Comparative Study on Plant Latex Particles and Latex Coagulation in Ficus benjamina, Campanula glomerata and Three Euphorbia species
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{"title"=>"Comparative study on plant latex particles and latex coagulation in ficus benjamina, campanula glomerata and three euphorbia species", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Georg", "last_name"=>"Bauer", "scopus_author_id"=>"7402067591"}, {"first_name"=>"Stanislav N.", "last_name"=>"Gorb", "scopus_author_id"=>"56962771500"}, {"first_name"=>"Marie Christin", "last_name"=>"Klein", "scopus_author_id"=>"36157939700"}, {"first_name"=>"Anke", "last_name"=>"Nellesen", "scopus_author_id"=>"36665012200"}, {"first_name"=>"Max", "last_name"=>"Von Tapavicza", "scopus_author_id"=>"36665430000"}, {"first_name"=>"Thomas", "last_name"=>"Speck", "scopus_author_id"=>"7004061638"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"sgr"=>"84913568779", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0113336", "pui"=>"600550071", "pmid"=>"25409036", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84913568779", "issn"=>"19326203"}, "id"=>"ad9d19c1-d53b-3998-94ff-92a165491134", "abstract"=>"Among latex-producing plants, mainly the latex of Hevea brasiliensis has been studied in detail so far, while comprehensive comparative studies of latex coagulation mechanisms among the more than 20,000 latex-bearing plant species are lacking. In order to give new insights into the potential variety of coagulation mechanisms, the untreated natural latices of five latex-bearing plants from the families Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Campanulaceae were visualised using Cryo-SEM and their particle size compared using the laser diffraction method. Additionally, the laticifers of these plants species were examined in planta via Cryo-SEM. Similar latex particle sizes and shape were found in Ficus benjamina and Hevea brasiliensis. Hence, and due to other similarities, we hypothesize comparable, mainly chemical, coagulation mechanisms in these two species, whereas a physical coagulation mechanism is proposed for the latex of Euphorbia spp. The latter mechanism is based on the huge amount of densely packed particles that after evaporation of water build a large surface area, which accelerates the coagulation procedure.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/comparative-study-plant-latex-particles-latex-coagulation-ficus-benjamina-campanula-glomerata-three", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>4, "Student > Postgraduate"=>2, "Other"=>1, "Student > Master"=>2, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Engineering"=>2, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Materials Science"=>3, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>1, "Neuroscience"=>1, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>3}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>1}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>1}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>4}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>{"Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutical Science"=>1}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>1}}, "group_count"=>0}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1800986"], "description"=>"<p>Furthermore – as a comparison – the laticifer type of <i>Hevea brasiliensis</i> is included as well. Details of the systematic position of plant species, such as family and subfamily, are partially enclosed <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336#pone.0113336-Dussourd2\" target=\"_blank\">[7]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336#pone.0113336-Mahlberg1\" target=\"_blank\">[9]</a>, <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336#pone.0113336-Rudall1\" target=\"_blank\">[32]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hevea brasiliensis", "laser diffraction method", "species", "Euphorbia", "Ficus benjamina", "Plant Latex Particles", "latex coagulation mechanisms", "Similar latex particle sizes", "coagulation mechanisms"], "article_id"=>1246919, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georg Bauer", "Stanislav N. Gorb", "Marie-Christin Klein", "Anke Nellesen", "Max von Tapavicza", "Thomas Speck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>103, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Laticifer_types_of_plant_species_used_in_this_study_/1246919", "title"=>"Laticifer types of plant species used in this study.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 14:44:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1800987"], "description"=>"<p>Species studied belong either to the families of Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae or Campanulaceae. The orders corresponding to the species studied are highlighted in bold. Adapted from <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336#pone.0113336-Cole1\" target=\"_blank\">[33]</a>.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hevea brasiliensis", "laser diffraction method", "species", "Euphorbia", "Ficus benjamina", "Plant Latex Particles", "latex coagulation mechanisms", "Similar latex particle sizes", "coagulation mechanisms"], "article_id"=>1246920, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georg Bauer", "Stanislav N. Gorb", "Marie-Christin Klein", "Anke Nellesen", "Max von Tapavicza", "Thomas Speck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Phylogenetic_relationship_of_the_plant_species_used_in_this_publication_/1246920", "title"=>"Phylogenetic relationship of the plant species used in this publication.