showing the actual visual stimuli used in this study.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Interpersonal Functioning", "interference", "Multilevel modeling", "ability", "Faces Moderates", "inhibition", "empathy", "individual", "empathy quotient", "Negative Affective Priming Task", "UCLA Life Stress Interview"], "article_id"=>1313297, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vanessa Iacono", "Mark A. Ellenbogen", "Alexa L. Wilson", "Philip Desormeau", "Rami Nijjar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112990.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>31, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_NAP_task_was_designed_to_assess_participants_8217_ability_to_inhibit_generic_and_personally_relevant_facial_stimuli_depicting_sad_happy_and_angry_emotional_expressions_/1313297", "title"=>"The NAP task was designed to assess participants’ ability to inhibit generic and personally-relevant facial stimuli depicting sad, happy, and angry emotional expressions.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-19 03:09:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1912071"], "description"=>"<p>Index of inhibition scores were computed by subtracting mean reaction time on matched control test trials from mean reaction time on matched negative priming test trials. Errors bars represent standard errors.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Interpersonal Functioning", "interference", "Multilevel modeling", "ability", "Faces Moderates", "inhibition", "empathy", "individual", "empathy quotient", "Negative Affective Priming Task", "UCLA Life Stress Interview"], "article_id"=>1313298, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vanessa Iacono", "Mark A. Ellenbogen", "Alexa L. Wilson", "Philip Desormeau", "Rami Nijjar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112990.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_inhibition_index_scores_for_sad_happy_and_angry_facial_stimuli_reported_by_measurement_occasion_in_milliseconds_/1313298", "title"=>"Mean inhibition index scores for sad, happy, and angry facial stimuli reported by measurement occasion in milliseconds.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-19 03:09:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1912072"], "description"=>"<p>Note that higher interpersonal functioning scores indicate greater social impairment. For individuals who showed weak inhibition of the distracting angry face of their partner, elevated levels of empathy were associated with poor interpersonal outcomes (<i>b</i> = .057, <i>p</i> = .019). Conversely, for those who showed strong inhibition of the distracting angry face of their partner, high empathy was associated with positive interpersonal outcomes, but the slope was not statistically different from zero (<i>b</i> = -.061, <i>p</i> = .15).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Interpersonal Functioning", "interference", "Multilevel modeling", "ability", "Faces Moderates", "inhibition", "empathy", "individual", "empathy quotient", "Negative Affective Priming Task", "UCLA Life Stress Interview"], "article_id"=>1313299, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vanessa Iacono", "Mark A. Ellenbogen", "Alexa L. Wilson", "Philip Desormeau", "Rami Nijjar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112990.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>30, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Simple_slopes_depicting_the_relation_between_empathy_and_interpersonal_functioning_at_time_1_for_individuals_who_inhibited_1_SD_above_the_mean_the_distracting_personally_relevant_facial_expressions_of_anger_and_those_who_did_not_1_SD_below_the_mean_/1313299", "title"=>"Simple slopes depicting the relation between empathy and interpersonal functioning at time 1 for individuals who inhibited (1 SD above the mean) the distracting personally-relevant facial expressions of anger and those who did not (1 SD below the mean).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2015-02-19 03:09:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1912073"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. In these analyses, the intercept represented participants’ social functioning at time 1.</p><p><sup>a</sup> Slope was set as fixed at Step 3 due to non-significant change in model fit at Step 2. Predictors, added at Step 3, were used to explain between-subject variability in the intercept only.</p><p><sup>b</sup> Three models, distinguished by type of emotional stimulus, were run at Step 3. Within each model, variables were entered hierarchically (1- covariates, 2—main effects, 3—interaction effects).</p><p>EQ = empathy quotient; PR = personally-relevant; G = generic.</p><p><i>* p</i> < .05</p><p>** Increase in model fit was statistically significant (<i>p</i> < .05) based on chi-square test of deviances.</p><p>Summary of linear mixed modeling results for predictors of the quality of participants’ social functioning.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Interpersonal Functioning", "interference", "Multilevel modeling", "ability", "Faces Moderates", "inhibition", "empathy", "individual", "empathy quotient", "Negative Affective Priming Task", "UCLA Life Stress Interview"], "article_id"=>1313300, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vanessa Iacono", "Mark A. Ellenbogen", "Alexa L. Wilson", "Philip Desormeau", "Rami Nijjar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112990.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_linear_mixed_modeling_results_for_predictors_of_the_quality_of_participants_8217_social_functioning_/1313300", "title"=>"Summary of linear mixed modeling results for predictors of the quality of participants’ social functioning.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-19 03:09:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1912074"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. <sup>a</sup><i>n</i> = 79</p><p><sup>b</sup><i>n</i> = 67</p><p>Mean RTs (ms) are shown with standard deviations in parentheses</p><p>Response times (RTs) to negative priming and control test trials for generic and personally-relevant angry, sad and happy pictures in milliseconds at baseline and six months later.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Interpersonal Functioning", "interference", "Multilevel modeling", "ability", "Faces Moderates", "inhibition", "empathy", "individual", "empathy quotient", "Negative Affective Priming Task", "UCLA Life Stress Interview"], "article_id"=>1313301, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vanessa Iacono", "Mark A. Ellenbogen", "Alexa L. Wilson", "Philip Desormeau", "Rami Nijjar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112990.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Response_times_RTs_to_negative_priming_and_control_test_trials_for_generic_and_personally_relevant_angry_sad_and_happy_pictures_in_milliseconds_at_baseline_and_six_months_later_/1313301", "title"=>"Response times (RTs) to negative priming and control test trials for generic and personally-relevant angry, sad and happy pictures in milliseconds at baseline and six months later.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-19 03:09:38"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1912075"], "description"=>"<p><i>Note</i>. Because predictor variables failed to account for <i>change</i> in participants’ social functioning scores over the two assessment periods (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0112990#pone.0112990.t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a> for multilevel analyses), hierarchical multiple regression was used to prospectively predict social functioning at the six-month follow-up from time 1 inhibition and empathy scores.</p><p>EQ = empathy quotient; PR = personally-relevant; G = generic.</p><p><i>* p</i> < .05</p><p>Hierarchical multiple regression analyses using empathy and inhibition index scores by type of facial stimulus (measured at time 1) to prospectively predict the quality of participants’ social functioning at the six-month follow-up.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Interpersonal Functioning", "interference", "Multilevel modeling", "ability", "Faces Moderates", "inhibition", "empathy", "individual", "empathy quotient", "Negative Affective Priming Task", "UCLA Life Stress Interview"], "article_id"=>1313302, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Vanessa Iacono", "Mark A. Ellenbogen", "Alexa L. Wilson", "Philip Desormeau", "Rami Nijjar"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112990.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hierarchical_multiple_regression_analyses_using_empathy_and_inhibition_index_scores_by_type_of_facial_stimulus_measured_at_time_1_to_prospectively_predict_the_quality_of_participants_8217_social_functioning_at_the_six_month_follow_up_/1313302", "title"=>"Hierarchical multiple regression analyses using empathy and inhibition index scores by type of facial stimulus (measured at time 1) to prospectively predict the quality of participants’ social functioning at the six-month follow-up.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2015-02-19 03:09:38"}

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2015-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2015-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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