Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years
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{"title"=>"Persistent associations between maternal prenatal exposure to phthalates on child IQ at age 7 years", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Pam", "last_name"=>"Factor-Litvak", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603670889"}, {"first_name"=>"Beverly", "last_name"=>"Insel", "scopus_author_id"=>"9635928700"}, {"first_name"=>"Antonia M.", "last_name"=>"Calafat", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005617310"}, {"first_name"=>"Xinhua", "last_name"=>"Liu", "scopus_author_id"=>"8522412200"}, {"first_name"=>"Frederica", "last_name"=>"Perera", "scopus_author_id"=>"7005396910"}, {"first_name"=>"Virginia A.", "last_name"=>"Rauh", "scopus_author_id"=>"6603860426"}, {"first_name"=>"Robin M.", "last_name"=>"Whyatt", "scopus_author_id"=>"6701688129"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84918586055", "sgr"=>"84918586055", "issn"=>"19326203", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0114003", "pmid"=>"25493564", "isbn"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0114003", "pui"=>"600717197"}, "id"=>"2072f776-331e-3b08-8e6a-190e7c0a19c8", "abstract"=>"Background Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age. Methods In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ). Results Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = −2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = −4.33, −1.05) and b = −2.69 (95% CI = −4.22, −1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning. Conclusion Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children’s intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/persistent-associations-between-maternal-prenatal-exposure-phthalates-child-iq-age-7-years", "reader_count"=>65, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>4, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>3, "Librarian"=>1, "Researcher"=>7, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>6, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>13, "Student > Postgraduate"=>3, "Student > Master"=>13, "Other"=>7, "Student > Bachelor"=>5, "Professor"=>3}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>9, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>1, "Chemistry"=>3, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1, "Environmental Science"=>14, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>5, "Materials Science"=>1, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>7, "Neuroscience"=>4, "Sports and Recreations"=>1, "Psychology"=>11}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Materials Science"=>{"Materials Science"=>1}, "Medicine and Dentistry"=>{"Medicine and Dentistry"=>7}, "Sports and Recreations"=>{"Sports and Recreations"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>11}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>9}, "Environmental Science"=>{"Environmental Science"=>14}, "Chemistry"=>{"Chemistry"=>3}, "Neuroscience"=>{"Neuroscience"=>4}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>1}, "Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>{"Agricultural and Biological Sciences"=>6}, "Business, Management and Accounting"=>{"Business, Management and Accounting"=>1}, "Nursing and Health Professions"=>{"Nursing and Health Professions"=>5}, "Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>{"Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology"=>2}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"New Zealand"=>1, "Mexico"=>1, "Germany"=>1, "Spain"=>1}, "group_count"=>5}