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 14:44:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1800988"], "description"=>"<p>On the ordinate, the percentage of the volume of all particles within the respective size class related to the total volume (added volume of all particles in all size classes), is given. The latex was diluted in water and ultrasonic treatment was applied to dissolve loose aggregates before measuring. Fresh, uncoagulated latex of <i>Campanula glomerata</i> could not be measured, as it coagulates irreversibly before or while stirring in the dispersion unit. As a comparison, the particle size distribution of purified <i>H. brasiliensis</i> latex (data taken from Cornish & Brichta (2002) <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336#pone.0113336-Cornish2\" target=\"_blank\">[27]</a>) was added. The small inserted box shows the particle size distribution of <i>F. benjamina</i> latex when transformed to the number mode.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hevea brasiliensis", "laser diffraction method", "species", "Euphorbia", "Ficus benjamina", "Plant Latex Particles", "latex coagulation mechanisms", "Similar latex particle sizes", "coagulation mechanisms"], "article_id"=>1246921, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georg Bauer", "Stanislav N. Gorb", "Marie-Christin Klein", "Anke Nellesen", "Max von Tapavicza", "Thomas Speck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>7, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Particle_size_distributions_of_the_fresh_latex_of_Ficus_benjamina_and_of_the_three_Euphorbia_species_/1246921", "title"=>"Particle size distributions of the fresh latex of <i>Ficus benjamina</i> and of the three <i>Euphorbia</i> species.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 14:44:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1800989"], "description"=>"<p>Latex droplets were used both immediately after collecting (a, d) and as soon as they were coagulated (b including details at higher magnification, e). Pictures were taken from central regions of latex droplets (a, b, d, e). Latex particles of similar sizes can also be found <i>in planta</i> in laticifers of these plants (c including details at higher magnification, f).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hevea brasiliensis", "laser diffraction method", "species", "Euphorbia", "Ficus benjamina", "Plant Latex Particles", "latex coagulation mechanisms", "Similar latex particle sizes", "coagulation mechanisms"], "article_id"=>1246922, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georg Bauer", "Stanislav N. Gorb", "Marie-Christin Klein", "Anke Nellesen", "Max von Tapavicza", "Thomas Speck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>21, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Cryo_SEM_images_of_latex_from_Euphorbia_characias_and_Ficus_benjamina_/1246922", "title"=>"Cryo-SEM images of latex from <i>Euphorbia characias</i> and <i>Ficus benjamina</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 14:44:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1800990"], "description"=>"<p>The solid latex particles (e.g. black arrow in a) are not destroyed by fractures. Instead, fractures run around the latex particles (a, c). However, the larger and collapsed structures (e.g. white arrow in a) are divided by fractures (b) (Cryo-SEM images).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hevea brasiliensis", "laser diffraction method", "species", "Euphorbia", "Ficus benjamina", "Plant Latex Particles", "latex coagulation mechanisms", "Similar latex particle sizes", "coagulation mechanisms"], "article_id"=>1246923, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georg Bauer", "Stanislav N. Gorb", "Marie-Christin Klein", "Anke Nellesen", "Max von Tapavicza", "Thomas Speck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fractures_in_latex_droplets_of_Ficus_benjamina_/1246923", "title"=>"Fractures in latex droplets of <i>Ficus benjamina</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 14:44:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1800991"], "description"=>"<p>Laticifers in <i>Campanula glomerata</i> petiole (Cryo-SEM image).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hevea brasiliensis", "laser diffraction method", "species", "Euphorbia", "Ficus benjamina", "Plant Latex Particles", "latex coagulation mechanisms", "Similar latex particle sizes", "coagulation mechanisms"], "article_id"=>1246924, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georg Bauer", "Stanislav N. Gorb", "Marie-Christin Klein", "Anke Nellesen", "Max von Tapavicza", "Thomas Speck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>207, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Laticifers_in_Campanula_glomerata_petiole_Cryo_SEM_image_/1246924", "title"=>"Laticifers in <i>Campanula glomerata</i> petiole (Cryo-SEM image).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 14:44:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1800992"], "description"=>"<p>Latex particles are abundant in the laticifer, but are absent in the surrounding cells (Cryo-SEM image).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hevea brasiliensis", "laser diffraction method", "species", "Euphorbia", "Ficus benjamina", "Plant Latex Particles", "latex coagulation mechanisms", "Similar latex particle sizes", "coagulation mechanisms"], "article_id"=>1246925, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georg Bauer", "Stanislav N. Gorb", "Marie-Christin Klein", "Anke Nellesen", "Max von Tapavicza", "Thomas Speck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336.g007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Longitudinal_fracture_of_a_laticifer_in_a_shoot_axis_of_Ficus_benjamina_/1246925", "title"=>"Longitudinal fracture of a laticifer in a shoot axis of <i>Ficus benjamina</i>.