Antibiotic Exposure in a Low-Income Country: Screening Urine Samples for Presence of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Contaminants
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{"title"=>"Antibiotic exposure in a low-income country: Screening urine samples for presence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance in coagulase negative staphylococcal contaminants", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Anne Mette", "last_name"=>"Lerbech", "scopus_author_id"=>"56437649100"}, {"first_name"=>"Japheth A.", "last_name"=>"Opintan", "scopus_author_id"=>"23006235800"}, {"first_name"=>"Samuel Oppong", "last_name"=>"Bekoe", "scopus_author_id"=>"56271732600"}, {"first_name"=>"Mary Anne", "last_name"=>"Ahiabu", "scopus_author_id"=>"56437742300"}, {"first_name"=>"Britt Pinkowski", "last_name"=>"Tersbøl", "scopus_author_id"=>"14025191700"}, {"first_name"=>"Martin", "last_name"=>"Hansen", "scopus_author_id"=>"8060261700"}, {"first_name"=>"Kennedy T.C.", "last_name"=>"Brightson", "scopus_author_id"=>"56437653600"}, {"first_name"=>"Samuel", "last_name"=>"Ametepeh", "scopus_author_id"=>"56437711100"}, {"first_name"=>"Niels", "last_name"=>"Frimodt-Møller", "scopus_author_id"=>"7006268015"}, {"first_name"=>"Bjarne", "last_name"=>"Styrishave", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602599170"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pmid"=>"25462162", "sgr"=>"84914696635", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0113055", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84914696635", "pui"=>"600627202", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"356050a9-f595-3692-8153-6649c7f9278f", "abstract"=>"Development of antimicrobial resistance has been assigned to excess and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Staphylococci are part of the normal flora but are also potential pathogens that have become essentially resistant to many known antibiotics. Resistances in coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are suggested to evolve due to positive selective pressure following antibiotic treatment. This study investigated the presence of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in human urine from outpatients in two hospitals in Ghana in relation to CoNS resistance. Urine and CoNS were sampled (n = 246 and n = 96 respectively) from patients in two hospitals in Ghana. CoNS were identified using Gram staining, coagulase test, and MALDI-TOF/MS, and the antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion. Moreover an analytical method was developed for the determination of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in Ghana by using solid-phase extraction in combination with HPLC-MS/MS using electron spray ionization. The highest frequency of resistance to CoNS was observed for penicillin V (98%), trimethoprim (67%), and tetracycline (63%). S. haemolyticus was the most common isolate (75%), followed by S. epidermidis (13%) and S. hominis (6%). S. haemolyticus was also the species displaying the highest resistance prevalence (82%). 69% of the isolated CoNS were multiple drug resistant (>== 4 antibiotics) and 45% of the CoNS were methicillin resistant. Antimicrobial agents were detected in 64% of the analysed urine samples (n = 121) where the most frequently detected antimicrobials were ciprofloxacin (30%), trimethoprim (27%), and metronidazole (17%). The major findings of this study was that the prevalence of detected antimicrobials in urine was more frequent than the use reported by the patients and the prevalence of resistant S. haemolyticus was more frequent than other resistant CoNS species when antimicrobial agents were detected in the urine.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/antibiotic-exposure-lowincome-country-screening-urine-samples-presence-antibiotics-antibiotic-resist", "reader_count"=>51, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>9, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>3, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>9, "Student > Postgraduate"=>7, "Student > Master"=>6, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>7, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Engineering"=>2, "Unspecified"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>4, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>15, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Chemistry"=>4, "Psychology"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>1, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>15}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>4}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>1}, "Immunology and Microbiology"=>{"Immunology and Microbiology"=>4}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>12}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>4}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Mozambique"=>1, "Denmark"=>2, "Ghana"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813722"], "description"=>"<p>Prevalence of staphylococci isolated from urine samples (n = 96).