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  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832603"], "description"=>"<p>Values are mean ± SD or n (percent). Unless indicated, N = 328.</p>a<p>Includes living with same partner for >7 years.</p><p>Subject demographics, distribution of model covariates, and outcome variables (N = 328).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Age 7 Years BackgroundPrior research reports", "phthalate metabolite concentrations", "dnbp", "DiBP metabolite concentrations", "association", "age 7 years", "child processing speed", "child age 7 years", "age 3 years", "log unit increase", "Wechsler Intelligence Scale", "metabolite concentrations", "ci", "iq"], "article_id"=>1266744, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Pam Factor-Litvak", "Beverly Insel", "Antonia M. Calafat", "Xinhua Liu", "Frederica Perera", "Virginia A. Rauh", "Robin M. Whyatt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114003.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>19, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subject_demographics_distribution_of_model_covariates_and_outcome_variables_N_8202_8202_328_/1266744", "title"=>"Subject demographics, distribution of model covariates, and outcome variables (N = 328).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832604"], "description"=>"<p>ND = not detected.</p><p>Distribution of Phthalate metabolites (ng/ml) in maternal spot urine during the third trimester of pregnancy (n = 328).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Age 7 Years BackgroundPrior research reports", "phthalate metabolite concentrations", "dnbp", "DiBP metabolite concentrations", "association", "age 7 years", "child processing speed", "child age 7 years", "age 3 years", "log unit increase", "Wechsler Intelligence Scale", "metabolite concentrations", "ci", "iq"], "article_id"=>1266745, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Pam Factor-Litvak", "Beverly Insel", "Antonia M. Calafat", "Xinhua Liu", "Frederica Perera", "Virginia A. Rauh", "Robin M. Whyatt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114003.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>3, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Distribution_of_Phthalate_metabolites_ng_ml_in_maternal_spot_urine_during_the_third_trimester_of_pregnancy_n_8202_8202_328_/1266745", "title"=>"Distribution of Phthalate metabolites (ng/ml) in maternal spot urine during the third trimester of pregnancy (n = 328).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832605"], "description"=>"<p>*<i>p</i><0.05, **<i>p</i>≤0.01. <sup>@</sup>Wald Test.</p><p>Adjusted model for specific gravity, maternal IQ, ethnicity, alcohol use during pregnancy, education, marital status, total home score, and sex of child.</p><p>Estimated adjusted regression coefficients relating maternal prenatal urinary phthalate concentrations to the WISC-IV full scale IQ and subscales at child age 7 years.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Age 7 Years BackgroundPrior research reports", "phthalate metabolite concentrations", "dnbp", "DiBP metabolite concentrations", "association", "age 7 years", "child processing speed", "child age 7 years", "age 3 years", "log unit increase", "Wechsler Intelligence Scale", "metabolite concentrations", "ci", "iq"], "article_id"=>1266746, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Pam Factor-Litvak", "Beverly Insel", "Antonia M. Calafat", "Xinhua Liu", "Frederica Perera", "Virginia A. Rauh", "Robin M. Whyatt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114003.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>27, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Estimated_adjusted_regression_coefficients_relating_maternal_prenatal_urinary_phthalate_concentrations_to_the_WISC_IV_full_scale_IQ_and_subscales_at_child_age_7_years_/1266746", "title"=>"Estimated adjusted regression coefficients relating maternal prenatal urinary phthalate concentrations to the WISC-IV full scale IQ and subscales at child age 7 years.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832606"], "description"=>"<div><p>Background</p><p>Prior research reports inverse associations between maternal prenatal urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations and mental and motor development in preschoolers. No study evaluated whether these associations persist into school age.</p><p>Methods</p><p>In a follow up of 328 inner-city mothers and their children, we measured prenatal urinary metabolites of di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBzP), di-isobutyl phthalate (DiBP), di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate and diethyl phthalate in late pregnancy. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 4th edition was administered at child age 7 years and evaluates four areas of cognitive function associated with overall intelligence quotient (IQ).</p><p>Results</p><p>Child full-scale IQ was inversely associated with prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP: b = −2.69 (95% confidence interval [CI] = −4.33, −1.05) and b = −2.69 (95% CI = −4.22, −1.16) per log unit increase. Among children of mothers with the highest versus lowest quartile DnBP and DiBP metabolite concentrations, IQ was 6.7 (95% CI = 1.9, 11.4) and 7.6 (95% CI = 3.2, 12.1) points lower, respectively. Associations were unchanged after control for cognition at age 3 years. Significant inverse associations were also seen between maternal prenatal metabolite concentrations of DnBP and DiBP and child processing speed, perceptual reasoning and working memory; DiBP and child verbal comprehension; and BBzP and child perceptual reasoning.</p><p>Conclusion</p><p>Maternal prenatal urinary metabolite concentrations measured in late pregnancy of DnBP and DiBP are associated with deficits in children’s intellectual development at age 7 years. Because phthalate exposures are ubiquitous and concentrations seen here within the range previously observed among general populations, results are of public health significance.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Age 7 Years BackgroundPrior research reports", "phthalate metabolite concentrations", "dnbp", "DiBP metabolite concentrations", "association", "age 7 years", "child processing speed", "child age 7 years", "age 3 years", "log unit increase", "Wechsler Intelligence Scale", "metabolite concentrations", "ci", "iq"], "article_id"=>1266747, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Pam Factor-Litvak", "Beverly Insel", "Antonia M. Calafat", "Xinhua Liu", "Frederica Perera", "Virginia A. Rauh", "Robin M. Whyatt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>9, "page_views"=>17, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Persistent_Associations_between_Maternal_Prenatal_Exposure_to_Phthalates_on_Child_IQ_at_Age_7_Years_/1266747", "title"=>"Persistent Associations between Maternal Prenatal Exposure to Phthalates on Child IQ at Age 7 Years", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:11"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1832602"], "description"=>"<p>Means adjusted for urine specific gravity, maternal IQ, ethnicity, alcohol use during pregnancy, education, marital status, quality of the home environment (HOME score) and sex of child. *<i>p</i><0.05, **<i>p</i>≤0.01.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["Age 7 Years BackgroundPrior research reports", "phthalate metabolite concentrations", "dnbp", "DiBP metabolite concentrations", "association", "age 7 years", "child processing speed", "child age 7 years", "age 3 years", "log unit increase", "Wechsler Intelligence Scale", "metabolite concentrations", "ci", "iq"], "article_id"=>1266743, "categories"=>["Uncategorised"], "users"=>["Pam Factor-Litvak", "Beverly Insel", "Antonia M. Calafat", "Xinhua Liu", "Frederica Perera", "Virginia A. Rauh", "Robin M. Whyatt"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114003.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>4, "page_views"=>81, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Adjusted_mean_WISC_IV_total_score_and_subtest_scored_by_lowest_to_highest_quartile_of_maternal_prenatal_phthalate_metabolite_concentration_where_q0_8202_8202_lowest_quartile_q4_8202_8202_highest_quartile_q2_and_q3_intermediate_quartiles_/1266743", "title"=>"Adjusted mean WISC-IV total score and subtest scored by lowest to highest quartile of maternal prenatal phthalate metabolite concentration (where q0 = lowest quartile, q4 = highest quartile, q2 and q3 intermediate quartiles).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-10 02:50:11"}

PMC Usage Stats | Further Information

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  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"5", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"1", "full-text"=>"1", "pdf"=>"0", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"2"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"11", "full-text"=>"13", "pdf"=>"4", "abstract"=>"0", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"3"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"14", "full-text"=>"14", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2019", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"2", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"12"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"139", "full-text"=>"138", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"18", "full-text"=>"19", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"2", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"24", "full-text"=>"20", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"10", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2018", "month"=>"9"}
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  • {"unique-ip"=>"36", "full-text"=>"36", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"7"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"23", "full-text"=>"33", "pdf"=>"5", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"8"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"19", "full-text"=>"32", "pdf"=>"4", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"9"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"33", "full-text"=>"55", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"1", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"10"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"27", "full-text"=>"54", "pdf"=>"6", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"11"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"31", "full-text"=>"58", "pdf"=>"8", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"1", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2020", "month"=>"12"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"25", "full-text"=>"41", "pdf"=>"7", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"1"}
  • {"unique-ip"=>"10", "full-text"=>"25", "pdf"=>"3", "scanned-summary"=>"0", "scanned-page-browse"=>"0", "figure"=>"0", "supp-data"=>"0", "cited-by"=>"0", "year"=>"2021", "month"=>"2"}

Relative Metric

{"start_date"=>"2014-01-01T00:00:00Z", "end_date"=>"2014-12-31T00:00:00Z", "subject_areas"=>[]}
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