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 14:44:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1800993"], "description"=>"<p>The latex was diluted in water and ultrasonic treatment was applied before measuring. Obscur. = obscuration; Conc. = concentration (calculated from the Beer-Lambert law and given in % volume); SSA = specific surface area (total surface area of particles divided by their total weight); MinD = minimum particle size class detected - both the particle size [µm] and the corresponding volume [%] are given; MMT = maximum mode, where the maximum frequency distribution is reached - both the volume [%] and the corresponding particle size [µm], where this frequency was reached, are given; d (0.5) = median of the particle size distribution; MaxD = maximum particle size class detected - both the particle size [µm] and the corresponding volume [%] are given.</p><p>Particle size distribution parameters of the fresh latex.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Hevea brasiliensis", "laser diffraction method", "species", "Euphorbia", "Ficus benjamina", "Plant Latex Particles", "latex coagulation mechanisms", "Similar latex particle sizes", "coagulation mechanisms"], "article_id"=>1246926, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Georg Bauer", "Stanislav N. Gorb", "Marie-Christin Klein", "Anke Nellesen", "Max von Tapavicza", "Thomas Speck"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113336.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>5, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Particle_size_distribution_parameters_of_the_fresh_latex_/1246926", "title"=>"Particle size distribution parameters of the fresh latex.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-11-19 14:44:18"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"17", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"11", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"22", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"17", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"4", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"6", "full-text"=>"6", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2014", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"9", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"24", "pdf"=>"12", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"12", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2015", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"8", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"7", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"16", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"18", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"8", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"2", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"16", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"9", "full-text"=>"9", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"10", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"3", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2016", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"11", "pdf"=>"7", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"6", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"7", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"12", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"15", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"3", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"29", "pdf"=>"1", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"4", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"43", "full-text"=>"47", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"49", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"8", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"10", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2017", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"29", "full-text"=>"30", "pdf"=>"2", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"6", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"26", "full-text"=>"28", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"40", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"5"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"15", "full-text"=>"21", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"6"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"23", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"20", "full-text"=>"26", "pdf"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"30", "full-text"=>"35", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"39", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"32", "full-text"=>"42", "pdf"=>"2", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"37", "full-text"=>"45", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"42", "full-text"=>"44", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"37", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences", "average_usage"=>[291]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Organisms", "average_usage"=>[310]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Engineering and technology/Equipment", "average_usage"=>[287, 444]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences", "average_usage"=>[271]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Materials science", "average_usage"=>[259]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Physical sciences/Physics", "average_usage"=>[266]}]}
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