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urine", "resistance", "Staphylococcal Contaminants Development", "antimicrobial agents", "electron spray ionization", "cons", "Screening Urine Samples"], "article_id"=>1257318, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anne Mette Lerbech", "Japheth A. Opintan", "Samuel Oppong Bekoe", "Mary-Anne Ahiabu", "Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl", "Martin Hansen", "Kennedy T. C. Brightson", "Samuel Ametepeh", "Niels Frimodt-Møller", "Bjarne Styrishave"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113055.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>18, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_of_staphylococci_isolated_from_urine_samples_n_8202_8202_96_/1257318", "title"=>"Prevalence of staphylococci isolated from urine samples (n = 96).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:33:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813733"], "description"=>"<p>A: Percentage of patients relative to the number of antibiotics to which isolates exhibited resistance (n = 84). B: Percentage of patients (n = 121) relative to the number of antimicrobial agents found in patient's urine (red bars, n = 155) and the number of antibiotic claimed to be taken by patients (orange bars, n = 25).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urine", "resistance", "Staphylococcal Contaminants Development", "antimicrobial agents", "electron spray ionization", "cons", "Screening Urine Samples"], "article_id"=>1257328, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anne Mette Lerbech", "Japheth A. Opintan", "Samuel Oppong Bekoe", "Mary-Anne Ahiabu", "Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl", "Martin Hansen", "Kennedy T. C. Brightson", "Samuel Ametepeh", "Niels Frimodt-Møller", "Bjarne Styrishave"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113055.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Antibiotics_in_patients_/1257328", "title"=>"Antibiotics in patients.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:33:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813728"], "description"=>"<p>A: Percentage resistant <i>S. haemolyticus</i> (red bars, n = 72), <i>S. epidermidis</i> (orange bars, n = 12), and other staphylococcal species (green bares, n = 12) to each tested antibiotics. B: Percentage methicillin-resistant CoNS (MRCoNS; red bars, n = 43) and methicillin-susceptible CoNS (MSCoNS; orange bars, n = 53).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urine", "resistance", "Staphylococcal Contaminants Development", "antimicrobial agents", "electron spray ionization", "cons", "Screening Urine Samples"], "article_id"=>1257323, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anne Mette Lerbech", "Japheth A. Opintan", "Samuel Oppong Bekoe", "Mary-Anne Ahiabu", "Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl", "Martin Hansen", "Kennedy T. C. Brightson", "Samuel Ametepeh", "Niels Frimodt-Møller", "Bjarne Styrishave"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113055.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Prevalence_of_resistant_CoNS_isolated_from_urine_samples_n_8202_8202_96_/1257323", "title"=>"Prevalence of resistant CoNS isolated from urine samples (n = 96).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:33:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813746", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813747", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813748", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813749"], "description"=>"<div><p>Development of antimicrobial resistance has been assigned to excess and misuse of antimicrobial agents. Staphylococci are part of the normal flora but are also potential pathogens that have become essentially resistant to many known antibiotics. Resistances in coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS) are suggested to evolve due to positive selective pressure following antibiotic treatment. This study investigated the presence of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in human urine from outpatients in two hospitals in Ghana in relation to CoNS resistance. Urine and CoNS were sampled (n = 246 and n = 96 respectively) from patients in two hospitals in Ghana. CoNS were identified using Gram staining, coagulase test, and MALDI-TOF/MS, and the antimicrobial susceptibility to 12 commonly used antimicrobials was determined by disk diffusion. Moreover an analytical method was developed for the determination of the nine most commonly used antimicrobial agents in Ghana by using solid-phase extraction in combination with HPLC-MS/MS using electron spray ionization. The highest frequency of resistance to CoNS was observed for penicillin V (98%), trimethoprim (67%), and tetracycline (63%). <i>S. haemolyticus</i> was the most common isolate (75%), followed by <i>S. epidermidis</i> (13%) and <i>S. hominis</i> (6%). <i>S. haemolyticus</i> was also the species displaying the highest resistance prevalence (82%). 69% of the isolated CoNS were multiple drug resistant (≧4 antibiotics) and 45% of the CoNS were methicillin resistant. Antimicrobial agents were detected in 64% of the analysed urine samples (n = 121) where the most frequently detected antimicrobials were ciprofloxacin (30%), trimethoprim (27%), and metronidazole (17%). The major findings of this study was that the prevalence of detected antimicrobials in urine was more frequent than the use reported by the patients and the prevalence of resistant <i>S. haemolyticus</i> was more frequent than other resistant CoNS species when antimicrobial agents were detected in the urine.