Intercropping Enhances Productivity and Maintains the Most Soil Fertility Properties Relative to Sole Cropping
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{"title"=>"Intercropping enhances productivity and maintains the most soil fertility properties relative to sole cropping", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Zhi Gang", "last_name"=>"Wang", "scopus_author_id"=>"37103077500"}, {"first_name"=>"Xin", "last_name"=>"Jin", "scopus_author_id"=>"56438410000"}, {"first_name"=>"Xing Guo", "last_name"=>"Bao", "scopus_author_id"=>"12242074000"}, {"first_name"=>"Xiao Fei", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"56439018300"}, {"first_name"=>"Jian Hua", "last_name"=>"Zhao", "scopus_author_id"=>"55797999400"}, {"first_name"=>"Jian Hao", "last_name"=>"Sun", "scopus_author_id"=>"7410368913"}, {"first_name"=>"Peter", "last_name"=>"Christie", "scopus_author_id"=>"55359801800"}, {"first_name"=>"Long", "last_name"=>"Li", "scopus_author_id"=>"56030232800"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84915758164", "sgr"=>"84915758164", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0113984", "pmid"=>"25486249", "isbn"=>"1932-6203", "pui"=>"600703247"}, "id"=>"c2b72387-c0c3-3684-b78b-177da4e19c88", "abstract"=>"Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3rd year) and 2012 (the 4th year) the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM) did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN) did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha-1 in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha-1 P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully managed fertilizer inputs.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/intercropping-enhances-productivity-maintains-most-soil-fertility-properties-relative-sole-cropping", "reader_count"=>78, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>4, "Researcher"=>13, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>5, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>19, "Student > Master"=>21, "Other"=>3, "Student > Bachelor"=>8, "Lecturer"=>1, "Professor"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>8, "Engineering"=>2, "Environmental Science"=>11, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>45, "Chemistry"=>2, "Computer Science"=>1, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Energy"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Engineering"=>{"Engineering"=>2}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>2}, "Energy"=>{"Energy"=>1}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>6}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>45}, "Computer Science"=>{"Computer Science"=>1}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>1}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>8}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>11}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"France"=>2}, "group_count"=>1}

Scopus | Further Information

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830308"], "description"=>"<p>Different capital letters indicate significant differences at <i>P</i><0.05 by LSD among different P application rates; different lowercase letters with the same P application rates indicate significant differences at <i>P</i><0.05 by LSD among different cropping systems; F+M, S+M, C+M and T+M indicate intercropping of maize with faba bean, maize and soybean, and chickpea and turnip, respectively; M and I indicate monoculture and intercropping, respectively. The error bars are standard deviation with 3 replicates.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3 rd year", "soil fertility properties", "Intercropping Enhances Productivity", "Sole Cropping Yield", "80 kg P", "P application rates", "maize", "om", "cases soil enzyme activities", "tn", "soil acid phosphatase activity", "cec", "intercropping systems", "2011. P fertilization", "soil chemical properties"], "article_id"=>1264780, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Wang", "Xin Jin", "Xing-Guo Bao", "Xiao-Fei Li", "Jian-Hua Zhao", "Jian-Hao Sun", "Peter Christie", "Long Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Aboveground_biomass_and_N_P_and_K_acquisition_of_intercropping_and_weighted_means_of_monocropped_crops_in_2011_and_2012_/1264780", "title"=>"Aboveground biomass and N, P and K acquisition of intercropping and weighted means of monocropped crops in 2011 and 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-08 03:17:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830309"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means of three replicates. Values followed by the same lowercase letters are not significantly different among different cropping systems with the same P rate in one year at the 5% level by LSD (horizonal comparison); values followed by the same capital letters are not significantly different among different P rates (vertical comparison) or among different cropping systems (horizonal comparison) in one year at the 5% level by LSD. Values under ANOVA are the probabilities (<i>P</i> values) of the sources of variation.