Massive Regime Shifts and High Activity of Heterotrophic Bacteria in an Ice-Covered Lake
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{"title"=>"Massive regime shifts and high activity of heterotrophic bacteria in an ice-covered lake", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Mina", "last_name"=>"Bižić-Ionescu", "scopus_author_id"=>"55241700900"}, {"first_name"=>"Rudolf", "last_name"=>"Amann", "scopus_author_id"=>"7102684679"}, {"first_name"=>"Hans Peter", "last_name"=>"Grossart", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701843345"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"issn"=>"19326203", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84912535594", "pui"=>"600596261", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0113611", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "sgr"=>"84912535594", "pmid"=>"25419654"}, "id"=>"70d1de00-a730-3dce-a0d8-1af3da426f47", "abstract"=>"In winter 2009/10, a sudden under-ice bloom of heterotrophic bacteria occurred in the seasonally ice-covered, temperate, deep, oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (Germany). Extraordinarily high bacterial abundance and biomass were fueled by the breakdown of a massive bloom of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae after ice formation. A reduction in light resulting from snow coverage exerted a pronounced physiological stress on the cyanobacteria. Consequently, these were rapidly colonized, leading to a sudden proliferation of attached and subsequently of free-living heterotrophic bacteria. Total bacterial protein production reached 201 µg C L(-1) d(-1), ca. five times higher than spring-peak values that year. Fluorescence in situ hybridization and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at high temporal resolution showed pronounced changes in bacterial community structure coinciding with changes in the physiology of the cyanobacteria. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that during breakdown of the cyanobacterial population, the diversity of attached and free-living bacterial communities were reduced to a few dominant families. Some of these were not detectable during the early stages of the cyanobacterial bloom indicating that only specific, well adapted bacterial communities can colonize senescent cyanobacteria. Our study suggests that in winter, unlike commonly postulated, carbon rather than temperature is the limiting factor for bacterial growth. Frequent phytoplankton blooms in ice-covered systems highlight the need for year-round studies of aquatic ecosystems including the winter season to correctly understand element and energy cycling through aquatic food webs, particularly the microbial loop. On a global scale, such knowledge is required to determine climate change induced alterations in carbon budgets in polar and temperate aquatic systems.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/massive-regime-shifts-high-activity-heterotrophic-bacteria-icecovered-lake", "reader_count"=>38, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Professor > Associate Professor"=>2, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>6, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>12, "Other"=>4, "Student > Master"=>5, "Student > Bachelor"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4, "Mathematics"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>2, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>2}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>3}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>18}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>4}, "Mathematics"=>{"Mathematics"=>1}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>9}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"Canada"=>1, "United States"=>1}, "group_count"=>3}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805742"], "description"=>"<p>Bacterial protein production (BPP) of particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) bacteria in the epilimnion and hypolimnion (A) and bacterial abundance of total bacteria in the epilimnion (B) and hypolimnion (C) during the two phases of the bloom.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["High Activity", "Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis", "cyanobacterial population", "winter season", "breakdown", "climate change", "heterotrophic bacteria", "ice formation", "carbon budgets", "food webs", "Frequent phytoplankton blooms", "energy cycling", "cyanobacterial bloom", "community structure", "oligotrophic Lake Stechlin", "snow coverage", "16 S rRNA genes", "protein production", "Massive Regime Shifts", "colonize senescent cyanobacteria"], "article_id"=>1250761, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Mina Bižić-Ionescu", "Rudolf Amann", "Hans-Peter Grossart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>39, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Bacterial_protein_production_BPP_of_particle_attached_PA_and_free_living_FL_bacteria_in_the_epilimnion_and_hypolimnion_A_and_bacterial_abundance_of_total_bacteria_in_the_epilimnion_B_and_hypolimnion_C_during_the_two_phases_of_the_bloom_/1250761", "title"=>"Bacterial protein production (BPP) of particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) bacteria in the epilimnion and hypolimnion (A) and bacterial abundance of total bacteria in the epilimnion (B) and hypolimnion (C) during the two phases of the bloom.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-24 03:28:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805758"], "description"=>"<p>Phase I and II of the bloom are separated by the dashed line. The abundance of <i>Aphanizomenon flos</i>-<i>aquae</i> (gray field) is presented during both phases of the bloom (left axis).