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urine", "resistance", "Staphylococcal Contaminants Development", "antimicrobial agents", "electron spray ionization", "cons", "Screening Urine Samples"], "article_id"=>1257336, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anne Mette Lerbech", "Japheth A. Opintan", "Samuel Oppong Bekoe", "Mary-Anne Ahiabu", "Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl", "Martin Hansen", "Kennedy T. C. Brightson", "Samuel Ametepeh", "Niels Frimodt-Møller", "Bjarne Styrishave"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113055.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113055.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113055.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113055.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Antibiotic_Exposure_in_a_Low_Income_Country_Screening_Urine_Samples_for_Presence_of_Antibiotics_and_Antibiotic_Resistance_in_Coagulase_Negative_Staphylococcal_Contaminants_/1257336", "title"=>"Antibiotic Exposure in a Low-Income Country: Screening Urine Samples for Presence of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance in Coagulase Negative Staphylococcal Contaminants", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:33:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813737"], "description"=>"<p>For patients with isolated CoNS, antibiotics were detected in 55 out of 83 samples. For patients with no CoNS isolates, 22 out of 38 urine samples contained antibiotics. The distribution of staphylococcal species, number of staphylococcal isolates and their antibiotic-resistance (R) and antibiotic-susceptibility (I+S), are shown in relation to the samples where antibiotics were detected and samples where no antibiotics were detected. *: Significant differences in resistance between <i>S. haemolyticus</i> and non-<i>S</i>. <i>haemolyticus</i> (p = 0.0063).</p><p>Summary of the microbial and chemical results. 96 species were isolated from 85 patients of which 83 samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urine", "resistance", "Staphylococcal Contaminants Development", "antimicrobial agents", "electron spray ionization", "cons", "Screening Urine Samples"], "article_id"=>1257331, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anne Mette Lerbech", "Japheth A. Opintan", "Samuel Oppong Bekoe", "Mary-Anne Ahiabu", "Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl", "Martin Hansen", "Kennedy T. C. Brightson", "Samuel Ametepeh", "Niels Frimodt-Møller", "Bjarne Styrishave"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113055.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_the_microbial_and_chemical_results_96_species_were_isolated_from_85_patients_of_which_83_samples_were_analysed_by_LC_MS_MS_/1257331", "title"=>"Summary of the microbial and chemical results. 96 species were isolated from 85 patients of which 83 samples were analysed by LC-MS/MS.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:33:14"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1813735"], "description"=>"<p>In total, the 9 antimicrobials were detected 112 times in patients from whom CoNS were isolated (n = 83) and 43 times in patients from whom no CoNS were isolated (n = 38). Also shown are the minimum, maximum, and median concentrations (ng/mL) of the antimicrobial agents. For patients with isolated CoNS, antimicrobial agents were detected in 55 of the 83 samples. For patients from whom no CoNS were isolated, 22 of the 38 urine samples contained antimicrobial agents. </p><p>Occurrence of antimicrobial agents in urine collected from patients from KBTH in Accra and SODH in Dodowa.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["urine", "resistance", "Staphylococcal Contaminants Development", "antimicrobial agents", "electron spray ionization", "cons", "Screening Urine Samples"], "article_id"=>1257330, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Anne Mette Lerbech", "Japheth A. Opintan", "Samuel Oppong Bekoe", "Mary-Anne Ahiabu", "Britt Pinkowski Tersbøl", "Martin Hansen", "Kennedy T. C. Brightson", "Samuel Ametepeh", "Niels Frimodt-Møller", "Bjarne Styrishave"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113055.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Occurrence_of_antimicrobial_agents_in_urine_collected_from_patients_from_KBTH_in_Accra_and_SODH_in_Dodowa_/1257330", "title"=>"Occurrence of antimicrobial agents in urine collected from patients from KBTH in Accra and SODH in Dodowa.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-02 03:33:14"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Anatomy", "average_usage"=>[267]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Microbiology", "average_usage"=>[317]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences", "average_usage"=>[285]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pathology and laboratory medicine", "average_usage"=>[287]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Medicine and health sciences/Pharmacology", "average_usage"=>[286]}]}
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