Effects of Wolf Mortality on Livestock Depredations
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{"title"=>"Effects of wolf mortality on livestock depredations", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Robert B.", "last_name"=>"Wielgus", "scopus_author_id"=>"6602100812"}, {"first_name"=>"Kaylie A.", "last_name"=>"Peebles", "scopus_author_id"=>"56079379500"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600684563", "issn"=>"19326203", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0113505", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84915745544", "pmid"=>"25470821", "sgr"=>"84915745544"}, "id"=>"8f744203-52ea-3229-afb2-db02ce8ad3c3", "abstract"=>"Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987-2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5-6% for cattle with increased wolf control--up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/effects-wolf-mortality-livestock-depredations", "reader_count"=>223, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>46, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>50, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>48, "Other"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>30, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>6, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>7, "Researcher"=>46, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>50, "Student > Postgraduate"=>4, "Student > Master"=>48, "Other"=>18, "Student > Bachelor"=>30, "Lecturer"=>2, "Lecturer > Senior Lecturer"=>3, "Professor"=>4}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>65, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>129, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Social Sciences"=>3, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>3}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>8}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>129}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>65}, "Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>{"Veterinary Science and Veterinary Medicine"=>3}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"United States"=>4, "United Kingdom"=>2, "Switzerland"=>2, "Portugal"=>1, "India"=>1, "Canada"=>1, "Austria"=>1, "China"=>1, "Botswana"=>1, "Italy"=>1, "Israel"=>1, "France"=>1, "Germany"=>1}, "group_count"=>9}

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Figshare

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817397"], "description"=>"<p>Proportions of wolves killed through control methods the previous year versus the number of sheep depredated the following year. The dashed lines show the upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval for the best fit line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Livestock Depredations Predator control", "livestock depredated", "wolf mortality", "wolf population estimates", "25 year time series", "livestock depredations", "wolves"], "article_id"=>1258581, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Robert B. Wielgus", "Kaylie A. Peebles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113505.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Proportion_of_wolves_controlled_versus_the_number_of_sheep_depredated_/1258581", "title"=>"Proportion of wolves controlled versus the number of sheep depredated.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 03:03:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817410", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817411", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817413", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817414"], "description"=>"<div><p>Predator control and sport hunting are often used to reduce predator populations and livestock depredations, – but the efficacy of lethal control has rarely been tested. We assessed the effects of wolf mortality on reducing livestock depredations in Idaho, Montana and Wyoming from 1987–2012 using a 25 year time series. The number of livestock depredated, livestock populations, wolf population estimates, number of breeding pairs, and wolves killed were calculated for the wolf-occupied area of each state for each year. The data were then analyzed using a negative binomial generalized linear model to test for the expected negative relationship between the number of livestock depredated in the current year and the number of wolves controlled the previous year. We found that the number of livestock depredated was positively associated with the number of livestock and the number of breeding pairs. However, we also found that the number of livestock depredated the following year was positively, not negatively, associated with the number of wolves killed the previous year. The odds of livestock depredations increased 4% for sheep and 5–6% for cattle with increased wolf control - up until wolf mortality exceeded the mean intrinsic growth rate of wolves at 25%. Possible reasons for the increased livestock depredations at ≤25% mortality may be compensatory increased breeding pairs and numbers of wolves following increased mortality. After mortality exceeded 25%, the total number of breeding pairs, wolves, and livestock depredations declined. However, mortality rates exceeding 25% are unsustainable over the long term. Lethal control of individual depredating wolves may sometimes necessary to stop depredations in the near-term, but we recommend that non-lethal alternatives also be considered.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Livestock Depredations Predator control", "livestock depredated", "wolf mortality", "wolf population estimates", "25 year time series", "livestock depredations", "wolves"], "article_id"=>1258595, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Robert B. Wielgus", "Kaylie A. Peebles"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113505.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113505.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113505.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113505.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>20, "page_views"=>77, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Effects_of_Wolf_Mortality_on_Livestock_Depredations_/1258595", "title"=>"Effects of Wolf Mortality on Livestock Depredations", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 03:03:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817393"], "description"=>"<p>Number of wolves killed through control methods the previous year versus the number of sheep depredated the following year. The dashed lines show the upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval for the best fit line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Livestock Depredations Predator control", "livestock depredated", "wolf mortality", "wolf population estimates", "25 year time series", "livestock depredations", "wolves"], "article_id"=>1258577, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Robert B. Wielgus", "Kaylie A. Peebles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113505.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Wolves_killed_vs_sheep_depredated_/1258577", "title"=>"Wolves killed vs sheep depredated.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 03:03:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817391"], "description"=>"<p>Proportion of wolves killed the previous year versus the number of cattle depredated the following year. The dashed lines show the upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval for the best fit line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Livestock Depredations Predator control", "livestock depredated", "wolf mortality", "wolf population estimates", "25 year time series", "livestock depredations", "wolves"], "article_id"=>1258575, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Robert B. Wielgus", "Kaylie A. Peebles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113505.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_The_proportion_of_wolves_killed_vs_cattle_depredated_/1258575", "title"=>"The proportion of wolves killed vs cattle depredated.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 03:03:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817387"], "description"=>"<p>Number of breeding pairs present on the landscape the previous year versus the number of cattle depredated the following year. The dashed lines show the upper and lower limits of the 95% confidence interval for the best fit line.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Livestock Depredations Predator control", "livestock depredated", "wolf mortality", "wolf population estimates", "25 year time series", "livestock depredations", "wolves"], "article_id"=>1258571, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Robert B. Wielgus", "Kaylie A. Peebles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113505.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Number_of_breeding_pairs_vs_cattle_depredated_/1258571", "title"=>"Number of breeding pairs vs cattle depredated.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 03:03:15"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1817403"], "description"=>"<p>Summary of best following year sheep depredated models.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Livestock Depredations Predator control", "livestock depredated", "wolf mortality", "wolf population estimates", "25 year time series", "livestock depredations", "wolves"], "article_id"=>1258588, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences"], "users"=>["Robert B. Wielgus", "Kaylie A. Peebles"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113505.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_of_best_following_year_sheep_depredated_models_/1258588", "title"=>"Summary of best following year sheep depredated models.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-03 03:03:15"}
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PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Agriculture", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Population biology", "average_usage"=>[312, 475]}, {"subject_area"=>"/People and places/Demography", "average_usage"=>[309]}]}
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