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["High Activity", "Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis", "cyanobacterial population", "winter season", "breakdown", "climate change", "heterotrophic bacteria", "ice formation", "carbon budgets", "food webs", "Frequent phytoplankton blooms", "energy cycling", "cyanobacterial bloom", "community structure", "oligotrophic Lake Stechlin", "snow coverage", "16 S rRNA genes", "protein production", "Massive Regime Shifts", "colonize senescent cyanobacteria"], "article_id"=>1250769, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Mina Bižić-Ionescu", "Rudolf Amann", "Hans-Peter Grossart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>24, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_relative_abundances_of_major_phylogenetic_groups_of_DAPI_right_axis_Alphaproteobacteria_Betaproteobacteria_Bacteroidetes_Planctomycetes_and_Actinobacteria_as_assessed_by_CARD_FISH_in_the_particle_attached_and_free_living_fractions_in_both/1250769", "title"=>"Distribution of relative abundances of major phylogenetic groups (% of DAPI - right axis): <i>Alphaproteobacteria</i>, <i>Betaproteobacteria</i>, <i>Bacteroidetes</i>, <i>Planctomycetes</i> and <i>Actinobacteria</i> as assessed by CARD-FISH in the particle-attached and free-living fractions in both epilimnion and hypolimnion.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-24 03:28:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805735"], "description"=>"<p>Cyanobacteria in Phase I are found in tufts (A1), the filaments contain poly-P granules (A2) and are hardly colonized by heterotrophic bacteria (A3). In Phase II single filaments with ghost cells are visible (B1). These are often aggregated with poly-P granules spilled onto the aggregate (B2) and heavily colonized by heterotrophic bacteria (B3). Significant increase in colonization between <i>Betaproteobacteria</i> and <i>Flavobacteria</i> in Phase I (A4–5) and Phase II (B4–5) is visible. End of Phase II is characterized by an increase in nanoflagellates (B6).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["High Activity", "Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis", "cyanobacterial population", "winter season", "breakdown", "climate change", "heterotrophic bacteria", "ice formation", "carbon budgets", "food webs", "Frequent phytoplankton blooms", "energy cycling", "cyanobacterial bloom", "community structure", "oligotrophic Lake Stechlin", "snow coverage", "16 S rRNA genes", "protein production", "Massive Regime Shifts", "colonize senescent cyanobacteria"], "article_id"=>1250754, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Mina Bižić-Ionescu", "Rudolf Amann", "Hans-Peter Grossart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>38, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Micrographs_of_DAPI_and_FISH_stained_Aphanizomenon_flos_aquae_filaments_and_heterotrophic_bacteria_respectively_collected_from_the_epilimnion_during_Phase_I_A_and_Phase_II_B_/1250754", "title"=>"Micrographs of DAPI and FISH stained <i>Aphanizomenon flos</i>-<i>aquae</i> filaments and heterotrophic bacteria, respectively; collected from the epilimnion during Phase I (A) and Phase II (B).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-24 03:28:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805807", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805808", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805809", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805810", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805811", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805812", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805813", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805814", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805815"], "description"=>"<div><p>In winter 2009/10, a sudden under-ice bloom of heterotrophic bacteria occurred in the seasonally ice-covered, temperate, deep, oligotrophic Lake Stechlin (Germany). Extraordinarily high bacterial abundance and biomass were fueled by the breakdown of a massive bloom of <i>Aphanizomenon flos-aquae</i> after ice formation. A reduction in light resulting from snow coverage exerted a pronounced physiological stress on the cyanobacteria. Consequently, these were rapidly colonized, leading to a sudden proliferation of attached and subsequently of free-living heterotrophic bacteria. Total bacterial protein production reached 201 µg C L<sup>−1</sup> d<sup>−1</sup>, ca. five times higher than spring-peak values that year. Fluorescence <i>in situ</i> hybridization and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at high temporal resolution showed pronounced changes in bacterial community structure coinciding with changes in the physiology of the cyanobacteria. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed that during breakdown of the cyanobacterial population, the diversity of attached and free-living bacterial communities were reduced to a few dominant families. Some of these were not detectable during the early stages of the cyanobacterial bloom indicating that only specific, well adapted bacterial communities can colonize senescent cyanobacteria. Our study suggests that in winter, unlike commonly postulated, carbon rather than temperature is the limiting factor for bacterial growth. Frequent phytoplankton blooms in ice-covered systems highlight the need for year-round studies of aquatic ecosystems including the winter season to correctly understand element and energy cycling through aquatic food webs, particularly the microbial loop. On a global scale, such knowledge is required to determine climate change induced alterations in carbon budgets in polar and temperate aquatic systems.