</p><p>Grain yield (Mg ha<sup>−1</sup>) as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3 rd year", "soil fertility properties", "Intercropping Enhances Productivity", "Sole Cropping Yield", "80 kg P", "P application rates", "maize", "om", "cases soil enzyme activities", "tn", "soil acid phosphatase activity", "cec", "intercropping systems", "2011. P fertilization", "soil chemical properties"], "article_id"=>1264782, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Wang", "Xin Jin", "Xing-Guo Bao", "Xiao-Fei Li", "Jian-Hua Zhao", "Jian-Hao Sun", "Peter Christie", "Long Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Grain_yield_Mg_ha_8722_1_as_affected_by_main_effects_of_P_application_and_subplot_effects_of_cropping_system_in_2011_and_2012_/1264782", "title"=>"Grain yield (Mg ha<sup>−1</sup>) as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-08 03:17:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830310"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means of three replicates. Values followed by the same lowercase letters are not significantly different among different cropping systems with the same P rate in one year at the 5% level by LSD (horizonal comparison); values followed by the same capital letters are not significantly different among different P rates (vertical comparison) or among different cropping systems (horizonal comparison) in one year at the 5% level by LSD. Values under ANOVA are the probabilities (<i>P</i> values) of the sources of variation.</p><p>Soil OM (g kg<sup>−1</sup>) content as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3 rd year", "soil fertility properties", "Intercropping Enhances Productivity", "Sole Cropping Yield", "80 kg P", "P application rates", "maize", "om", "cases soil enzyme activities", "tn", "soil acid phosphatase activity", "cec", "intercropping systems", "2011. P fertilization", "soil chemical properties"], "article_id"=>1264783, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Wang", "Xin Jin", "Xing-Guo Bao", "Xiao-Fei Li", "Jian-Hua Zhao", "Jian-Hao Sun", "Peter Christie", "Long Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>5, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Soil_OM_g_kg_8722_1_content_as_affected_by_main_effects_of_P_application_and_subplot_effects_of_cropping_system_in_2011_and_2012_/1264783", "title"=>"Soil OM (g kg<sup>−1</sup>) content as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-08 03:17:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830311"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means of three replicates. Values followed by the same lowercase letters are not significantly different among different cropping systems with the same P rate in one year at the 5% level by LSD (horizonal comparison); values followed by the same capital letters are not significantly different among different P rates (vertical comparison) or among different cropping systems (horizonal comparison) in one year at the 5% level by LSD. Values under ANOVA are the probabilities (<i>P</i> values) of the sources of variation.</p><p>Soil Olsen P (mg kg<sup>−1</sup>) as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3 rd year", "soil fertility properties", "Intercropping Enhances Productivity", "Sole Cropping Yield", "80 kg P", "P application rates", "maize", "om", "cases soil enzyme activities", "tn", "soil acid phosphatase activity", "cec", "intercropping systems", "2011. P fertilization", "soil chemical properties"], "article_id"=>1264784, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Wang", "Xin Jin", "Xing-Guo Bao", "Xiao-Fei Li", "Jian-Hua Zhao", "Jian-Hao Sun", "Peter Christie", "Long Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Soil_Olsen_P_mg_kg_8722_1_as_affected_by_main_effects_of_P_application_and_subplot_effects_of_cropping_system_in_2011_and_2012_/1264784", "title"=>"Soil Olsen P (mg kg<sup>−1</sup>) as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-08 03:17:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830312"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means of three replicates. Values followed by the same lowercase letters are not significantly different among different cropping systems with the same P rate in one year at the 5% level by LSD (horizonal comparison); values followed by the same capital letters are not significantly different among different P rates (vertical comparison) or among different cropping systems (horizonal comparison) in one year at the 5% level by LSD. Values under ANOVA are the probabilities (<i>P</i> values) of the sources of variation.