Merit and Justice: An Experimental Analysis of Attitude to Inequality
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{"title"=>"Merit and justice: An experimental analysis of attitude to inequality", "type"=>"journal", "authors"=>[{"first_name"=>"Aldo", "last_name"=>"Rustichini", "scopus_author_id"=>"6604089584"}, {"first_name"=>"Alexer", "last_name"=>"Vostroknutov", "scopus_author_id"=>"36155915800"}], "year"=>2014, "source"=>"PLoS ONE", "identifiers"=>{"pui"=>"600717040", "sgr"=>"84916624830", "issn"=>"19326203", "pmid"=>"25490094", "scopus"=>"2-s2.0-84916624830", "doi"=>"10.1371/journal.pone.0114512", "isbn"=>"1932-6203 (Electronic)\r1932-6203 (Linking)"}, "id"=>"fcbb38fd-778b-348c-b4d7-bb4e5973dbc1", "abstract"=>"Merit and justice play a crucial role in ethical theory and political philosophy. Some theories view justice as allocation according to merit; others view justice as based on criteria of its own, and take merit and justice as two independent values. We study experimentally how these views are perceived. In our experiment subjects played two games (both against the computer): a game of skill and a game of luck. After each game they observed the earnings of all the subjects in the session, and thus the differences in outcomes. Each subject could reduce the winnings of one other person at a cost. The majority of the subjects used the option to subtract. The decision to subtract and the amount subtracted depended on whether the game was one of skill or luck, and on the distance between the earnings of the subject and those of others. Everything else being equal, subjects subtracted more in luck than in skill. In skill game, but not in luck, the subtraction becomes more likely, and the amount larger, as the distance increases. The results show that individuals considered favorable outcomes in luck to be undeserved, and thus felt more justified in subtracting. In the skill game instead, they considered more favorable outcomes (their own as well as others') as signal of ability and perhaps effort, which thus deserved merit; hence, they felt less motivated to subtract. However, a larger size of the unfavorable gap from the others increased the unpleasantness of poor performance, which in turn motivated larger subtraction. In conclusion, merit is attributed if and only if effort or skill significantly affect the outcome. An inequality of outcomes is viewed differently depending on whether merit causes the difference or not. Thus, merit and justice are strongly linked in the human perception of social order.", "link"=>"http://www.mendeley.com/research/merit-justice-experimental-analysis-attitude-inequality", "reader_count"=>20, "reader_count_by_academic_status"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_user_role"=>{"Unspecified"=>1, "Professor > Associate Professor"=>1, "Researcher"=>2, "Student > Doctoral Student"=>1, "Student > Ph. D. Student"=>5, "Student > Postgraduate"=>1, "Student > Master"=>3, "Other"=>1, "Student > Bachelor"=>4, "Professor"=>1}, "reader_count_by_subject_area"=>{"Unspecified"=>2, "Arts and Humanities"=>1, "Physics and Astronomy"=>1, "Psychology"=>8, "Social Sciences"=>5, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "reader_count_by_subdiscipline"=>{"Social Sciences"=>{"Social Sciences"=>5}, "Physics and Astronomy"=>{"Physics and Astronomy"=>1}, "Psychology"=>{"Psychology"=>8}, "Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>{"Earth and Planetary Sciences"=>1}, "Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>{"Economics, Econometrics and Finance"=>2}, "Unspecified"=>{"Unspecified"=>2}, "Arts and Humanities"=>{"Arts and Humanities"=>1}}, "reader_count_by_country"=>{"China"=>1}, "group_count"=>1}