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["High Activity", "Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis", "cyanobacterial population", "winter season", "breakdown", "climate change", "heterotrophic bacteria", "ice formation", "carbon budgets", "food webs", "Frequent phytoplankton blooms", "energy cycling", "cyanobacterial bloom", "community structure", "oligotrophic Lake Stechlin", "snow coverage", "16 S rRNA genes", "protein production", "Massive Regime Shifts", "colonize senescent cyanobacteria"], "article_id"=>1250801, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Mina Bižić-Ionescu", "Rudolf Amann", "Hans-Peter Grossart"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.s006", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.s007", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.s008", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.s009"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>30, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Massive_Regime_Shifts_and_High_Activity_of_Heterotrophic_Bacteria_in_an_Ice_Covered_Lake_/1250801", "title"=>"Massive Regime Shifts and High Activity of Heterotrophic Bacteria in an Ice-Covered Lake", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-11-24 03:28:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805710"], "description"=>"<p>Black circles represent sampling points. Data are available at a higher spatial resolution only during Phase II of the bloom (small black circles).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["High Activity", "Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis", "cyanobacterial population", "winter season", "breakdown", "climate change", "heterotrophic bacteria", "ice formation", "carbon budgets", "food webs", "Frequent phytoplankton blooms", "energy cycling", "cyanobacterial bloom", "community structure", "oligotrophic Lake Stechlin", "snow coverage", "16 S rRNA genes", "protein production", "Massive Regime Shifts", "colonize senescent cyanobacteria"], "article_id"=>1250736, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Mina Bižić-Ionescu", "Rudolf Amann", "Hans-Peter Grossart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>12, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Temperature_A_and_oxygen_saturation_B_profiles_during_Phase_I_and_Phase_II_of_the_bloom_/1250736", "title"=>"Temperature (A), and oxygen saturation (B) profiles during Phase I and Phase II of the bloom.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-24 03:28:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805755"], "description"=>"<p>The gels were analyzed using the Phoretix 1D version 11.4 (TotalLab) software and cluster analysis was done with PAST3 <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611#pone.0113611-Hammer1\" target=\"_blank\">[25]</a> using the Bray-Curtis similarity measure.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["High Activity", "Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis", "cyanobacterial population", "winter season", "breakdown", "climate change", "heterotrophic bacteria", "ice formation", "carbon budgets", "food webs", "Frequent phytoplankton blooms", "energy cycling", "cyanobacterial bloom", "community structure", "oligotrophic Lake Stechlin", "snow coverage", "16 S rRNA genes", "protein production", "Massive Regime Shifts", "colonize senescent cyanobacteria"], "article_id"=>1250766, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Mina Bižić-Ionescu", "Rudolf Amann", "Hans-Peter Grossart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>114, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Denaturing_gradient_gel_electrophoresis_dendrogram_showing_the_relationship_between_particle_attached_and_free_living_bacterial_communities_from_epilimnion_and_hypolimnion_of_Lake_Stechlin_during_Phase_I_and_Phase_II_of_the_bloom_/1250766", "title"=>"Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis dendrogram showing the relationship between particle-attached and free-living bacterial communities from epilimnion and hypolimnion of Lake Stechlin during Phase I and Phase II of the bloom.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-24 03:28:24"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1805760"], "description"=>"<p>Sequence frequencies of major particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) bacterial families comprising to >5% of total sequences in at least one sample in the epilimnion and hypolimnion of Lake Stechlin during Phase I and Phase II of the under-ice bloom.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["High Activity", "Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis", "cyanobacterial population", "winter season", "breakdown", "climate change", "heterotrophic bacteria", "ice formation", "carbon budgets", "food webs", "Frequent phytoplankton blooms", "energy cycling", "cyanobacterial bloom", "community structure", "oligotrophic Lake Stechlin", "snow coverage", "16 S rRNA genes", "protein production", "Massive Regime Shifts", "colonize senescent cyanobacteria"], "article_id"=>1250771, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Mina Bižić-Ionescu", "Rudolf Amann", "Hans-Peter Grossart"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113611.g006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Sequence_frequencies_of_major_particle_attached_PA_and_free_living_FL_bacterial_families_comprising_to_gt_5_of_total_sequences_in_at_least_one_sample_in_the_epilimnion_and_hypolimnion_of_Lake_Stechlin_during_Phase_I_and_Phase_II_of_the_under_ice_bloom_/1250771", "title"=>"Sequence frequencies of major particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) bacterial families comprising to >5% of total sequences in at least one sample in the epilimnion and hypolimnion of Lake Stechlin during Phase I and Phase II of the under-ice bloom.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-11-24 03:28:24"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences", "average_usage"=>[318]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Glaciology", "average_usage"=>[302, 448]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Earth sciences/Marine and aquatic sciences", "average_usage"=>[343]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences", "average_usage"=>[320]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Aquatic environments", "average_usage"=>[274]}]}
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