</p><p>Soil exchangeable K (mg kg<sup>−1</sup>) as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3 rd year", "soil fertility properties", "Intercropping Enhances Productivity", "Sole Cropping Yield", "80 kg P", "P application rates", "maize", "om", "cases soil enzyme activities", "tn", "soil acid phosphatase activity", "cec", "intercropping systems", "2011. P fertilization", "soil chemical properties"], "article_id"=>1264785, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Wang", "Xin Jin", "Xing-Guo Bao", "Xiao-Fei Li", "Jian-Hua Zhao", "Jian-Hao Sun", "Peter Christie", "Long Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>13, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Soil_exchangeable_K_mg_kg_8722_1_as_affected_by_main_effects_of_P_application_and_subplot_effects_of_cropping_system_in_2011_and_2012_/1264785", "title"=>"Soil exchangeable K (mg kg<sup>−1</sup>) as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-08 03:17:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830313"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means of three replicates. Values followed by the same lowercase letters are not significantly different among different cropping systems with the same P rate in one year at the 5% level by LSD (horizonal comparison); values followed by the same capital letters are not significantly different among different P rates (vertical comparison) or among different cropping systems (horizonal comparison) in one year at the 5% level by LSD. Values under ANOVA are the probabilities (<i>P</i> values) of the sources of variation.</p><p>Soil CEC (cmol kg<sup>−1</sup>) as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3 rd year", "soil fertility properties", "Intercropping Enhances Productivity", "Sole Cropping Yield", "80 kg P", "P application rates", "maize", "om", "cases soil enzyme activities", "tn", "soil acid phosphatase activity", "cec", "intercropping systems", "2011. P fertilization", "soil chemical properties"], "article_id"=>1264786, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Wang", "Xin Jin", "Xing-Guo Bao", "Xiao-Fei Li", "Jian-Hua Zhao", "Jian-Hao Sun", "Peter Christie", "Long Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>14, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Soil_CEC_cmol_kg_8722_1_as_affected_by_main_effects_of_P_application_and_subplot_effects_of_cropping_system_in_2011_and_2012_/1264786", "title"=>"Soil CEC (cmol kg<sup>−1</sup>) as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-08 03:17:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830314"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means of three replicates. Values followed by the same lowercase letters are not significantly different among different cropping systems with the same P rate in one year at the 5% level by LSD (horizonal comparison); values followed by the same capital letters are not significantly different among different P rates (vertical comparison) or among different cropping systems (horizonal comparison) in one year at the 5% level by LSD. Values under ANOVA are the probabilities (<i>P</i> values) of the sources of variation.</p><p>Urease activity as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3 rd year", "soil fertility properties", "Intercropping Enhances Productivity", "Sole Cropping Yield", "80 kg P", "P application rates", "maize", "om", "cases soil enzyme activities", "tn", "soil acid phosphatase activity", "cec", "intercropping systems", "2011. P fertilization", "soil chemical properties"], "article_id"=>1264787, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Wang", "Xin Jin", "Xing-Guo Bao", "Xiao-Fei Li", "Jian-Hua Zhao", "Jian-Hao Sun", "Peter Christie", "Long Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Urease_activity_as_affected_by_main_effects_of_P_application_and_subplot_effects_of_cropping_system_in_2011_and_2012_/1264787", "title"=>"Urease activity as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-08 03:17:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830315"], "description"=>"<p>Values are means of three replicates. Values followed by the same lowercase letters are not significantly different among different cropping systems with the same P rate in one year at the 5% level by LSD (horizonal comparison); values followed by the same capital letters are not significantly different among different P rates (vertical comparison) or among different cropping systems (horizonal comparison) in one year at the 5% level by LSD. Values under ANOVA are the probabilities (<i>P</i> values) of the sources of variation.