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Figshare

  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831501"], "description"=>"<p>Summary statistics of the data by treatment (SL and LS) and game (Skill and Luck).</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265897, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.t001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Summary_statistics_of_the_data_by_treatment_SL_and_LS_and_game_Skill_and_Luck_/1265897", "title"=>"Summary statistics of the data by treatment (SL and LS) and game (Skill and Luck).", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831500"], "description"=>"<p>(A) Estimated probability of subtraction. On the horizontal axis: Gap. On the vertical axis: probability of subtracting. (B) Estimate of the interaction effect. The interaction effect is between Gap and Skill; the underlying model is a logit. On the horizontal axis: probability of subtracting; on the vertical axis: delta method estimate of the interaction effect. In Luck games the probability is close to a constant function of the game variable, around the mean value (of 69.1%). In the skill game, the probability of subtracting varies with the Gap variable, and covers a large range.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265895, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.g005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>16, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Probability_of_subtraction_and_interaction_effect_/1265895", "title"=>"Probability of subtraction and interaction effect.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831482"], "description"=>"<p>Hare and Hounds game.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265877, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.g001", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Hare_and_Hounds_game_/1265877", "title"=>"Hare and Hounds game.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831516"], "description"=>"<p>The dependent variable is the ratio of the amount subtracted and the amount won by the target. <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512#pone.0114512.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4 Table</a> contains a similar regression but with absolute amounts won instead of Gap.</p><p>Fraction of the amount subtracted over the amount earned by the target, including subtraction at no cost: OLS clustered by session.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265903, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.t005", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Fraction_of_the_amount_subtracted_over_the_amount_earned_by_the_target_including_subtraction_at_no_cost_OLS_clustered_by_session_/1265903", "title"=>"Fraction of the amount subtracted over the amount earned by the target, including subtraction at no cost: OLS clustered by session.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831523"], "description"=>"<p>The dependent variable is the total amount lost by the target, obtained by adding the amounts subtracted by all the subjects choosing him as target. The variable Rank Target takes values in the unit interval, and is the complement to 1 of the Gap variable.</p><p>Amount lost: OLS clustered by session.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265904, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.t006", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>1, "page_views"=>11, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Amount_lost_OLS_clustered_by_session_/1265904", "title"=>"Amount lost: OLS clustered by session.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831507"], "description"=>"<p>The dependent variable is the amount subtracted. To take into account the amount subtracted by subjects who did not pay for subtraction, we impute in these cases an amount subtracted equal to the expected value subtracted (0.25×$1 = 25 cents). <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512#pone.0114512.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4 Table</a> contains a similar regression but with absolute amounts won instead of Gap.</p><p>Amount Subtracted: OLS clustered by session.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265902, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.t004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>15, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Amount_Subtracted_OLS_clustered_by_session_/1265902", "title"=>"Amount Subtracted: OLS clustered by session.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831504"], "description"=>"<p>Cross partial derivative of Gap and Skill on the probability of subtracting (see <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512#pone.0114512-Norton1\" target=\"_blank\">[21]</a> for a presentation of the method) in the logit model 3 (first three rows) and model 4 (last three rows) of <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512#pone-0114512-t002\" target=\"_blank\">Table 2</a>.</p><p>Interaction effect.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265899, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.t003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>6, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Interaction_effect_/1265899", "title"=>"Interaction effect.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831490"], "description"=>"<p>Mean percentages of total group winnings subtracted by subjects with different levels of Gap.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265884, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.g003", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>9, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_percentages_of_total_group_winnings_subtracted_by_subjects_with_different_levels_of_Gap_/1265884", "title"=>"Mean percentages of total group winnings subtracted by subjects with different levels of Gap.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831503"], "description"=>"<p>All models are logit. Models 1, 2 and 3 are estimated over all observations. Model 4 is estimated only on those observations in which the subjects played the first game of the session. In model 5, the dependent variable is only subtraction with payment (or choice of “nobody”); in model 6, only subtraction without payment (or choice “nobody”). <a href=\"http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512#pone.0114512.s004\" target=\"_blank\">S4 Table</a> contains similar regressions but with the absolute amounts won instead of Gap.</p><p>Decision to subtract: logit clustered by session.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265898, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.t002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>2, "page_views"=>8, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Decision_to_subtract_logit_clustered_by_session_/1265898", "title"=>"Decision to subtract: logit clustered by session.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>3, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831486"], "description"=>"<p>Subtraction screen.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265880, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.g002", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>3, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Subtraction_screen_/1265880", "title"=>"Subtraction screen.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831531", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831532", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831533", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831534", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831535", "https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831536"], "description"=>"<div><p>Merit and justice play a crucial role in ethical theory and political philosophy. Some theories view justice as allocation according to merit; others view justice as based on criteria of its own, and take merit and justice as two independent values. We study experimentally how these views are perceived. In our experiment subjects played two games (both against the computer): a game of skill and a game of luck. After each game they observed the earnings of all the subjects in the session, and thus the differences in outcomes. Each subject could reduce the winnings of one other person at a cost. The majority of the subjects used the option to subtract. The decision to subtract and the amount subtracted depended on whether the game was one of skill or luck, and on the distance between the earnings of the subject and those of others. Everything else being equal, subjects subtracted more in luck than in skill. In skill game, but not in luck, the subtraction becomes more likely, and the amount larger, as the distance increases. The results show that individuals considered favorable outcomes in luck to be undeserved, and thus felt more justified in subtracting. In the skill game instead, they considered more favorable outcomes (their own as well as others') as signal of ability and perhaps effort, which thus deserved merit; hence, they felt less motivated to subtract. However, a larger size of the unfavorable gap from the others increased the unpleasantness of poor performance, which in turn motivated larger subtraction. In conclusion, merit is attributed if and only if effort or skill significantly affect the outcome. An inequality of outcomes is viewed differently depending on whether merit causes the difference or not. Thus, merit and justice are strongly linked in the human perception of social order.</p></div>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265910, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>["https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.s001", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.s002", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.s003", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.s004", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.s005", "https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.s006"], "stats"=>{"downloads"=>6, "page_views"=>29, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Merit_and_Justice_An_Experimental_Analysis_of_Attitude_to_Inequality_/1265910", "title"=>"Merit and Justice: An Experimental Analysis of Attitude to Inequality", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>4, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}
  • {"files"=>["https://ndownloader.figshare.com/files/1831494"], "description"=>"<p>Mean percentages of the winnings of the target subtracted by subjects with different levels of the Gap variable.</p>", "links"=>[], "tags"=>["merit", "subject", "others view justice", "outcome", "skill game", "luck", "theories view justice"], "article_id"=>1265889, "categories"=>["Biological Sciences", "Science Policy", "Ecology"], "users"=>["Aldo Rustichini", "Alexander Vostroknutov"], "doi"=>"https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0114512.g004", "stats"=>{"downloads"=>0, "page_views"=>10, "likes"=>0}, "figshare_url"=>"https://figshare.com/articles/_Mean_percentages_of_the_winnings_of_the_target_subtracted_by_subjects_with_different_levels_of_the_Gap_variable_/1265889", "title"=>"Mean percentages of the winnings of the target subtracted by subjects with different levels of the Gap variable.", "pos_in_sequence"=>0, "defined_type"=>1, "published_date"=>"2014-12-09 02:51:18"}

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