</p><p>Acid phosphatase activity as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3 rd year", "soil fertility properties", "Intercropping Enhances Productivity", "Sole Cropping Yield", "80 kg P", "P application rates", "maize", "om", "cases soil enzyme activities", "tn", "soil acid phosphatase activity", "cec", "intercropping systems", "2011. P fertilization", "soil chemical properties"], "article_id"=>1264788, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Wang", "Xin Jin", "Xing-Guo Bao", "Xiao-Fei Li", "Jian-Hua Zhao", "Jian-Hao Sun", "Peter Christie", "Long Li"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.t007", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Acid_phosphatase_activity_as_affected_by_main_effects_of_P_application_and_subplot_effects_of_cropping_system_in_2011_and_2012_/1264788", "title"=>"Acid phosphatase activity as affected by main effects of P application and subplot effects of cropping system in 2011 and 2012.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-08 03:17:07"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830317", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830318", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830319", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1830320"], "description"=>"<div><p>Yield and nutrient acquisition advantages are frequently found in intercropping systems. However, there are few published reports on soil fertility in intercropping relative to monocultures. A field experiment was therefore established in 2009 in Gansu province, northwest China. The treatments comprised maize/faba bean, maize/soybean, maize/chickpea and maize/turnip intercropping, and their correspoding monocropping. In 2011 (the 3<sup>rd</sup> year) and 2012 (the 4<sup>th</sup> year) the yields and some soil chemical properties and enzyme activities were examined after all crop species were harvested or at later growth stages. Both grain yields and nutrient acquisition were significantly greater in all four intercropping systems than corresponding monocropping over two years. Generally, soil organic matter (OM) did not differ significantly from monocropping but did increase in maize/chickpea in 2012 and maize/turnip in both years. Soil total N (TN) did not differ between intercropping and monocropping in either year with the sole exception of maize/faba bean intercropping receiving 80 kg P ha<sup>−1</sup> in 2011. Intercropping significantly reduced soil Olsen-P only in 2012, soil exchangeable K in both years, soil cation exchangeable capacity (CEC) in 2012, and soil pH in 2012. In the majority of cases soil enzyme activities did not differ across all the cropping systems at different P application rates compared to monocrops, with the exception of soil acid phosphatase activity which was higher in maize/legume intercropping than in the corresponding monocrops at 40 kg ha<sup>−1</sup> P in 2011. P fertilization can alleviate the decline in soil Olsen-P and in soil CEC to some extent. In summary, intercropping enhanced productivity and maintained the majority of soil fertility properties for at least three to four years, especially at suitable P application rates. The results indicate that maize-based intercropping may be an efficient cropping system for sustainable agriculture with carefully managed fertilizer inputs.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["3 rd year", "soil fertility properties", "Intercropping Enhances Productivity", "Sole Cropping Yield", "80 kg P", "P application rates", "maize", "om", "cases soil enzyme activities", "tn", "soil acid phosphatase activity", "cec", "intercropping systems", "2011. P fertilization", "soil chemical properties"], "article_id"=>1264790, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Zhi-Gang Wang", "Xin Jin", "Xing-Guo Bao", "Xiao-Fei Li", "Jian-Hua Zhao", "Jian-Hao Sun", "Peter Christie", "Long Li"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0113984.s004"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>11, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Intercropping_Enhances_Productivity_and_Maintains_the_Most_Soil_Fertility_Properties_Relative_to_Sole_Cropping_/1264790", "title"=>"Intercropping Enhances Productivity and Maintains the Most Soil Fertility Properties Relative to Sole Cropping", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-08 03:17:07"}

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"134", "full-text"=>"161", "pdf"=>"17", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"3", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"124", "full-text"=>"144", "pdf"=>"15", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"4"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"116", "full-text"=>"128", "pdf"=>"9", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"1", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"5"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[{"subject_area"=>"/Biology and life sciences/Agriculture", "average_usage"=>[282]}, {"subject_area"=>"/Ecology and environmental sciences/Soil science", "average_usage"=>[247, 381]}]}
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